Sacramentum Mundi Online

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The universal is what all have in common, the general denomination which fits all things or many things (i.e., all of a certain type or group).

1. History of the problem: the controversy. The existence of the universal or general is undeniable, and was not called in question even in the controversy on universals. For language uses the same word for several situations or to designate a multitude of particulars and it can only convey meaning on this supposition. The question is whether there is anything universal apart from the …

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Albert Keller, “Universals”, in: Sacramentum Mundi Online, General Editor Karl Rahner, SJ. Consulted online on 29 November 2023 <>
First published online: 2016

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