Sacramentum Mundi Online

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Grace and Freedom
(2,430 words)

1. The problem, a) The problem of the relation between grace and freedom, as a specifically theological question within Catholic theology, is how to maintain that man is really free in his salutary acts and could therefore refuse the grace offered for such an act, and that at the same time he necessarily requires interior divine grace for this salutary action. This grace does not become effective simply and solely through man’s actual consent to it, but the consent itself is given by God’s grace…

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Karl Rahner, “Grace and Freedom”, in: Sacramentum Mundi Online, General Editor Karl Rahner, SJ. Consulted online on 02 October 2023 <>
First published online: 2016

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