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Ivan IV, the Terrible
(179 words)

[German Version]

(Groznyj, better: the Harsh; Aug 25, 1530, Moscow – Mar 18, 1584, Moscow), was the first grand duke to be crowned tsar of all Russia in 1547. He laid the foundations of Russia's rise to a major power by pursuing a policy of territorial expansion in the east (conquest of Kazan in 1552 and of Astrakhan in 1554, beginning of the subjugation of Siberia in 1582), but also contributed to its ruin by engaging in unsuccessful wars (esp. for Livonia, 1558–1582) and implementing cruel measu…

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Hauptmann, Peter, “Ivan IV, the Terrible”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 22 November 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1877-5888_rpp_SIM_10659>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013



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