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Flesh and Spirit
(2,268 words)

[German Version]

I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Dogmatics

I. Old Testament

In the writings of the OT, flesh and spirit are fundamental anthropological concepts, far more complementary than antithetical. The groundwork for a flesh/spirit dualism (IV) is partially laid in the OT, but it is not developed. The dualism gradually began to intensify in the intertestamental period under Hellenistic influence.

1. Flesh (usually Heb. בָּשָׂר/bāśar, less often שְׁאֵר/še'er) denotes the essential componen…

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Frevel, Christian, Reinmuth, Eckart and Krötke, Wolf, “Flesh and Spirit”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 18 August 2022 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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