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III. Evolution of Associations
(3,873 words)

Volume XIII: Business and Private Organizations | Chapter 8 (2002): Associations

Completed in July 1999; some subsequent developments in the United States are covered.

Carl Hemström

38. Introduction. – People have no doubt joined for common purposes as long as man has existed on earth. From earliest times groups of all kinds have been a fundamental part of human existence.1 Even roman law spoke of universitates personarum, i.e. groups of people, as distinct from universitates bonorum, i.e. foundations.2 And modern society has developed from earlier forms of public groupi…

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Carl Hemström, “III. Evolution of Associations”, in: International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law Online, Edited by: U. Drobnig, R. David, H. H. Egawa, R. Graveson, V. Knapp, A. T. Von Mehren, Y. Noda, S. Rozmaryn, V. M. Tschchikvadze, H. Valladão, H. Yntema, K. Zweigert. Consulted online on 30 March 2023 <>
First published online: 2018

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