Religion Past and Present

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[German Version]

I. Sociology – II. Church History – III. The Bourgeoisie and the Church

I. Sociology

The term “bourgeoisie” (German: Bürgertum) has two meanings. On the one hand, it denotes the association of free and equal citizens to form a political commonwealth first realized historically in the polis of antiquity, later in the medieval free cities, and finally in the bourgeois community of the modern state based on law. On the other, it denotes the third estate – alongside the nobilit…

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Richard, Münch and Lepp, Claudia, “Bourgeoisie”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 02 August 2021 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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