Religion Past and Present

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I. Western Theology – II. Orthodox Theology – III. Present Ecumenical Discussion

I. Western Theology

1. The Problem. In the churches of the West, the statement in the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed that the Holy Spirit (Spirit/Holy Spirit: VI, 2) “proceeds from the Father” adds “and the Son” (Lat. filioque). The Orthodox churches rejected this addition (see II below). Although the Filioque clause was not directly responsi-ble for the schism of 1054, it came …

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Oberdorfer, Bernd and Felmy, Karl Christian, “Filioque”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 23 January 2022 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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