I. General – II. Academies of the Arts and Sciences
1. Term, Platonic Academy.
The word “academy,” employed in almost all European languages with only minor variants, derives from the Greek term ἀκαδήμεια, ἀκαδημία (akadēmeia, akadēmia); it designates, first, a park-like, walled, sacred precinct probably primarily dedicated to Akademos, a local Athenian god and heros, then also to Athena. In this enclosed precinct there was a Gymnasium in addition to a sanctuary. The central…