is the violation of persons, places, or things that have been dedicated to God or are associated with God. In canon law, physical attacks on the pope, bishops,or clergy and religious are penal offences, as are desecration, retention, or discarding the eucharistic species, profaning a holy object, and consecration of only one eucharistic species or of both outside a eucharistic celebration.
W. Rees, Die Strafgewalt der Kirche, 1993
B. Maier, D. Piattelli & M.J. Suda, “Religionsvergehen,” TRE XXIX, 1998, 49–61
B.F. Pighin, Diritto penale ca…