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God the Holy Spirit
(452 words)

[German Version]

For Irenaeus the Holy Spirit (Spirit/Holy Spirit) is fully divine as mediator of the Fathers creating and redemptive action (God the Father), but the tendency after him was to conceive the Spirit as subordinate, even sometimes the highest of the creatures. Against this, Athanasius and the Cappadocians (Cappadocian theology), while conceding that Scripture does not ambiguously teach the Spirit's full divinity, argued that as the sanctifier the Spirit was to be worshiped together with the Father and the Son (God the Son), as Constantinople (381) was to affirm (Constant…

Cite this page
Gunton, Colin, “God the Holy Spirit”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 02 April 2023 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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