Religion Past and Present

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(1,896 words)

[German Version]

I. Bible

Hebrew Bible uses violence (חָמָס/ḥāmās; שׂד/šōd) to denote the illegal use of physical force (Gen 49:5), false testimony in court (Exod 23:1; Deut 19:16), economic exploitation (Amos 3:10; Zeph 1:9), especially of the poor (Jer 22:3), and assault on God (Job 21:27) or his laws (Ezek 22:26). All violence against human beings is also violence against God (Gen 6:11, 13).

Law (Law and jurisprudence: III) with its fundamental function of settling conflicts and preventing the transgression…

Cite this page
Otto, Eckart, Schmälzle, Udo Friedrich and Oberlies, Thomas, “Non-Violence”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 28 June 2022 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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