Religion Past and Present

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(150 words)

[German Version]

The use of water instead of wine in the Lord's Supper is attested esp. in the so-called NT Apocrypha (Acts Pet. II 2; Acts Paul 7; Acts Thom. 120–21/152/158[?]), but it seems also to have been customary occasionally when wine was unavailable in the mainstream church (Martyrdom of Pionius 3.1); Irenaeus ascribed a corresponding practice to Jewish Christians (Haer. V 1.3); Clement of Alexandria to Encratites (Paedagogus II 32.3–4; Stromata I 96.1); Epiphanius to Marcion (Haer. 42.3.3); Theodoret to students of Tatian called ῾Υδροπαραστάται/Hydroparastátai (Thdt. Hae…

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Markschies, Christoph, “Aquarians”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 16 January 2022 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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