International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law Online

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Volume XI: Torts | Chapter 5 (1972): Liability for Damage Caused by Things

1. In tracing the history of liability for damage caused by things, one sees the whole spectrum of ideas concerning legal responsibility. One begins with primitive law’s concept of thing responsibility, whereby vengeance was wrought upon the thing itself which caused the damage, as if it were possessed of demons. Later, we find the shift to personal responsibility for the damage, based e…

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Ferdinand F. Stone, “Introduction”, in: International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law Online, Edited by: U. Drobnig, R. David, H. H. Egawa, R. Graveson, V. Knapp, A. T. Von Mehren, Y. Noda, S. Rozmaryn, V. M. Tschchikvadze, H. Valladão, H. Yntema, K. Zweigert. Consulted online on 13 November 2019 <>
First published online: 2018

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