Sacramentum Mundi Online

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The word “monism” goes back to Christian Wolff (Psychologia Rationalis, para. 32), but an equivalent idea is found as early as Aristotle (Metaphysics, 986b 21). The reality it denotes is a doctrine which seeks to explain reality (as a whole or in part) by a single principle intrinsic to it, despite its unmistakable multiplicity and variety. This can be done by reducing all kinds of being to one (monism of kind; relative monism). Or it can be done by denying the multiplicity of independent beings (substances) by point…

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Gerd Haeffner, “Monism”, in: Sacramentum Mundi Online, General Editor Karl Rahner, SJ. Consulted online on 06 December 2023 <>
First published online: 2016

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