¶ See volume 1 of The History of Afghanistan: Fayż Muḥammad Kātib Hazārah’s Sirāj al-tawārīkh (Leiden, Brill, 2013) for a detailed discussion of transliteration. Here the following rules (and exceptions) apply:
- Consonants, long vowels, and diphthongs are rendered according to the standard established by the International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies (IJMES).
- Short vowels rely on the authority of ʿAli Akbar Dihkhuda, Lughat-nāmah, 14 vols. (Tehran: Tehran University Publications, 1993–94) and Mohammad Nasim Neghat, ed. Dari-English Dictionary (Omaha: Center for …