Sacramentum Mundi Online

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(2,411 words)

1 . The general term. Philosophy took a new turn with Socrates, according to the ancient writers on philosophy. He was the first, according to Cicero, “to bring down philosophy from heaven. He made it live in the cities and forced it to investigate life and morals, the good and the bad” (Tusculan Disputations, 5, 10). The era before Socrates was described by Aristotle and his school as that of the philosophers of nature (φυσιϰοί). It took up the question of the theogonies (so Hesiod, c. 700 в. c.) as to the beginning, the formative forces and the order of the universe. Knowledge…

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Friedo Ricken, “Pre-Socratics”, in: Sacramentum Mundi Online, General Editor Karl Rahner, SJ. Consulted online on 05 March 2024 <>
First published online: 2016

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