Religion Past and Present

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(1,098 words)

[German Version]

I. Old Testament – II. New Testament

Greek παραίνεσις/paraínesis (from παραινέω/parainéō) means “advice, counsel, exhortation.” Among the Stoics, the term can be used for the part of philosophy that hortatively expounds the practical conclusions of their teaching (Sen. Ep. 95.1). In biblical studies, it usually does not represent a fixed genre but a function. It characterizes a text as well-intentioned exhortation to proper behavior. It is spoken by an authority – sometimes …

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Koenen, Klaus and Niebuhr, Karl-Wilhelm, “Parenesis”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 11 August 2022 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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