International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law Online

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I. Definitions and Historical Evolution
(5,299 words)

Volume III: Private International Law | Chapter 12 (1991): Operation of Foreign Public Law

Completed September 1989, with some additions to 1 Feb. 1990.

Hans W. Baade

A. Roman Law

1. The classics. – Ulpian (d. 223 A.D.) identified two “positions” or perspectives of legal study: public and private. Public law, according to him, was” “quod ad statum rei Romanae spectat”, while private law related ad singulorum utilitatem - some matters being of public, others of private interest. Ulpian expressly stated pub…

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Hans W. Baade, “I. Definitions and Historical Evolution”, in: International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law Online, Edited by: U. Drobnig, R. David, H. H. Egawa, R. Graveson, V. Knapp, A. T. Von Mehren, Y. Noda, S. Rozmaryn, V. M. Tschchikvadze, H. Valladão, H. Yntema, K. Zweigert. Consulted online on 25 January 2022 <>
First published online: 2018

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