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IV. The Principal Formalities
(16,320 words)

Volume VII: Contracts in General | Chapter 10 (1998): Formal Requirements

Completed in July 1994; revised in 1995 and reviewed in 1997.

Arthur T. von Mehren

A. The Design and Source of Formal Requirements

65. Introductory. – Once a given transaction type is considered suspect so that a formality is required, the question arises of what formalities are available. In conception, all formalities share one char…

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Arthur T. von Mehren, “IV. The Principal Formalities”, in: International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law Online, Edited by: U. Drobnig, R. David, H. H. Egawa, R. Graveson, V. Knapp, A. T. Von Mehren, Y. Noda, S. Rozmaryn, V. M. Tschchikvadze, H. Valladão, H. Yntema, K. Zweigert. Consulted online on 17 January 2021 <>
First published online: 2018

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