Religion Past and Present

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(510 words)

[German Version]

The Carmelite Order goes back to a community of occidental hermits on Mount Carmel, who were granted a rule by the patriarch of Jerusalem in 1210. It obligated them to a strict contemplative life. The spirituality of the community, led by a prior, was marked by anachoretic traditions, the example of the prophet Elijah, and veneration of the Virgin Mary. In 1240, the Carmelites fled before the growing threat of the Saracens into their European homelands, where they quickly spread. Owing to a change in the rule by Innocent IV in 1247, under general prior Simon Stock (di…

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Köpf, Ulrich, “Carmelites”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 30 May 2023 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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