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Alexander III, Pope
(283 words)

[German Version]

(Sep 7, 1159 – Aug 30, 1181). Born as Rolando Bandinelli c. 1105 in Siena, he received his Master of Theology in Bologna; summoned to Rome by Eugenius, he became cardinal in 1150 and chancellor of the Roman Church in 1153; in 1157, he was the legate of Hadrian IV to the Diet of Besançon where, against vigorous protest by the German princes, he characterized the Imperium as a papal fief. He was tumultuously chosen pope by a majority of cardinals in 1159, while the minority, partial to the emperor, elevated Victor IV, who was recognized by Frederick I Barbarossa at the Council of…

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Schmidt, Tilmann, “Alexander III, Pope”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 05 March 2021 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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