Religion Past and Present

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(2,913 words)

[German Version]

I. Clarification of the Concept

Talmud (derived from למד/lamad, “to learn,” or limmad, “to teach”) signifies “study, instruction, teaching” (as first attested in Qumran: 4QpNah II 8), and more specifically the commentary on the Mishnah in the Talmud Bavli (b; see below II) and the Talmud Yerushalmi (y; see below III). The Talmud is made up of the Mishnah and the Gemara (Aram. גמר/gemar, “to complete, to learn”), the “traditional teaching” or “completion” of the Mishna…

Cite this page
Stemberger, Günter, “Talmud”, in: Religion Past and Present. Consulted online on 26 June 2022 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004146662, 2006-2013

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