Religion Past and Present

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(4,529 words)

[German Version]

I. Religious Studies

Certainty is a fundamental human need. The answers given by religions to unsettling experiences cover a broad cultural spectrum. The issue is (1) to foresee fate as much as possible, (2) to integrate it into a cosmology, and (3) thus to master it. In general terms, we can identify four ways of containing the unforeseeable.


Being at the mercy of natural events. When they…

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Friedli, Richard, Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard, Bosman, Hendrik, Söding, Thomas, Plathow, Michael, Avemarie, Friedrich and Dan, Joseph, “Providence”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 03 December 2023 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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