Manuel Revuelta González
Last modified: December 2016
The restoration of the Society of Jesus in Spain began in the year 1815, but the Jesuits delayed many years in the writing of their own history with the scholarly requirements of contemporary historiography. The suppressions of 1820, 1835, and 1868 explain the cultural underdevelopment of the Spanish Jesuits. They would have to wait until the last quarter of the nineteenth century to reorganize the historiography of the order at a scientific level. Until then the communities carefully edited the Cartas anuas and the Historiae domus, which in time would become the sources for their history. The same can be said of the chronicles published in the Cartas de Poyanne (1875–80) and Cartas de Oña (1886), followed after 1900 by the Cartas edificantes de la asistencia de España, which beginning in 1911 were broken down in and spread throughout the various provinces (Aragon, Castile, Toledo, Leon, and Andalusia). The chronicle of the anti-religious uprising of 1834, was published in 1875 accompanied by a good number of biographies and documents.1
The first publication with a scientifically historic methodology began with the six volumes of the Cartas de san Ignacio. The first three (1874, 1875, and 1877) were edited by Juan José de la Torre, Antonio Cabré, and Miguel Mir. The publication was suspended for a few years, until it was resumed by José María Vélez, who edited the other three volumes (1885, 1887, and 1889). These letters served as a model for the Monumenta Historica. Antonio Zarandona (1804–82) prepared a well-developed history which was published in 1890. It contained essential documents about the suppression and restoration of the Society, not limited to Spain.2 Among the few historical works of those years, one must recall two good biographical studies. Cecilio Gómez Rodeles wrote the biography of the best, most popular missionary of the eighteenth century.3 Francisco de Paula Garzón wrote in 1889 a polemical book about Juan de Mariana (1536–1624), refuting the political theses liberals had attributed to the writer.4
With these precedents, the historiography of the Jesuits began properly with the generalship of Luis Martín (1846–1906) in 1892. From that point until the present, the work of historiography can be divided into the three following periods. First period: the bases of scholarly historiography, which originate in the last decade of the nineteenth century and yield results in important publications during the first three decades of the twentieth century. Second period: historiographical maturity from the decade of the 1940s until the 80s. Third period: plurality and specialization in the last two decades of the twentieth century until the present. Below I offer the essential characteristics of the historiography of these periods and the most relevant works and authors, distinguishing between the themes of the old Society and the new, restored one.
First Period: The Bases of Scholarly Historiography; The Initiatives of Luis Martín and Their First Fruits
Luis Martín was the great promotor of the historical studies of the Society, as his Memorias confirm beyond all doubt.5 He was a man gifted with fine historical sensibilities. He was convinced that history was a most efficacious medium for learning about the Society and taking on its spirit. Supported by the mandate of the general congregation of 1892,6 Martín enthusiastically and efficiently promoted historical studies with three general goals: 1) to preserve and organize the files (brought from the archive at Rome to Exaten, The Netherlands, to avoid possible confiscation by the Italian state); 2) to encourage the publication of the founding documents; and 3) to order the writing of the histories of various assistencies. The three initiatives were carried out simultaneously starting in 1894. Although these historiographical drives affected all nations, Spain perhaps benefitted the most, due to the direct and constant interest of the superior general in the publication of documents as well as in the monitoring of the chosen writers.
The origin and first years of Monumenta were Spanish.7 Although the publication officially began in January 1894 (when its first installment came out), its model comes out of the Cartas de san Ignacio, especially since Vélez was in charge of its publication. In 1889, Vélez attended the congregation of procurators in Fiesole. On that occasion, Superior General Anton Anderledy (in office, 1887–92) granted him permission to bring a base of original documents concerning the first epoch of the Society to Spain, on secret loan.
In 1892, Vélez attended the general congregation, at which Luis Martín was elected general. In private conversations with the new general and Vélez, Father Assistant Juan José de la Torre (1830-1915)8 and the three Spanish provincials agreed on the basis of what would be the future institution charged with publishing the documents. The year 1893 was taken up with approving the plan outlined by Vélez, who was named director, though in reality the true promotor and director was Martín. He encouraged the provincials to assign subjects, set the rules, and make peace among writers who were not always in agreement. The writers were to focus on their assigned theme with exclusive dedication, though everyone was supposed to cooperate in the common work, under the direction of a “first among equals.” The teamwork was regulated clearly by a letter from Torre and instructions from the general (March 1 and October 5 of 1897). Until 1921, volumes of Monumenta were published in monthly editions of 160 pages, which required very demanding work, which was made worthwhile by the excellent reception by the entire Society and by the recognition of specialists. In the first years, there was an inevitable flaw, since quotations were made “ex documentis Societatis” (from the document of the Society) without mentioning the actual location of the file.9
The Memorias mention the first researchers and their first works. Vélez began with Juan Alfonso de Polanco’s (1517–76) Chronicon and Litterae quadrimestrae. Near the end of 1896, Federico Cervós (1844–1925) was working on Jerónimo Nadal’s (1507–80) letters,10 Carlos Alix (1853–1916) on those of Francisco de Borja (1512–73), and Vicente Agustí (1849–1915) on the Epistolae mixtae. Some had to go to Exaten or to other archives to complete the documentation, especially Gómez Rodeles (1844–1913), who would succeed Vélez as director from 1897 until 1912. From 1922, the pace of publication of Monumenta slowed. Beginning in 1926, they considered moving it to Rome, but that did not happen until the 1930s.
The cataloguing of documents and bibliographies are works related to the publication of sources. Pablo Pastells (1846–1932) carried out a commendable work in copying and extracting sources from the Archive of the Indies concerning the missionary work of the Jesuits in the Americas and in the Philippines.11
In the field of bibliography, in imitation of Carlos Sommervogel (1834–1902), José Eugenio de Uriarte (1872–1909) took up the bibliography of the Jesuits of the old assistencies, beginning with anonymous and pseudonymous sources (Catálogo razonado) as a prior step to the definitive bibliography (Biblioteca de escritores). Mariano Lecina (1854-1934)12 collaborated in the publication of these works.13
Besides guiding the work of the documentalists, Martín chose and oriented historians who were to write the history of the assistencies. Those assigned to Spain were Antonio Astrain (1857–1928) for the old Society and José María Castillo (1842-99) for the restored Society. Astrain was able to publish the seven volumes of the monumental History of the Society of Jesus in the Assistency of Spain (1902–25), which is the paradigm for the genre. Castillo was unable to carry out his work successfully, due to poor health and a premature death.
Astrain is the prototype of Jesuit historians of the first period. He did not have training in history, which he had to make up for at first by his own reading and later with the methodological guidelines that Franz Ehrle (1845–1934) gave him. He had the good fortune to be able to count on the unconditional support of Martín, who in 1889, as the provincial of Castile, encouraged Astrain, who was then professor of rhetoric, to devote himself to the study of the history of the Society.
The superior general followed the work of the historian very closely. In his Memorias, he tells us the details of the vicissitudes of the historian until his first volume came out: trips, research, visits to the superior general in Fiesole (Florence) and Rome, the criticism that he received from Torre and Ehrle, the successive corrections of manuscripts, and the disappointments that the writer overcame with encouragement from Martín, who read and corrected the drafts.14
In a 1904 letter to Astrain, we find the historiographical norms that guided Jesuit historians of that first generation. “I am of the opinion that history should not be a panegyric, but rather a faithful portrait, as much as is possible, of the man or entity whose story is written. In all true portraits there is light and shadow, praiseworthy things and imperfections that must be noted, since in this world nothing is perfect and complete.”15 Aside from the edifying letters and official documents, modern historians have used private letters, though they have had to analyze them with a critical eye, since these letters may also contain glib remarks, passions, and even lies. In any case, it has been necessary to distinguish opinions from facts. Few Jesuit historians have enjoyed such resources as Astrain. He had at his disposition copyists, scribes, and archivists. They helped experienced historians, like Pablo Pastells, who collaborated with him starting in 1905, and Pablo Hernández (1852–1921),16 who in 1910 accompanied him through the archives of Peru, Chile, Paraguay, and Argentina, and was of great help in editing the chapters on the province of Paraguay.
Astrain’s volumes fulfilled the two requirements that Martín desired in the new histories of the assistencies: to satisfy “the demands of modern criticism, and to be able to be read in our refectories,” particularly in the houses dedicated to the formation of the young.17 Astrain’s work is a scholarly history. But it is also an edifying one, to teach and delight the communities during their meals. Under the mantle of the historian were often hidden the abilities of the old professor of rhetoric. The agreeableness of his style and the defense of the Society were cause for apologetic exaggerations, impassioned opinions, and biased interpretations, shortcomings which Torre had already criticized. The work reflects the difficulties of the restored Society in the nineteenth century. The past is studied with scholarly assumptions of modern historiography, based on the documents; but at the same time, historical events are cloaked in laudatory or defensive opinions as a response to the anticlericalism of the time.18 Despite everything, Astrain’s work contains undeniable values that it is only right to recognize. It was the work of a lifetime, without prior models, that presented a unitary vision of the Society in Spain, in all its glory. The most accomplished chapters are the first, dedicated to Ignatius (republished in 1912) and those that are dedicated to the missions in Paraguay.19 The work follows the order of the superiors general and concludes with Centurione (1686–1757).20 Astrain’s history is pleasing to read and continues to be irreplaceable when studying the deeds and people of the old Society.
Among the historians who were hostile to Ignatius and his work were the orator Emilio Castelar (1832–99) and the ex-Jesuit Miguel Mir (1841–1912). The topics of the former ridiculed humorously by Julio Alarcón (1843–1924), and the untruths of the latter, were refuted by Ruiz Amado (1861–1934) and by a harsh report of the Royal Academy of History.21
Other historians of the first generation wrote worthwhile works about the old Society. Gómez Rodeles (1844–1913), beside his dedication to the Monumenta, wrote good works about printing houses and catechesis.22 Fidel Fita (1835–1918), of the Royal Academy of History, aside from his works on national topics, wrote some articles on Jesuit affairs. The monographs of Pablo Pastells about the Philippines and of Pablo Hernández about Paraguay would be reviewed in their respective countries. Among the biographies, those dedicated to José Pignatelli (1737–1811), by Jaime Nonell (1844–1922) and José María March (1875–1953) stand out. The two works were for many years the best research on the expulsion, exile, and restoration of the Society.23
The restored Society was much less studied in the early period. In 1893, Martín, looking toward the future, wrote instructions to the provincial directors to preserve and gather documents that might be useful for their history.24 He also concerned himself with orienting the works of Castillo on the restoration of the Society and its antecedents. It was a complicated time and the sources were few, but the primary challenge was the poor health of Castillo, who died in 1899. Martín put Luis María Ortiz (1865–1944) in charge of continuing the interrupted work, but the latter was unable to carry it out.25 It was Lesmes Frías (1870–1939) who wrote the History of the Society of Jesus in the Modern Assistency of Spain, in two volumes, from the restoration of 1815 until the revolution of 1868.26 It is a serious, worthy, and reliable history that describes the hopeful return of the Jesuits expelled by Charles III (r.1755–88) and the difficult times of a thrice-interrupted restoration. A volume dedicated to the missions in the Americas, the Philippines, and Fernando Po remained unpublished. Frías was a well-informed researcher. The facts that he narrates are solidly documented. His commentaries exude anti-liberal opinions and his style, in contrast to Astrain’s, is deep and complex. Rafael Pérez (1842-1901)27 published a similar work on the restoration of the Society in Colombia and Central America (1897) and in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Brazil (1901).
On the occasion of the first centenary of the restoration of the Society in 1914, Lesmes Frías published two good summaries about the province of Spain (1815–63) and the province of Castile (1863–1914). Enrique del Portillo (1871–1945)28 published the illustrated review of the province of Toledo (1880–1914), while Pablo Hernández wrote a good synthesis of the mission of Chile–Paraguay and Luis J. Muñoz (1858–1927)29 wrote about the mission of Colombia and Central America. These commemorative books contain interesting photographs. The same can be said of the anniversaries of the College of Valencia and of the Seminary of Comillas.30
Second Period: Historiographical Maturity
Upon the foundations established by Martín, a new historiographical phase developed in the four decades that followed the Civil War (1936–39). Historians of the Society continued to be Jesuits, but their profile showed some differences from the previous generation. The new historians were not self-taught, but rather professionals. The most prominent were specialists who had studied history in universities, sometimes abroad. Many were professors who mixed their teaching work with their historiographical work in accordance with scientific methodology. This gave them a broad-minded approach to their work, which was not limited exclusively to Jesuit history. Some writers belonged to the Historical Institute in Rome, established in 1935, and worked on the Monumenta.
The professors or researchers of the second period were born at the end of the nineteenth century or the beginning of the twentieth. Most of them suffered exile when they were students, during the Second Republic (1931–39). Their intellectual maturity occurred in the middle of the Francisco Franco years (1936–75). They published their main works during those years, though some were still working at the end of the twentieth century, overlapping with the following generation. Among the historians of this period, two figures are notable, who in a way frame both the beginning and the end of the period: Pedro de Leturia (1891–1955) and Miguel Batllori (1909–2002). Monographic themes predominate in the works of these authors. The old Society continued to be the preferred one, beginning with Ignatius and concluding with the cultural work of exiled Jesuits of the eighteenth century.
Leturia served as a bridge between the two generations. He was able to bring together leadership and study. In 1931, he founded the periodical Archivum historicum Societatis Iesu. He was the director of Monumenta for sixteen years (1931–48) and initiated the new series Monumenta Missionum about the missionary ventures in the Orient and Spanish America. His monograph on the youth of Ignatius was decisive in learning about the founder.31
The Ignatian studies begun by Leturia were continued from different perspectives. Ignacio Iparraguirre (1911–73), the great specialist in the Spiritual Exercises, dedicated a fundamental work to the practice of these from the time of Ignatius until the seventeenth century.32 Cándido de Dalmases (1906–86), who published it, along with the Obras completas of Ignatius, was a born researcher. The biographies of Ignatius and of Borja are models of clarity and precision.33 Ricardo García Villoslada (1900–91), master of historians at the Gregorian University, wrote a good manual on the history of the Society and an excellent biography of the founder.34 Luis Fernández Martín (1908–2003) took on all of the epochs of Jesuit history. His most original contributions centered on the youth of Íñigo and were republished as a book.35 The foundational years were extended with the classic work of Feliciano Cereceda (1901–50) on Diego Laínez (1512–1565), which deserved the critical praise it received.36
Eusebio Rey published and commented on the work of Pedro de Ribadeneyra (1527–1611),37 as did Camilo Mª Abad (1878–1969) with the work of Luis de la Puente (1554–1624),38 and Luis Fernández (1908–2003) with the famous author of Fray Gerundio.39 Batllori dedicated definitive studies to the great Baltasar Gracián (1601–58).40
There was no shortage of good historical monographs on the missions and the educational system. In the history of the missions, Antonio Egaña (1910–87) stands out, an investigator of MHSI of which he was the director from 1964 for fifteen years. His grand work was the editing of seven volumes of the Monumenta Peruana, which cover the years 1568 to 1602. His companion Félix Zubillaga (1901–88) published six volumes of Monumenta Mexicana, and a book about the mission of La Florida.41 Constantino Bayle (1882–1953) wrote many essays on the history of the missions, one of them about the missionaries of California.42 Francisco Mateos (1896–1975) was an Americanist who published an old chronicle of Peru and continued Pastells’s history of Paraguay.43 León Lopetegui (1904–81) wrote a general history of the missions and a monograph on José de Acosta (1539–1600).44 Angel Santos (1914–2005) was an untiring chronicler of the missions who published many works over the course of forty years.
Miguel Beltrán Quera (1924–85), the author of the best historical analysis and critique of the Ratio studiorum, wrote about the educational system.45 There is also a good work on the Imperial College of Madrid.46
The expulsion and exile were new topics which began to be illuminated when Constancio Eguía (1871–1954) studied intensively the motives for the expulsion, defending the innocence of the Jesuits.47 Batllori was the true driving force of the research on the exiled Jesuits in the eighteenth century. He was a historian of all the periods of Spanish culture and as a consequence, all the centuries of the Society.48 His historiographical production is impressive.49 His work reveals his erudition, clarity, strength, and subtlety of interpretation. He was a man of brilliant conversation, with an open spirit always ready to help novice historians. He was the director for many years of the Jesuit Institute in Rome and of the periodical Archivum historicum S.I. In 1958, he was named a member of the Royal Academy of History. He assiduously attended historical conferences and received numerous honors, among which are nineteen doctorates honoris causa.50 Beginning in 1993, his complete works in Catalan were published in Valencia, taking nineteen volumes. His collaboration with the project occupied the last ten years of his life.51 His long life became a living bridge between the two final periods. His research into the exiled Jesuits of the eighteenth century expanded the scope of the Spanish Enlightenment52 and outlined the possible influences of American Jesuits in the emancipation of their lands.53
In contrast with the attention given to the old Society, the historians of the second historiographical period focused very little on the restored Society. Biographies are the most common genre. It is necessary to point out again Batllori, the author of a biography of Ignasi Casanovas (1872–1936)54 and similarities to other Jesuits (Mir, Ehrle, Guillem Vives [1866–1935],55 and Leturia). Pedro María Ayala (1876–1949) wrote a good biography of the popular missionary Francisco de Paula Tarín (1847–1910), and other writers wrote about José María Rubio (1864–1929).56
Third Period: Plurality and Specialization
Jesuit historiography from the 1980s presents a few novelties: 1) The end of Jesuit exclusivism. In Spain, as in other countries, there are a good number of non-Jesuit historians dedicated to the history of the Society. 2) Academic recognition of the historical legacy of the Society. The historical importance of the Jesuits in the political, cultural, and religious spheres has generated an academic recognition which has manifested in publications, doctoral theses, and research teams at some universities and civil institutions. 3) The opening of new fields of investigation from new focus points. Without neglecting the former Society, which continues to be a preferred focus, the study of the restored Society has been cultivated, to which unknown importance was previously given. 4) The quality of Jesuit historiography. It is a work of impartial specialists who work with primary sources without falling prey to either apologetics or hostilities. 5) The formation of research groups or teams and the widening of their topics. I shall make a brief commentary on these two characteristics.
The formation of groups or teams has occurred predominantly in institutions not dependent on the Society. In the University of Alicante, Profesor Enrique Giménez López has led various research projects since 1995 on the expulsion and exile of the Jesuits in Spain, Mexico, and the Philippines. The results of these investigations have been admiral: six doctoral theses, three co-authored books, twelve individual books, eleven text editions with introductory studies which cite them, and two congresses.57
The Andalusian group has been inspired by Francisco de Borja Medina, a veteran of the Jesuit Institute in Rome, a great contributor to the Diccionario Histórico and author of definitive works on all the historical periods of the Society.58 The historiography of the Jesuits in Andalusia has been sponsored also by Jesuit Wenceslao Soto,59 and has found excellent collaborators in Professors Jesús Hernández Palomo, Manuel Pacheco Albalate, and Agustín Galán. Andalusia being the bridge to America, it is not surprising that this topic has been cultivated there.60
The Valladolid group has a precursor in Luis Fernández, a promoter in Teófanes Egido, and an heir in Javier Burrieza, an acute analyst of the activities of the Castilian Jesuits of the modern age through the power of the word in preaching, confessing, teaching, and writing.
In Madrid, specialists have worked in three universities. At the National University of Distance Education, Javier Vergara has worked on Jesuit education.61 At the Autónoma University, José Martínez Millán has encouraged Jesuit themes in the university’s Institute Corte España, which he directs. At the Comillas University, there are courses offered on Ignatian spirituality, as well as historical studies. It is important to point out the editorial work of this university in the publication of historical works (the Memorias of Martín, for example) and the co-publishing with the IHSI of the Diccionario histórico de la Compañía, directed by Charles E. O’Neill and José Mª Domínguez in 2001, and the new series of the Monumenta. At the international congress celebrated in Madrid June 20–22, 2011, specialists from fifty-four universities in fifteen countries attended.62 In May 2015, another congress took place on the restoration of the Society in Spain.
In the Basque Country, there are various focal points which have contributed in diverse ways to historical knowledge: cycles of conferences in the University of Deusto,63 publications by the editorial house Mensajero, and the activities of the Instituto Ignacio de Loyola, founded by Juan Plazaola (1919–2005), which since 1994 has published almanacs on the founder of the Society, often considered from historical perspectives.64
Before a brief review of the more relevant works on the old and restored Society, it is necessary to single out a good synthesis of their entire history in Spain from Ignatius until 2004, coordinated by Teófanes Egido.65
In the last thirty years, the history of the old Society has been enriched by new topics and perspectives. In the publication of sources, aside from those published in MHSI, two chronicles of the provinces have been published66 as well as some stories of the exile, among which the six volumes of the Diario of Manuel Luengo (1735–1816) stand out, published by the University of Alicante by Inmaculada Fernández Arrillaga.67 Other important documents are the report by Campomanes, the memoir and defense of José Francisco de Isla (1703–81), and the letters of Conde de Floridablanca (1728–1808).68
New biographies of Ignatius have been written69 as well as valuable studies of his cultural environment.70 Biographies now include the first Jesuits, beginning with Francis Xavier (1506–52) and Borja, and follow with Polanco, Nadal, and Alfonso Salmerón (1515–85).71 The texts of Ribadeneyra, Mariana, Eusebio Nieremberg (1595–1658), and above all Francisco Suárez (1548–1617) have been republished.
Attention has been paid to the development of the Society in regions like Galicia, Asturias, and regions around Valladolid, Cataluña, Andalusia, and the Baleares.72 The pedagogical system of the Ratio studiorum has been analyzed, as well as the theater in the colleges,73 and the rule of Jesuit scientists and mathematicians.74 The political influence of the Jesuits in modern Spain has been studied75 as well as the attention given to the marginalized, the Moors, prisoners, and those condemned to die.76 Finally, worthwhile monographs on Jesuit art have been written.77 The contributions of Spanish historians to the work of the Jesuits in the Americas has been important in recent years, notably that of José del Rey Fajardo and Bartolomé Melià. These and other contributions have been reviewed in their own countries.
In recent years, much attention has been given to the expulsion of the Jesuits by Charles III, and the cultural work of those exiled, which had been initiated by Batllori. To the publication of sources as important as those indicated above, one must add an immense bibliography, which sheds much light on a previously little-known topic. The scholars at the University of Alicante have published important individual or collective books.78 Among the Jesuits who have dealt with the expulsion and suppression, José Antonio Ferrer Benimeli and Isidoro Pinedo stand out.79 The principal figures of the exile and their cultural work have also deserved the attention of many researchers, among whom Niccolò Guasti80 and Antonio Astorgano81 stand out.
The historiography of the restored Society has been enriched by the publication of a singularly valuable source: the Memorias del P. Luis Martín.82 The general history of the Society, which after Astrain was handed over to Lesmes Frías, has been continued by Manuel Revuelta González, from the 1868 revolution until the death of Martín in 1906. They are decisive years, for it was then that the Society in Spain was consolidated around the houses and stable works that have remained until today. The first two volumes deal with the foundation of the houses and institutions and the internal and external conflicts. The third volume deals with the activities of the Jesuits (ministries of the word, secular associations, and social apostolates extending to 1912). Complementing this volume is the one dedicated to educational activity.83
In recent years, the study of the restored Society has progressed in quantity, quality, and variety. The most researched topics have been the following: 1) The first restoration of 1815, on the occasion of the bicentennial.84 2) Biographies of relevant Jesuits for their social work: Francisco Butinyà (1834–99), Antonio Vicent (1837–1912), and Sisinio Nevares (1878–1946).85 3) The suppression and seizure of the Second Republic and the vicissitudes of the Civil War.86 4) The history of the colleges and other institutions on the occasion of the first centennial.87 5) The Generalship of Pedro Arrupe (in office, 1965–83) and the crisis of the Society in Spain.88
The assessment of Spanish Jesuit historiography is generally satisfactory. In the three historiographical periods a progression is observed. In the first, the essential bases are outlined: the publication of the foundational documents and the grand works of the general history with a preference for the old Society (Astrain) over the new (Frías). In the second period, good monographs appear which, like the documents, are almost exclusively limited to the first three centuries. In the third period, the histories and topics have multiplied. The number of Jesuit historians has diminished, while there has been an increase in the number of non-Jesuit historians, for whom the history of the Society has become very attractive because of its relevance in political, cultural, and social affairs in national history. Groups of specialists have been organized in some institutions, but in general, there is little connection among the Spanish historians themselves, or with foreign historians. Regarding the topics, in the last thirty years, the attention has also been focused on the restored Society.
Although recently there have been advances in the topics and points of view, there is still much to do in the study of mindsets, customs, political influences, Marian congregations and other associations, Jesuit and anti-Jesuit publications, the sociology of students and devotees, the economic functioning of the communities, the sociology of vocations, the influence of sermons, spiritual direction and confession, missionary enthusiasm, and aid to foreign missionaries, etc.
In general, it can be said that in recent years the history of the Society in Spain has not received the desirable encouragement from its superiors. A specific historical publication does not exist, as it does in other religious congregations, nor does an institute that would permit collaborative work.
For more bibliographical information, consult Boston College Jesuit Bibliography: The New Sommervogel Online (NSO).
^ Back to text7. Memorias, 2:809–47. Cecilio Gómez Rodeles, Historia de la publicación “Monumenta Historica Societatis Jesu”: Recuerdo del primer centenario del restablecimiento de la misma Compañía, 1814–1914 (Madrid: Asilo de Huérfanos S. C. 1913). Dionisio Fernández Zapico and Pedro de Leturia, “Cincuentenario de Monumenta Historica S. I., 1994–1944,” in AHSI 13 (1944): 1–61. Félix Zubillaga and Walter Hanisch, eds., Guía manual de los documentos históricos de los cien primeros volúmenes (Rome: Institutum Historicum SI, 1971).
^ Back to text9. Memorias, 2:840. Letter from Torre to Rodeles, October, 26, 1897: “Más vale que rabien los críticos que no que lloremos nosotros si nos roban lo poco que nos queda de nuestros antiguos archivos.”
^ Back to text10. Father Cervós (1844–1925) was director of MHSI from 1912 to 1919 and was in charge of publishing volumes 2 through 5 of Borja’s letters, and those of Broet, Le Jay, Codure, and Rodrigues, as well as collaborating on Monumenta Paedagogica and Monumenta Ignatiana.
^ Back to text11. The “Colección Pastells” (now in the Comillas University in Madrid) comprises 278 volumes of copied documents, and another 135 volumes of extracts. Besides this manuscript collection, the Catálogo de los documentos relativos a las Islas Filipinas existentes en el Archivo de Indias de Sevilla, published by Pedro Torres, preceded by the Historia general de Filipinas by Pablo Pastells, 9 vols. (Barcelona: Compañía General de Tabacos de Filipinas, 1925–33).
^ Back to text13. José Eugenio de Uriarte, Catálogo razonado de obras anónimas y seudónimas de autores de la Compañía de Jesús pertenecientes a la antigua Asistencia de España, 5 vols. (Madrid: Sucesores de Rivadeneyra, 1904–16). The two final volumes were carried to the printer by Lecina y Portillo. José Eugenio de Uriarte y Mariano Lecina, Biblioteca de escritores de la Compañía de Jesús pertenecientes a la antigua Asistencia de España desde sus orígenes hasta el año de 1773, 2 vols. (Madrid: Imprenta Gráfica Universal, 1925 and 1930). The work collects authors until the letter F. José Martínez de la Escalera has completed this great work, which will be published shortly.
^ Back to text18. Pierre-Antoine Fabre, “L'histoire de l’“Ancien Compagnie” à l’époque de la ‘Nouvelle Compagnie’: Perspectives de recherche,” in Los jesuitas: Religión, política, y educación (siglos XVI–XVIII), ed. José Martínez Millán, Henar Pizarro, and Esther Jiménez (Madrid: Universidad Comillas, 2012) 3:1795–1809.
^ Back to text21. Julio Alarcón, San Ignacio de Loyola según Castelar: Genialidades (Bilbao: Imprenta del C. de Jesús, 1892). Ramón Ruiz Amado, Don Miguel Mir y su Historia interna documentada de la Compañía de Jesús (Barcelona: Librería Religiosa, 1914).
^ Back to text22. Cecilio Gómez Rodeles, Imprentas de los antiguos jesuitas en Europa, América y Filipinas (Madrid: Sucesores de Rivadeneyra, 1910). Rodeles, La Compañía de Jesús catequista (Madrid: Gabriel López del Homo, 1913).
^ Back to text23. Jaime Nonell, El V. P. José Pignatelli y la CJ en su extinción y restablecimiento, 3 vols. (Manresa: Imprenta San José, 1893–94). Nonell published the spiritual works of Saint Alonso Rodríguez as well as his biography. José María March, El restaurador de la CJ: Beato José Pignatelli, 2 vols. (Barcelona: Revista Ibérica, 1935–36). March was a professor at the Gregorian, belonged to the Jesuit Historical Institute, and edited the so-called autobiography of Ignatius, the Memoir of Favre, and the Meditations of Borja.
^ Back to text30. Reseña histórica […] del Colegio de San José de la Compañía de Jesús de Valencia durante su primer cincuentenario: 1870–1920 (Valencia: J. Soler, 1921). Camilo Mª Abad, El Seminario Pontificio de Comillas: Historia de su fundación y primeros años (1881–1925) (Madrid: Tipografía Católica de Alberto Fontana, 1928).
^ Back to text31. Pedro de Leturia, El gentilhombre Íñigo López de Loyola (Barcelona: Labor, 1938; republished in 1941 and 1949). Other works on the founder are in the book Estudios ignacianos (Rome: Institutum Historicum SI, 1957).
^ Back to text33. Cándido de Dalmases, El P. Maestro Ignacio (Madrid: Editorial Católica, 1979). Dalmases, El Padre Francisco de Borja (Madrid: Editorial Católica, 1983). Dalmases, Fontes documentales de Sancto Ignatio de Loyola (Madrid: Institutum Historicum SI, 1977). Dalmases, Exercitia Spiritualia et eorum Directoria, 2 vols. (Rome, MHSI, 1955–69).
^ Back to text34. Ricardo García Villoslada, Manual de historia de la Compañía de Jesús (Madrid: Compañía Bibliográfica Española, 1941, 1954). Villoslada, Loyola y Erasmo (Madrid: Taurus, 1965). Villoslada, San Ignacio de Loyola: Nueva biografía (Madrid: Editorial Católica, 1986).
^ Back to text40. Miguel Batllori, Gracián y el barroco (Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1958). Batllori, Baltasar Gracián en su vida y en sus obras (Saragossa: Diputación Provincial, 1969). Collection of all the works on Gracián in Obras completas, vol. 7, Baltasar Gracián i el Barroc (Valencia: Tres i Quatre, 1996).
^ Back to text45. Miguel Beltrán-Quera, La pedagogía de los jesuitas en la Ratio studiorum: La fundación de colegios, orígenes, autores y evolución histórica de la Ratio, análisis de la educación religiosa, caractereológica e intelectual (Caracas: Universidad de Táchira, 1984). Félix González Olmedo, Juan Bonifacio (1538–1606) y la cultura literaria del Siglo de Oro (Santander: Publicaciones de Menéndez Pelayo, 1939).
^ Back to text48. Cultura e finanze: Studi sulla storia dei gesuiti da s. Ignazio al Vaticano II (Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1983). The Catalan version in Obras completas, vol. 7: Cultura i finances a l’edat moderna (Valencia, Tres i Quatre, 1997).
^ Back to text49. Mario Colpo, “Bibliografía di Miquel Batllori,” in Studia historica et philologica in honorem M. Batllori (Rome: Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Cultura, 1984), 869–962. The bibliography covers the years 1928 to 1982, with a total of 978 titles.
^ Back to text50. Agustí Alcoberro, Miquel Batllori: L’obra fecunda i original d’un historiador de la cultura i de l’Eglesia a Catalunya, Europa i Hispanoamèrica (Barcelona: Fundació Catalana per a la Recerca, 2000). Cristina Gatell and Glòria Soler, Miguel Batllori: Recuerdos de casi un siglo (Barcelona: El Acantilado, 2001). Josep María Benítez i Riera, “La trayectoria vital i intellectual del pare Batllori,” in Miscellània en torn de l’obra del pare Miquel Batllori (Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya, 1991), 12–30.
^ Back to text52. Miguel Batllori, La cultura hispano-italiana de los jesuitas expulsos: Españoles, hispanoamericanos, filipinos, 1767–1814 (Madrid: Gredos, 1966). Batllori, Francisco Gustá: Apologista y crítico (Barcelona: Balmes, 1942). In volumes 10, 11, 12, and 13 of his Obra completa, Valencia 1999, appear his works on Peramás, Andrés, Conca, Pignatelli, Juan Francisco and Baltasar Masdeu, Esteban de Arteaga, and Lorenzo Hervás. He edited works by Esteban de Arteaga and Bartolomeu Pou. For the DHCJ, he wrote substantial summaries of the most notable expelled Jesuits.
^ Back to text53. Miguel Batllori, El abate Viscardo: Historia y mito de la intervención de los jesuitas en la independencia de Hispanoamérica (Caracas: Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia, 1953).
^ Back to text56. Pedro Mª Ayala, Vida documentada del Siervo de Dios P. Francisco de P. Tarín (Seville: Gráficas Gavidia, 1951). Biographies of Rubio by Eguía (1930), Staehlin (1949) and Lamet (1985).
^ Back to text57. Los jesuitas entre el mito y la realidad, September 26–30, 2005. Summer course in Orihuela with ten lectures. Missions i missioners jesuïtes en la història. September 8–10, 2010, at the Casa de Cultura de Casp with seven papers.
^ Back to text58. José J. Hernández Palomo and José Del Rey Fajardo, eds., Sevilla y América en la historia de la CJ: Homenaje al P. Francisco de Borja Medina Rojas (Cordoba: Caja Sur, 2009). Twenty authors collaborated on the book. Bibliography of Medina on pp. 21–33.
^ Back to text59. Wenceslao Soto Artuñedo, ed., Los jesuitas en Andalucía: Estudio conmemorativo del 450 aniversario de la fundación de la provincia (Granada: Caja Sur, 2007). Francisco de Borja Medina and Wenceslao Soto, Sevilla y la expulsión de los jesuitas en 1767 (Seville: Fundación Focus Abengoa, 2014).
^ Back to text60. Manuel Pacheco Albalate, El Puerto: Ciudad clave en la expulsión de los jesuitas por Carlos III (El Puerto de Santa María: Concejalía de Cultura, 2007). Pacheco, Jesuitas expulsos de ultramar arribados a El Puerto de Santa María (1767–1774) (Cádiz: Universidad de Cádiz, 2011). Agustín Galán, El oficio de Indias de la Compañía de Jesús en Sevilla: 1570–1767 (Seville: Focus, 1995). Professor Galán directed a course in Seville with nine papers in 2003, published in the book by Joaquín Morales and Agustín Galán, eds., La Compañía de Jesús en España: Otra mirada (Madrid: Grupo Anaya, 2007).
^ Back to text62. José Martínez Millán, Henar Pizarro, and Esther Jiménez, eds., Los jesuitas: Religión, política y educación (siglos XVI–XVIII), 3 vols. (Madrid: Universidad Comillas, 2012). It contains seventy-six contributions.
^ Back to text63. Esteban de Terreros y Pando: Vizcaíno, polígrafo y jesuita; III Centenario: 1707–2007 (Bilbao: Universidad de Deusto, 2008).
^ Back to text64. In memoriam de Juan Plazaola Artola (San Sebastián: Anuario del Instituto Ignacio de Loyola, 2005) with biographical facts and a list of his publications. He was a great specialist in art history, and wrote Iconografía de San Ignacio en Euskadi (Azpeitia: Loyola, 1991).
^ Back to text65. Teófanes Egido (coord.), Javier Burrieza and Manuel Revuelta, Los jesuitas en España y en el mundo hispánico (Madrid: Marcial Pons Historia, 2004). Another vision of the whole history, with a selection of topics: Manuel Revuelta, Once calas en la historia de la Compañía de Jesús: “Servir a todos en el Señor” (Madrid: Universidad Comillas, 2006). A good synthesis for America in Javier Burrieza, Jesuitas en Indias: Entre la utopía y el conflicto; Trabajos y misiones de la Compañía de Jesús en la América moderna (Valladolid: Universidad de Valladolid, 2007).
^ Back to text66. Martín de Roa, Historia de la Provincia de Andalucía de la Compañía de Jesús (1553–1662) (Seville: Asociación de Amigos de Écija, 2005). Bartolomé de Alcázar, Chrono-historia de la Compañía de Jesús en la Provincia de Toledo y elogios de sus varones ilustres, 2 vols. (A Coruña: Orbigo, 2008; facsimile of the Madrid 1710 edition).
^ Back to text67. Manuel Luengo, Memorias de un exilio: Diario de la expulsión de los jesuitas de los dominios del rey de España (1767–1768) (Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, 2001). Luengo, Diario de 1767: La llegada de los jesuitas españoles a Bolonia (Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, 2010). Luengo, Diario de 1773: El triunfo temporal del antijesuitismo (Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, 2013). Luengo, El retorno de un jesuita desterrado: Viaje del Padre Luengo desde Bolonia a Nava del Rey (1798) (Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, Ayuntamiento de Nava de Rey, 2004). Luengo, Diario de 1808: El año de la conspiración (Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, 2010). Luengo, Diario de 1814 y 1815: El final del destierro y la restauración de la CJ (Alicante: Universidades de Alicante y Comillas, 2015). An index of the volumes of the Diario and of the Papeles varios in Inmaculada Fernández Arrillaga, El legado del P. Manuel Luengo, S.I. (1767–1815), 2 vols. (Alicante: Instituto Juan Gil-Albert, 2003). Josep M. Benítez i Riera, El destierro de los jesuitas de la “Provincia de Aragón” bajo el reinado de Carlos III: Crónica inédita del P. Blas Larraz, SI (Rome: Iglesia Nacional Española, 2006).
^ Back to text68. Pedro Rodríguez Campomanes, Dictamen fiscal de la expulsión de los jesuitas de España, Jorge Cejudo and Teófanes Egido, eds. (Madrid: Fundación Universitaria Española 1977). José Francisco de Isla, Memorial de las cuatro provincias de España, ed. Enrique Giménez (Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, 1999). Isla, Anatomía del informe de Campomanes, ed. Conrado Pérez Picón (Leon: Diputación Provincial, 1979). Conde de Floridablanca, Cartas desde Roma para la extinción de los jesuitas: Correspondencia julio 1772–septiembre 1774, ed. E. Giménez López (Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, 2009). Francisco Javier Miranda, El fiscal fiscalizado: Una apología de los jesuitas contra Campomanes (Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, 2010). Introductory study by Enrique Giménez.
^ Back to text69. José Ignacio Tellechea Idígoras, Ignacio de Loyola: Solo y a pie (Salamanca: Sígueme, 1990). Enrique García Hernán, Ignacio de Loyola (Madrid: Taurus, 2013). José Martínez de Toda, Los años riojanos de Íñigo de Loyola (Caracas: Universidad Católica Andrés Bello, 2010). Manuel Ruiz Jurado has republished Obras de San Ignacio, Autobiografía, and the spiritual dieries of Borja and Nadal.
^ Back to text70. Quintín Aldea, ed., Ignacio de Loyola en la gran crisis del siglo XVI: Congreso Internacional de Historia; Madrid 19–21 de noviembre de 1991 (Santander: Sal Terrae, 1993). Julio Caro Baroja and Antonio Beristain, eds., Ignacio de Loyola magister artium en París, 1528–1535: Libro-homenaje de las universidades del País Vasco y de la Sorbona a Ignacio de Loyola en el V centenario de su nacimiento (San Sebastian: Kutxa, 1991). Rogelio García Mateo, Ignacio de Loyola: Su espiritualidad y su mundo cultural (Bilbao: Mensajero, 2000).
^ Back to text71. Alfredo Verdoy, San Francisco Javier: El molinero de Dios (Bilbao: Mensajero, 2006). Enrique García Hernán y Mª del Pilar Ryan, eds., Francisco de Borja y su tiempo: Política, religión y cultura en la Edad Moderna (Valencia–Rome: Generalitat Valenciana-IHSI, 2011). Hernán, La acción diplomática de Francisco de Borja al servicio del Pontificado, 1571–1572 (Valencia: Generalitat Valenciana, 2000). Hernán, Francisco de Borja, Grande de España (Valencia: Instituciò Alfons el Magnanim, 1999). José García de Castro Valdés, Polanco: El humanismo de los jesuitas (Burgos 1517–Roma 1576) (Madrid: Mensajero, Sal Terrae, 2012). Juan Nadal Caseñas, Jerónimo Nadal: Vida e influjo (Madrid: Mensajero, Sal Terrae, 2007). Miguel Lop Sebastià, ed., Alfonso Salmerón (1515–1585): Una biografía epistolar (Madrid: Mensajero, Sal Terrae, 2015).
^ Back to text72. Evaristo Rivera Vázquez, Galicia y los jesuitas: Sus colegios y enseñanza en los siglos XVI al XVIII (La Coruña: Fundación Barrié de la Maza, 1989). Justo García Sánchez, Los jesuitas en Asturias: Renovación espiritual de Oviedo y principado de Asturias merced a la Compañía de Jesús: 1578–1767 (Oviedo: Instituto de Estudios Asturianos, 1991). Javier Burrieza Sánchez, Valladolid, tierras y caminos de jesuitas: Presencia de la Compañía de Jesús en la provincia de Valladolid, 1545–1767(Valladolid: Diputación de Valladolid, 2007). Wenceslao Soto Artuñedo, La actividad de los jesuitas en la Málaga moderna (1572–1767) (Cordoba: Caja Sur, 2004). Soto, La fundación del Colegio de San Sebastián: Primera institución de los jesuitas en Málaga (Málaga: Universidad de Málaga, 2003). Ignacio Vila Despujols, La Compañía de Jesús en Barcelona en el siglo XVI: El Colegio de Nuestra Señora de Belén (Madrid–Rome: Universidad Comillas–IHSI, 2010). Bernardo Obrador, 450 años de historia del Colegio de Montesión en Palma de Mallorca, 3 vols. (Palma de Mallorca: Asociación Antiguos Alumnos Colegio Montesión, 2011).
^ Back to text73. Bilingual edition of the Ratio: Eusebio Gil Coria, ed., La pedagogía de los jesuitas ayer y hoy (Madrid: Universidad Comillas, 1999). A review of all the colleges, with corresponding map and bibliography, in José Martínez de la Escalera, “Los colegios de jesuitas,” in Buenaventura Delgado Criado, ed., Historia de la educación en España y América (Madrid: Ediciones SM, Morata, 1993), 2:417–39. Jesús Menéndez Peláez, Los jesuitas y el teatro en el Siglo de Oro (Oviedo: Universidad de Oviedo, 1995).
^ Back to text74. Agustín Udías, Los jesuitas y la ciencia: Una tradición en la Iglesia (Bilbao: Mensajero, 2014). Udías, “Los libros y manuscritos de los profesores de matemáticas del Colegio Imperial de Madrid,” AHSI 74 (2005): 371–450. Udías, “Profesores de matemáticas en los Colegios de la Compañía en España, 1620–1767,” AHSI 79 (2010): 3–27. Udías, “Conclusiones matemáticas en los colegios de jesuitas de Madrid,” AHSI 81 (2012): 551–79.
^ Back to text75. Esther Jiménez Pablo, La forja de una identidad: La Compañía de Jesús (1540–1640) (Madrid: Polifemo, 2014). José Luis Beltrán Moya, ed., La Compañía de Jesús y su proyección mediática en el mundo hispánico durante la Edad Moderna (Madrid: Silex Universidad, 2010). Julián José Lozano Navarro, La Compañía de Jesús y el poder en la España de los Austrias (Madrid: Cátedra, 2005).
^ Back to text76. Íñigo Herranz Roa, La atención a los pobres y menesterosos en la Provincia de Castilla de la Compañía de Jesús, 1550–1650. (ThD diss., Universidad Pontificia Comillas, 2004). Francisco de Borja Medina, “La Compañía de Jesús y la minoría morisca (1545-1614),” AHSI 57 (1988): 3–136. Pedro de León, Grandeza y miseria en Andalucía: Testimonio de una encrucijada histórica (1578–1616), ed. P. Herrera Puga (Granada: Facultad de Teología, 1981).
^ Back to text77. Alfonso Rodríguez Gutiérrez de Ceballos, Bartolomé de Bustamante y los orígenes de la arquitectura jesuítica en España (Rome: Institutum Historicum SI, 1967). Fernando García Gutiérrez, ed. El arte de la Compañía de Jesús en Andalucía (1554–2004) (Cordoba: Caja Sur, 2004). Gutiérrez, Aspectos del arte de la Compañía de Jesús (Seville: Ed. Guadalquivir, 2006). Miguel Ángel Alcalde Arenzana, Arte e iconografía de la Compañía de Jesús en Valladolid en los siglos XVII y XVIII (PhD diss., Universidad de Valladolid, 2006).
^ Back to text78. Enrique Giménez López, ed., Expulsión y exilio de los jesuitas españoles (Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, 1997). Giménez, ed., Y en el tercero perecerán: Gloria, caída y exilio de los jesuitas españoles del siglo XVIII (Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, 2002). Santiago Lorenzo García, La expulsión de los jesuitas de Filipinas (Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, 1999). Eva Mª. Saint Clair Segurado, Expulsión y exilio de la provincia jesuita mexicana (1767–1820) (Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, 2005). Sanit Clair, Dios y Belial en un mismo altar: Los ritos chinos y malabares en la extinción de la Compañía (Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, 2007). Giménez, Misión en Roma: Floridablanca y la extinción de los jesuitas (Murcia: Universidad, 2008). Inmaculada Fernández Arrillaga, El destierro de los jesuitas castellanos (1767–1815) (Valladolid: Junta de Castilla y León, 2014). Arrillaga, Jesuitas rehenes de Carlos III: Misioneros desterrados de América presos en El Puerto de Santa María (1769–1798) (El Puerto: Concejalía de Cultura del Ayuntamiento, 2009). Carlos A. Martínez Tornero, Carlos III y los bienes de los jesuitas: La gestión de las temporalidades por la monarquía borbónica (1767–1815) (Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, 2010).
^ Back to text79. José Antonio Ferrer Benimeli, La expulsión y extinción de los jesuitas según la correspondencia diplomática francesa: Tomo I, 1766–1770; Tomo II, Córcega y Paraguay: Tomo III, 1770–1773 (Saragossa–San Cristóbal: Universidad de Zaragoza–Universidad Católica de Táchira, 1993, 1996, 1998). Ferrer, Expulsión y extinción de los jesuitas (1759–1773) (Bilbao: Mensajero, 2013). Teófanes Egido and Isidoro Pinedo, Las causas “gravísimas” y secretas de la expulsión de los jesuitas por Carlos III (Madrid: Fundación Universitaria Españala, 1994).
^ Back to text80. Niccolò Guasti, L’esilio italiano dei gesuiti spagnoli: Identità, controllo sociale e pratiche culturali (1767–1773) (Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 2006). Guasti, Juan Andrés Morell: Un gesuita spagnolo nell’Italia dei Lumi (Milan: Il Sole 24 Ore, 2014).
^ Back to text81. Antonio Astorgano Abajo, Vicente Requeno (1745–1811): Jesuita y restaurador del mundo grecolatino (Saragossa: Universidad, 2012). Astorgano, Lorenzo Hervás y Panduro [1735–1809]: El abate Hervás y Panduro, sabio polígrafo (Madrid: Almud Ediciones, 2010). Astorgano, “Un jesuita expulso sangüesino rebelde: Francisco Javier Mariátegui, el exjesuita oprimido,” Príncipe de Viana 252 (2011): 1–72. Astorgano has published the philosophical writings of Requeno and the Biblioteca jesuítico-española (1759–1799) of Hervás.
^ Back to text82. Memorias del P. Luis Martín: General de la Compañía de Jesús (1846–1906), ed. José Ramón Eguillor, Manuel Revuelta, and Rafael Mª Sanz de Diego, 2 vols. (Madrid-Rome: Universidad de Deusto, Mensajero, Universidad Comillas-IHSI, 1988).
^ Back to text83. Manuel Revuelta González, La Compañía de Jesús en la España contemporánea, Tomo I: Supresión y reinstalación (1868–1883); Tomo II: Expansión en tiempos recios (1884–1906); Tomo III: Palabras y fermentos (1868–1912) (Madrid: Universidad Comillas, Sal Terrae, Mensajero, 1984, 1991, 2008). Revuelta, Los colegios de jesuitas y su tradición educativa (1868–1906) (Madrid: Universidad Comillas, 1998).
^ Back to text84. Manuel Revuelta, El restablecimiento de la Compañía de Jesús: Celebración del bicentenario (Bilbao: Mensajero, 2013). The bicentenary was celebrated with two congresses in Salamanca and Madrid.
^ Back to text85. DHCJ, 1:583, 3:2814, 4:3937. On Butinyà, founder of the Siervas de San José, see Jesús Martín Tejedor, Francisco Butiñá y los talleres de Nazaret (Madrid: CSIC, 1977). Adela de Cáceres, Trabajo y dignidad humana: Una interpretación en el siglo XIX; Francisco Javier Butiñá (Salamanca: Siervas de San José, 1984). Manuel Revuelta, “El P. Francisco Butiñá (1834–1899) en el contexto histórico de la Compañía de Jesús,” Miscelánea Comillas 57 (1999): 197–243. The Cartas of Butiñá were published in 2005. Concerning Vicent, founder of the Social Christian Movement, see Florentino del Valle, El P. Antonio Vicent y la acción social católica española (Madrid: Ed. Bibliográfica Española, 1974). Rafael Mª. Sanz de Diego, “El P. Vicent: Veinticinco años de apostolado social en España (1886–1912),” Hispania Sacra 33 (1981): 323–72. Regarding Nevares and his unions, see Manuel de los Reyes, La Casa Social Católica de Valladolid (1881–1946) (Madrid: Encuentro, 2013). His collected letters have been published in Iglesia y sociedad en la España del siglo XX: El P. Sisinio Nevares y el catolicismo social (1909–1940), ed. Quintín Aldea, Joaquiìn García Granda, Jesús Martín Tejedor, 4 vols. (Madrid: CSIC, 1987 and Valladolid: INEA, 1990 and 1991).
^ Back to text86. Alfredo Verdoy, Los bienes de los jesuitas: Disolución e incautación de la Compañía de Jesús durante la Segunda República (Madrid: Trotta, 1995). Enara García, Los jesuitas en la guerra civil (1936–1939) (San Sebastián: Universidad de Deusto, 2007). Luis García Iglesias, El P. Zacarías García Villada: Académico, historiador y jesuita (Madrid: Universidad Comillas, 1994).
^ Back to text87. We highlight the following: Evaristo Rivera, Colegio Apóstol Santiago: Historia de una larga peregrinación (Vigo: Artes Gráficas Galicia, 1993); Luis Fernández Martín, Historia del Colegio San José de Valladolid, 1881–1991 (Valladolid: Colegio San José, 1981); Jesús Sanjosé, El colegio San José: De la ley general de educación a la LOGSE (Valladolid: Colegio San José, 2007): Enrique Lull, Jesuitas y pedagogía: El Colegio San José en la Valencia de los años veinte (Madrid: Universidad Comillas, 1997); Fernando de Lasala, Orihuela, los jesuitas y el Colegio de Santo Domingo (Alicante: Caja de Ahorros del Mediterráneo, 1992). Wenceslao Soto, El colegio jesuita de San Estanislao en Málaga (1882–2007) (Málaga: Fundación Loyola, 2007). Manuel Bermudo de la Rosa, SAFA: Medio siglo de educación popular en Andalucía; Historia de las Escuelas Profesionales de la Sagrada Familia (Jaén: Universidad de Jaén, Octaedro, 1996); Ignasi Vila, Sant Ignasi (Sarrià): Història d’un col.legi centenari (Barcelona: Col. Sant Ignasi, 1995). Enric Puig i Jofra, L’Escola del Clot: Cent anys educant i aprenent (Barcelona: Escola T. P. del Clot, 2000). Carlos López Pego, Historia del Colegio San José de Villafranca de los Barros: Cien años de vida (1883–1993) (Villafranca de los Barros: Asoc. Antiguos Alumnos, 1994). Concerning the universities: Carmelo Sáenz de Santamaría, Historia de la Universidad de Deusto (Bilbao: La Gran Enciclopedia Vasca, 1978). Eusebio Gil, ed., La U.P. Comillas: Cien años de historia (Madrid: Universidad Comillas, 1993). Rafael Mª Sanz de Diego, ICAI 1908–2008: Lo que fuimos, lo que somos (Madrid: Universidad Comillas, 2009). On the leprosarium: Vicent Comes Iglesia, ed., Cuidados y consuelos: Cien años de Fontilles (1909–2009) (Valencia: Generalitat Valenciana, 2009).
^ Back to text88. Gianni La Bella, ed. Pedro Arrupe: General de la Compañía de Jesús (Bilbao-Santander: Mensajero-Sal Terrae, 2007). Pedro Miguel Lamet, Arrupe: Testigo del siglo XX, profeta del XXI (Madrid: Temas de hoy, 2007). Alfonso Álvarez Bolado, “La Compañía de Jesús en España entre 1936 y 1989,” Estudios eclesiásticos 76 (2001): 145–91 and 383–436.