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IV. Formation of Associations
(4,051 words)

Volume XIII: Business and Private Organizations | Chapter 8 (2002): Associations

Completed in July 1999; some subsequent developments in the United States are covered.

Carl Hemström

A. Freedom of Association

i. International Instruments

48. – The right or freedom of association is a right that is protected by a number of international instruments. One example is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948, which states in art. 20 both that “[e]veryone has the right t…

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Carl Hemström, “IV. Formation of Associations”, in: International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law Online, Edited by: U. Drobnig, R. David, H. H. Egawa, R. Graveson, V. Knapp, A. T. Von Mehren, Y. Noda, S. Rozmaryn, V. M. Tschchikvadze, H. Valladão, H. Yntema, K. Zweigert. Consulted online on 25 January 2022 <>
First published online: 2018

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