Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures

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Education: (Early through Late) Modern: Turkey
(1,204 words)

Girls in Turkey have had legal access to education since the mid-nineteenth century, but the struggle to raise female school attendance and literacy rates to equal those of males continues in the twenty-first century. Although the 1869 Regulation for Public Education and subsequent reform measures aimed to standardize access to formal education throughout the Ottoman Empire, lack of funds and trained teachers prevented the achievement of educational goals. These efforts continued under the Commi…

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Childress, Faith J., “Education: (Early through Late) Modern: Turkey”, in: Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures, General Editor Suad Joseph. Consulted online on 10 December 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1872-5309_ewic_EWICCOM_0251l>
First published online: 2009

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