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Commonwealth of Independent States
(147 words)

[German Version]

(CIS), a union founded in 1991 of the successor states of the former USSR: Azerbaijan (not 1992–93), Armenia, Georgia (from 1993), Kazakhstan, Kirgistan, Moldavia (beginning 1994), Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Belarus (White Russia). A 1995 human rights convention adopted by only some of the states formulated freedom of religion (art. 10) in line with the OSCE, though with a limitation with regard to the public propagation of religion. After a phase of more liberal practice, a – not yet concluded, di…

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Hübner, Michael, “Commonwealth of Independent States”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 26 May 2022 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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