Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures

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Migration: Labor and Remittances: Afghanistan
(1,161 words)

Many years of wars and violent conflicts have created Afghan diaspora and refugee communities, mainly in Iran and Pakistan but also in the West. The refugees arrived in Iran and Pakistan in three different periods: early 1980s after the Soviet Union invasion of Afghanistan; during the civil war (1992–6); during the Taliban rule (1996–2001); and since the fall of the Taliban and under NATO (2002–7).

In Iran, from 1979 to 1992, three million Afghan refugees were given residency and work permits. They were eligible for most of the same entitlements as other Iran…

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Povey, Elaheh Rostami, “Migration: Labor and Remittances: Afghanistan”, in: Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures, General Editor Suad Joseph. Consulted online on 05 December 2023 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1872-5309_ewic_EWICCOM_0266a>
First published online: 2009

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