I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Dogmatics
I. Old Testament
In the writings of the OT, flesh and spirit are fundamental anthropological concepts, far more complementary than antithetical. The groundwork for a flesh/spirit dualism (IV) is partially laid in the OT, but it is not developed. The dualism gradually began to intensify in the intertestamental period under Hellenistic influence.
1. Flesh (usually Heb. בָּשָׂר/bāśar, less often שְׁאֵר/še'er) denotes the essential c…