International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law Online

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I. Introduction
(798 words)

Volume VII: Contracts in General | Chapter 11 (2001): Defects in the Contracting Process

Completed in summer 2000

Ernst A. Kramer, Thomas Probst

Ernst A. Kramer1

1. Liberal contract theory and defects of the will. – One hallmark of early liberal contract theory around the middle of the last century was the extensive refusal to control the content of contracts, or to consider issues of “substantive contractual justice”.2 This theory was justified by an optimistic belief in the possibility of automatic and natural social harmony through a contractual balancing of interests: “Qui dit con…

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Ernst A. Kramer and Thomas Probst, “I. Introduction”, in: International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law Online, Edited by: U. Drobnig, R. David, H. H. Egawa, R. Graveson, V. Knapp, A. T. Von Mehren, Y. Noda, S. Rozmaryn, V. M. Tschchikvadze, H. Valladão, H. Yntema, K. Zweigert. Consulted online on 21 January 2022 <>
First published online: 2018

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