Religion Past and Present

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(264 words)

[German Version]

denotes a combined secular and ecclesiastical government in which the secular ruler, who enjoys a special religious status, exercises authority over the church even in spiritual and internal affairs. Since J.H. Böhmer at the beginning of the 18th century, the term has been applied particularly to the ecclesiastical authority of the emperors from Constantine the Great until the Investiture Controversy, above all for the system in the Eastern Roman/Byzantine Empire (Constantinople/Byzantium: II; III), in which the notion of a harmony or “symphony” of …

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de Wall, Heinrich, “Caesaropapism”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 20 May 2022 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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