Religion Past and Present

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Church and State
(8,630 words)

[German Version]

I. Church History – II. Law – III. Practical Theology – IV. Systematic Theology

I. Church History

1. Early Church

The Roman state (Roman Empire) tolerated philosophical atheism and a multitude of cults that flooded in from its conquered territories, but it refused to tolerate rejection of the cult of the official gods (di publici populi Romani), on which the security of the state was believed to depend. Since Christians refused to participate …

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Thümmel, Hans Georg, Kandler, Karl-Hermann, Klueting, Harm, Oelke, Harry, Valeri, Mark, R. Gahbauer, Ferdinand, Campenhausen, Axel v., Merkel, Friedemann and Schuck, Martin, “Church and State”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 28 May 2022 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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