Religion Past and Present

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Investiture Controversy
(1,009 words)

[German Version]

The term Investiture Controversy usually denotes the ecclesio-political conflict between the popes and kings at the end of the 11th century and the beginning of the 12th century. Since the Carolingian period, it had been customary for bishops to be appointed and also invested in office by kings. During the Gregorian Reform of the 11th century, this practice had come under fire, especially since the attack on simoniacs published in 1058 by the cardinal bishop Humbert of Silva Candida had declared any clerical appointment made by a lay person to be simony and…

Cite this page
Hartmann, Wilfried, “Investiture Controversy”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 05 March 2021 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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