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Gaia Theories
(350 words)

[German Version]

regard the earth as a self-regulating system that behaves like an organism. The British atmo-spheric chemist, James E. Lovelock, justified this view in the 1960s. He pointed out that, in contrast to the inactive Mars, the earth, even viewed from outer space, already seems to be a “living” system because of its oxygen-rich atmosphere apart from its chemical balance. Its atmosphere, however, is a result of the process of respiration of earth's smallest living beings. Contrary to traditional Darwinian theses (Darwinism), therefore, Lovelock maintains that earth…

Cite this page
Evers, Dirk, “Gaia Theories”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 17 January 2021 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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