Religion Past and Present

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(872 words)

[German Version]

The Pneumatomachi, a group found primarily in Asia Minor, had a traditional binitarian doctrine of God, rejecting the divinity of the Holy Spirit (Spirit/Holy Spirit). They were an outgrowth of the “middle way” that evolved after 358, made up of followers of Origen and Eusebius. Within this new group of Homoiousians, some opposed the consubstantiality of the Holy Spirit in speaking of the divine essence. This accentuation of doctrinal differences with the Niceans, who were a disti…

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Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter, “Pneumatomachi”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 08 April 2020 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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