Sacramentum Mundi Online

Get access

(2,411 words)

1 . The general term. Philosophy took a new turn with Socrates, according to the ancient writers on philosophy. He was the first, according to Cicero, “to bring down philosophy from heaven. He made it live in the cities and forced it to investigate life and morals, the good and the bad” (Tusculan Disputations, 5, 10). The era before Socrates was described by Aristotle and his school as that of the philosophers of nature (φυσιϰοί). It took up the question of the theogonies (so Hesiod, c. 700 в. c.) as to the beginning, the formative forces and the order of the universe. Knowledge…

Cite this page
Friedo Ricken, “Pre-Socratics”, in: Sacramentum Mundi Online, General Editor Karl Rahner, SJ. Consulted online on 26 November 2022 <>
First published online: 2016

▲   Back to top   ▲