Religion Past and Present

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Independent Church Movements
(1,500 words)

[German Version]

I. History – II. Missiology

I. History

Independent local forms of Christianity and the aspiration to be emancipated from the control of European missionaries appeared early on in the history of the emerging churches of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Examples include the movement initiated by the female African prophet D.B. Kimpa Vita in the Congo during the early 18th century, which temporarily threatened Portuguese rule in the region. Independent church movements became a widespread …

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Koschorke, Klaus and Ludwig, Frieder, “Independent Church Movements”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 19 January 2021 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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