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1 General History
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In Volume 1-1: Qurʾānic Literature, History, and Biography | Section 1, Qurʾānic Literature

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§ 101. Abū Jaʿfar M. b. Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (b. at Āmul ah 224/838–9, d. at Bag̲h̲dād ah 310/923) has already been mentioned in this work (pp. 1–2) as the author of a commentary on the Qurʾān which was translated in an abridged form into Persian for the Sāmānid ruler Abū Ṣāliḥ Manṣūr b. Nūḥ, who reigned from 350/961 to 366/976. The same ruler in the year 352/963–4 issued orders for the translation of al-Ṭabarī’s celebrated history of the world entitled Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-rusul wa-’l-mulūk.1 The task was undertaken by the ruler’s Wazīr, Abū ʿAlī M. b. M. al-Balʿamī. This Balʿamī, whose father, Abū ’l-Faḍl M. b. ʿUbaid Allāh (d. 329/940), was Wazīr to the Sāmānid Naṣr b. Aḥmad (reigned 301/914–331/943), was himself Wazīr first to ʿAbd al-Malik b. Nūḥ (reigned 350/961–365/976) and subsequently to his successor Manṣūr. According to Gardēzī (Zain al-ak̲h̲bār ed. M. Nāẓim, p. 46) he died in 3632/974, but according to al-ʿUtbī, who does not mention the date of his death, he was reappointed Wazīr in 382/992 under Nūḥ b. Manṣūr (reigned 365/976–387/997). For further information see Barthold’s article in Ency. Isl. under Balʿamī and the authorities there cited.

Tarjamah i Tārīk̲h̲ i Ṭabarī, a much abridged translation existing in more than one redaction: Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii 2250, Blochet i 238 (= Zotenberg’s A. 1st redaction. Defective at both ends and elsewhere. Early 13th cent.), 239–40 (= Zotenberg’s B.

“Nouvelle rédaction.” Ending with al-Mustars̲h̲id. ah 842/1438), 241 (= Zotenberg’s D. 1st redaction. Ending with the Sāsānians. Early 17th cent.), 242 (= Zotenberg’s C. 1st redaction. Ending with Moses’ crossing of the Red Sea. ah 997/1588), 243 (“La rédaction remaniée.” Ending with al-Mustaẓhir. ah 1107/1695), r.a.s. P. 22 = Morley 9 (= Zotenberg’s E. “Nouvelle rédaction.” Ending with al-Mustars̲h̲id. ah 701/1301 (?)), P. 23 = Morley 10 (=Zotenberg’s J. “Nouvelle rédaction.” Ending with al-Qāʾim), P. 24 = Morley 11 (= Zotenberg’s F. Mainly follows the new redaction, but sometimes combines old and new. Ends with accession of al-Muʿtaṣim. ah 988/1580), Fātiḥ 4285 = Tauer 1 (ending with al-Muqtadir. ah 702/1303), 4281 = Tauer 4 (ending with al-Muqtadī. ah 725/1325), 4284 = Tauer 5 (ending with al-Muqtadir. ah 817/1414–15), 4282 = Tauer 8 (ending with al-Mustaẓhir. ah 850/1446–7), 4283 = Tauer 10 (ending with al-Mustaʿṣim. ah 856/1452), Gotha 24–25 (= Zotenberg’s G. 1st redaction. Ending with al-Mustaẓhir. ah 713/1313), 361 (in the Ergänzungsheft) (ending with al-Muqtadir, defective. ah 1038/1628–9), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3050 = Tauer 2 (ending with al-Muktafī. ah 713/1313), 3051 = Tauer 3 (ending with al-; Muktafī. ah 718/1319), 3054 = Tauer 6 (ending with al-Mustaẓhir. ah 845/1441), 3049 = Tauer 7 (ending with al-Mustaẓhir. ah 846/1442), 4052 = Tauer 9 (ending with al-Mustaẓhir. ah 854/1450), 3053 = Tauer 11 (ending with al-Mustaẓhir. ah 890/1485), Rieu i 68a (ending with the accession of al-Muqtadir, whose predecessors back to al-Wāt̲h̲iq are treated at greater length than in most mss. ah 734/1334), 70a (begins in Caliphate of Abū Bakr and ends as the preceding ms., from which, however, it differs much. ah 911/1505), 71a (defective. 16th cent.), 71b (begins shortly before Muḥammad’s genealogy and ends with al-Mustaẓhir. ah 906/1500), ii 851a (vol. i (to death of Yazdajird), abridged in parts. ah 847/1443), Bānkīpūr vi 449–50 (ending with al-Mustaẓhir. ah 740/1339), Leyden Cat. cod. arab., 2nd ed., ii 824 (ending with al-Mustaʿṣim. ah 754/1353), Ethé 2 (ending with al-Nāṣir. “Very old.”), 3 (ending with al-Nāṣir), 4 (ending with al-Mustaẓhir. ah 1025/1616), 5 (ending with al-Mustaẓhir. ah 1089/1678 ?), 6 (ending with al-Maʾmūn. n.d.), 7 (breaks off in the account of Bābak. Not later than ah 1035/1625–6), 8 (“agreeing with Morley’s first copy.” Old), 9 (“agreeing with Morley’s second copy and Fraser 131” (= Bodleian 9). “Tolerably old.”), 10 (a different redaction. ah 1013/1604–5), 11 (defective. Ending with al-Qāhir), 12 (defective), 13 (second half), Ross and Browne 133 (17th cent.), Bodleian 2 (ending with al-Muktafī. ah 894/1489), 3 (vol. i written ah 850/1446, vol. ii mostly much older. Lacunæ), 4 (1st redaction. Ending with al-Muktafī. ah 944/1537), 5 (agreeing with Morley’s 1st copy. Ending with al-Mustaʿīn. “Very old.”), 6 (agreeing with Morley’s 3rd copy. Ending with al-Mustaẓhir. ah 944/1538), 7 (ah 1051/1641), 8 (ah 1073/1663), 9 (agreeing with Morley’s 2nd copy), 10 (latter half. ah 1078/1668), 11 (ʿAbbāsids only. ah 1197/1783), Bag̲h̲dād Kös̲h̲kü 282 = Tauer 32 (in the Majmūʿah i Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū. Followed by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū’s continuation from al-Muqtadir to al-Mustaʿṣim. Transcribed in the reign of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h, therefore not later than ah 850/1447. 20 Pictures), Dāmād Ibrāhīm 919 = Tauer 33 (likewise in the Majmūʿah i Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū. With the continuation. Transcribed probably in or about 885/1480–1), Dorn 264, 265 (ah 927/1521), 266 (ending with death of Muḥammad. Differing in many places from the preceding ms.), Rosen Institut 3 (ah 997/1588–9), 4 (ah 1018/1609–10), Yeñī 911 = Tauer 12 (2nd half only. 16th cent.), Lindesiana p. 229 no. 128 (circ. ad 1660), no. 812 (circ. 1620), no. 458 (imperfect), Ivanow 1 (ah 1029/1620), 2 (18th cent.), 3 (19th cent.), Browne Pers. Cat. 39 (ah 1052/1642), Aumer 203 (old), Berlin 363 (ending in chapter on Abū Bakr’s election), 364 (defective), 365, 366 (fragments), Breslau 17 (ending with the conquest of Jerusalem), Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 24, 25, Flügel ii 829, Madras, Salemann-Rosen p. 12 no. 850*. For an illustrated copy of the Persian Ṭabarī ascribed to the end of the 13th century and belonging to Mr. H. Kevorkian, see P.W. Schulz Die persisch-islamische Miniaturmalerei, Leipzig 1914*, p. 74 and pl. H–K, and for some miniatures from a manuscript copied ah 874/1469 and belonging to Mr. A. Chester Beatty see the Catalogue of the International Exhibition of Persian Art, London, 1931, no. 476.

Editions: Tārīk̲h̲ i Ṭabarī, Lucknow 1291/1874°*,3 Cawnpore 1896°*,1 1916* (described as a fifth edition).

Extracts: (1) Extract from the Tarikh Tebry, containing a relation of the seventy years captivity of the Jews [with English translation] (The Oriental Miscellany, Calcutta 1798°* pp. 1–13). (2) Tarikh-e-Tabari. Translated into Persian by Ali Mohammad al BalʿamiThe portion appointed for the Intermediate Arts Examination for 1903 a.d…. with … notes … By Shaikh: Abdul-Kadir, S. Surfraz. Bombay 1903°.

French translations: (1) Chronique d’Abou Djafar Mohammed Tabari … traduite sur la version persane d’Abou-Ali Mohammed, Belamipar L. Dubeux. Vol. i pp. 1–280 [extending to S̲h̲uʿaib. No more published]. Paris 1836°* (Oriental Translation Fund). (2) Chronique de Abou-Djafar-Mo‘hammed-ben-Djarîr-ben Yezîd Tabarî, traduite sur la version persane d’Abou-ʿAlî-Mo‘hammed Belʿamî [and incorporating Dubeux’s earlier translation in a revised form but without his notes] … par H. Zotenherg. 4 vols. Paris 1867–74°* (Oriental Translation Fund).

English translations of extracts: (1) see above under Extracts (1). (2) Essay towards the history of Arabia antecedent to the birth of Mahommed arranged from the Tarikh Tebry, and other authentic sources. By Major David Price. London 1824°* (a rather free translation or abridgment). (3) [A few extracts relating, inter alia, to the tragedy at Karbalāʾ, early ʿAbbāsids etc.] Chronological retrospect, or Memoirs of the principal events of Mahommedan history, from the death of the Arabian Legislator, to the accession of the Emperor Akbar … By Major D. Price (3 vols. London 1811–21°*) vol. i pp. 389–424 etc., vol. ii 29–53 etc. (freely translated or abridged). (4) [Rough ms. translation of portions relating to the early Muhammadan conquests etc. by Major H.G. Raverty] i.o. mss. Eur. D. 217 (and here and there in other volumes of Major Raverty’s translations).

Ottoman Turkish translations: For mss. and for other information see Babinger Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen pp. 66–7, 410. Editions: Stambul 1260/1844, 1288/1871–2, Būlāq 1275/1858–9.

Eastern Turkish translation written ah 928/1522 by Wāḥidī al-Balk̲h̲ī: Dorn 519 (ah 938/1532), Dorn a.m. p. 347.

Arabic translations: (1) written ah 876/1471–2 (?), Browne Hand-list 189 (ending with the fall of the Umaiyads), (2) written ah 935–7/1528–31 by K̲h̲iḍr b. K̲h̲iḍr al-Āmidī, Leyden Cat. cod. arab., 2nd ed., ii 826 (vol. ii, ending with Marwān’s death. For a fuller description see Kosegarten’s TaberistanensisAnnales, vol. i, pp. xxiii–xxvi), (3) Ahlwardt 9424 (?).

Urdū translation made for the use of students at the College of Fort William by Jaʿfar S̲h̲āh Riḍawī b. S. Qamar al-Dīn ʿAlī (for whom see Garcin de Tassy ii 61–2): Browne Handlist 198–9 (ending with the fall of the Umaiyads).

Modern revised edition by Maulawī Abū ’l-Qāsim Simnānī (an employee of F. Gladwin’s) based on the original, the several redactions of Balʿamī’s version and another dedicated to ʿUbaid Allāh K̲h̲ān S̲h̲aibānī: Bodleian 12 (defective, extending to ah 32/652–3), 13 (extending from Muḥammad’s funeral to Marwān’s death. ah 1222/1807).

Descriptions: (1) Taberistanensis … Annalesarabice edidit … J.G.L. Kosegarten, Greifswald 1831–53, vol. i, pp. x–xvi, (2) Bal’amy’s translation of the History of Tabary, and Ghazzály’s History of the Prophets by A. Sprenger (Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. xvii (1848), pp. 437–71).

§ 102. Abū Saʿīd [or Saʿd] ʿAbd al-Ḥaiy b. al-Ḍaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd Gardēzī was a contemporary of the Sulṭān of G̲h̲aznī, Zain al-Millah ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd b. Maḥmūd (ah 440/1049–444/1053), to whom he dedicated his Zain al-ak̲h̲bār.

Zain al-ak̲h̲bār, a concise but valuable history, of which the extant portions deal, inter alia, with the ancient Persian kings, the Prophet, the early Caliphs, the history of K̲h̲urāsān to 432/1041, chronological eras, Muḥammadan, Jewish, Christian, Zoroastrian and Hindu festivals, the Turkish race (an important chapter) and the Hindus: Browne Suppt. 743 (defective. ah 1093/1682.4 King’s 213), Bodleian 15 (believed to be a transcript of the preceding. ah 1196/1782).

Edition (of the portion relating to the Ṭāhirids, Ṣaffārids, Sāmānids, and G̲h̲aznawids, i.e. foll. 81b–141a): Kitab Zainu’l-Akhbar. Composed by Abu Sa‘id ʿAbdu ’l-HayyGardizi about 440 ah Edited [from the Cambridge ms.] by Muhammad Nazim. Berlin 1928* (E.G. Browne Memorial Series, 1).

Extracts relating to the Turks, Turkistān etc.: (1) W. Barthold Otchet o poyezdkye v Srednyuyu Aziyu (in the Zapiski of the Imp. Acad. of Sciences, Hist.-phil. Class, Series viii, vol. i, no. 4, St. Petersburg 1897*), pp. 78–128 (with Russian translation), (2) Gardezi kézirati munkájának a Törökökröl, Tibetiekröl és Sinaiakröl irt fejezetei. Kiadta, Magyarra forditotta, Magyarázó jegyzetekkel s haróm, névmutatóval látta el Gróf Kuun Géza (Publications de la Section Orientale de la Société Ethnographique Hongroise, iv) Budapest 1903° (extracts relating to the Turks, Tibetans and Chinese with Hungarian translation by Géza Kuun).5 (3) W. Barthold Turkestan v epokhu mongolskago nashestviya, St. Petersburg 1900°*, i 1–18 (with corrections ii 513), but not in the English translation of this work.

Translations: (1) [Rough ms. English translation by Major H.G. Raverty of nearly the whole work as preserved in the Cambridge ms.] i.o. mss. Eur. D. 210–11. (2) [Extracts relating to the Turks etc. (Russian)] see above under Extracts (1). (3) [Extracts relating to the Turks etc. (Hungarian)] see above under Extracts (2).

Descriptions: (1) Ency. Isl. under Gardīzī (by W. Barthold), (2) W. Barthold Turkestan down to the Mongol invasion, London 1928, pp. 20–1, (3) M. Nāẓim The life and times of Sulṭān Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna. Cambridge 1931, pp. 5–6.

For the relation of Gardēzī’s work to al-Sallāmī’s lost Arabic Taʾrīk̲h̲ wulāt K̲h̲urāsān (cf. W. Barthold Turkestan down to the Mongol invasion pp. 10–11) and for his information on Ṣaffārid history see W. Barthold Zur Geschichte der Ṣaffāriden (in Orientalische Studien Theodor Nöldeke … gewidmet, Giessen 1906, vol. i, pp. 171–91).

[Ency. Isl. under Gardīzī.]

§ 103. An unknown author, who tells us that he was the grandson of a certain Muhallab b. M. b. S̲h̲ādī, that he had written a work on the history of the Barmecides and that he had visited the tombs of the Prophets Daniel, Ezekiel and Jonah, an ancient fortress in Persia and an ancient building in Babylonia, wrote his Mujmal al-tawārīk̲h̲ wa-’l-qiṣaṣ in 520/1126 when Bahrām-S̲h̲āh the G̲h̲aznawid was on the throne.

Mujmal al-tawārīk̲h̲ wa-’l-qiṣaṣ, a concise history extending from the Creation to ah 520/1126, the date of composition, in the time of Sanjar, and containing chapters of value on the ancient Persian kings, on India, on the Turks and on the titles of the Eastern rulers: Blochet i 245 (only the first 25 chapters, ah 813/1410).

Extracts: (1) [on the Pre-Islamic Persian dynasties] Extraits du Modjmel al-Tewarikh relatifs à l’histoire de la Perse, traduits par M. Jules Mohl (in the Journal asiatique, 3e série, tome xi (Jan.–June 1841) pp. 136–78, 258–301, 320–61, tome xii (July–Dec. 1841) pp. 497–536, tome xiv (July–Dec. 1842) pp. 113–52, 4e série, tome i (Jan.–June 1843) pp. 385–432)6 [Persian text with French translation], (2) J.T. Reinaud Fragments arabes et persans inédits relatifs à l’Inde, Paris 1845°*, pp. 1–54 (= Journal asiatique, 4e série, tome iv (July–Dec. 1844) pp. 131–84) [Persian text with French translation]. (3) [Notices of Sāmānid amīrs] Description topographique et historique de Boukhara par Mohammed Nerchakhy … Texte persan publié par G. Schefer, Paris 1892°*, pp. 97–9. (4) [A short section on the Turks and a list of the titles of Eastern rulers] W. Barthold Turkestan v epokhu mongolskago nashestviya, St. Petersburg 1900°*, i pp. 19–20.

Descriptions: (1) De l’ouvrage persan qui a pour titre Moudjmel-attawarikh … „Sommaire des histoires“ … par M. [E.] Quatremère (in the Journal asiatique, 3e série, tom. vii (Jan.–June 1839), pp. 246–85. In this article are translated nearly the whole of the first seven chapters and portions of the ninth relating to the As̲h̲kānians and the Sāsānians down to S̲h̲āpūr D̲h̲ū ’l-aktāf). (2) Elliot and Dowson History of India, i 100–112 (with English translation of Reinaud’s extracts). (3) W. Barthold Turkestan down to the Mongol invasion, London 1928, pp. 26–7.

§ 104. Minhāj [al-Dīn] Abū ʿUmar ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Sirāj [al-Dīn] M. Jūzjānī must have been born in 589/1193, since he says that he was 18 years of age when, in 607/1210–11, he witnessed the slaying of Malik Rukn al-Dīn Maḥmūd at Fīrūzkōh. His father was appointed Qāḍī of the army of Hindūstān by Muʿizz al-Dīn M. b. Sām in 582/1186–7, and was subsequently summoned from Fīrūzkōh to Bāmiyān by Sulṭān Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sām, who made him Qāḍī and K̲h̲aṭīb of his kingdom. Minhāj al-Dīn was brought up in the harem of the Princess Māh i Mulk, a daughter of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn M. b. Sām (Sulṭān of G̲h̲ōr ah 558/1162–599/1202). In 622/1225 and again in 623/1226 he was sent from G̲h̲ōr as an envoy to Sulṭān Tāj al-Dīn Niyāltigīn at Nīmrūz. In 623/1226 he left for India and in 624/1227 reached Uc̲h̲c̲h̲h, the capital of Nāṣir al-Dīn Qubāc̲h̲ah, where he was appointed Principal of the Madrasah i Fīrūzī. In the next year, after the overthrow of Qubāc̲h̲ah by Sulṭān S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Īltutmis̲h̲ (reigned 607/1211–633/1235), he followed the latter to Delhi, and held high legal offices under him. In 639/1241–2 he was made Qāḍī of the realm of Bahrām S̲h̲āh (reigned ah 637/1239–639/1241). In 640/1242–3 he went to Lakhnautī and after staying there for two years returned to Delhi. Soon afterwards he was appointed Principal of the Nāṣirīyah College and Qāḍī of Gwalior. He was Chief Justice from 649/1251 to 651/1253 under Nāṣir al-Dīn Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh (reigned ah 644/1246–664/1265), was then disgraced, but was restored in 653/1253. He apparently lived into the reign of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Balban (ah 664/1265–686/1287).

Ṭabaqāt i Nāṣirī, written mainly, it seems, in 657/1259 and 658/1260, dedicated to Īltutemis̲h̲’s son Nāṣir al-Dīn Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh and divided into 23 ṭabaqāt ((1) Patriarchs and Prophets, (2) the first four Caliphs etc., (3) Umaiyads, (4) ʿAbbāsids, (5) Early Persian Kings, (6) Tubbaʿs and Kings of the Yemen, (7) Ṭāhirids, (8) Ṣaffārids, (9) Sāmānids, (10) Dailamīs, (11) Subuktigīnids, (12) Saljūqs, (13) Sanjarids, (14) Kings of Nīmrūz and Sīstān, (15) Kurdish Kings, (16) K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs, (17) S̲h̲ansabānids and Kings of G̲h̲ōr, (18) S̲h̲ansabānids of Ṭuk̲h̲āristān, (19) S̲h̲ansabānids of G̲h̲aznī, (20) Muʿizzids of Hindūstān, (21) S̲h̲amsid Sulṭāns of Hindūstān, (22) the S̲h̲amsī Maliks or vassals of the S̲h̲amsī Sulṭāns, (23) disasters of Islām and invasion of the infidel Mongols): H.K̲h̲. iv p. 153 no. 7928, Rieu i 71b (slightly defective. 14th cent.), 73b (slightly defective. 16th cent.), iii 881a (lacunae. Circ. ad 1850), Berlin 367 (ah 814/1411–2. Written for Bāysunqur. Two Pictures), Bodleian 16 (n.d.), 17 (an abridgment. ah 1158/1745), i.o. 3745 (ah 1002/1593), Ethé 14 (ah 1113/1702), 15 (slightly defective), Bānkīpūr vi 451 (slightly defective. 16th cent.), Lindesiana p. 187 no. 397 (ah 1059/1649), Blochet i 246 (17th cent.), 247 (17th cent.), Ivanow Curzon 1 (Ṭabaqahs v–xi complete, parts of xii, xiii, xv, xvi. 17th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 246 nos. 273 (ah 1276/1859–60), 293 (ah 1227/1812), Aumer 204 (fairly old), Chanykov 68 (incomplete), r.a.s. P. 25 = Morley 12.

Edition (Ṭabaqāt xi and xvii–xxiii only): Calcutta 1863–4°* (Bibliotheca Indica. Edited by W.N. Lees, K̲h̲ādim Ḥusain and ʿAbd al-Ḥaiy).

Extract: Siyāsat al-amṣār fī tajribat al-aʿṣār dar tārīk̲h̲ i Āl i C̲h̲ingīz (pp. 88): [Bombay, 1890°*].

English translation (omitting Ṭabaqāt i–vi): Ṭabaḳāt-i-NāṣirīTranslatedby H.G. Raverty. Calcutta 1873–81°*7 (Bibliotheca Indica). Major Raverty’s rough ms. translations at the i.o. include some passages (on the ancient Persian kings, for example) not printed in this translation.

Description and 118 pp. of translated extracts from ṭabaqahs xi, xvii, and xix–xxii:8 Elliot and Dowson History of India ii 259–383.

[Ṭabaqāt i Nāṣirī pp. 88, 143 etc.; Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār (i.o. ms. d.p. 572 fol. 71b); Biography compiled for Sir H.M. Elliot mainly from the Ṭabaqāt by Ḍiyā’ al-Dīn Aḥmad “Naiyir” (Rieu iii 881b); Morley 12; Elliot and Dowson loc. cit.; Rieu i 72; Raverty’s translation pp. xix–xxxi, idem in j.a.s.b. li, 1882, p. 76; Bānkīpūr Pers. Cat. vi 451; Ency. Isl. under D̲j̲ûzd̲j̲ānī.]

§ 105. Nāṣir al-Dīn ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar al-Baiḍāwī, best known as the author of the Arabic commentary on the Qurʾān entitled Anwār al-tanzīl (see Brockelmann i 417 and Ency. I sl.), was Chief Justice at S̲h̲īrāz and afterwards lived at Tabrīz, where he died in 684/1285–6 or 685/1286–7 or 692/1292–3 or after 710/1310–11 or in 716/1316–17.

Niẓām al-tawārīkh, a brief sketch of general history written in 674/1275 (but with later additions) and divided into four qisms ((1) Adam to Noah, (2) Pīs̲h̲dādians to Sāsānians, (3) Muḥammad and the Caliphs, (4) Ṣaffārids, G̲h̲aznawīs and G̲h̲ūrīs, Dailamīs, Saljūqs, Salg̲h̲urīs, Ismāʿīlīs, K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs and Mongols): Ḥ.K̲h̲. vi p. 354 no. 13846, Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3605 (2) = Tauer 13 (ends with Abāqā. ah 748/1347), Rawān Kös̲h̲kü 1523 = Tauer 14 (ah 962/1554–5), Leyden iii p. 1 (ah 965/; 1557–8), Rieu ii 823b (16th cent.), iii 882a (ah 1264/1848), 1066b (defective, ad 1839), Blochet i 248 (16th cent.), 249 (16th cent.), 250 (hist. of Mongols continued to ah 739. 17th cent.), 251 (17th cent.), 252 (extends to ah 739. 17th cent.), Bodleian 18–22 (the last, abridged, dated ah 1033/1624), Edinburgh 412 (ah 1011/1602–3 or thereabouts), de Jong 176 i (ending with the Saljūqs. ah 1034/1624–5), Ethé 16 (defective. Not later than 17th cent.), Nūr i ‘Uthmānīyah 3450 = Tauer 15; (17th cent.), Fātiḥ 4213 = Tauer 16 (ends with Ūljāytū. 17th cent.), Riḍā Pās̲h̲ā 234 = Tauer 17 (17th or 18th cent.), Ḥasan Ḥusnī = Tauer 18 (ah 1214/1800), Lindesiana p. 126 no. 438 (circ. ad 1810), Āṣafīyah iii p. 110 no. 1399, Browne Suppt. 1595 (Trinity = Palmer p. 75), Chanykov 67, d.m.g. 73 (transcript of the Hamburg ms.), Flügel ii 825, Hamburg 231 (1) (2) (European transcript), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 3 (May 1926), p. 56), Upsala 235, 236 (defective at end).

Abridgment (continued to Abū Saʿīd): Rieu ii 871a (ah 813/ 1410–814/1411).

Edition: Nizam-ut-tawarikhwith introduction and indices by Hakim Sayyid Shams-ullah Qadri, Ḥaidarābād 1930* (Historical Society of Hyderabad. Historical Text Books Series. No. 1).

English translation of extracts (on the G̲h̲aznawids): Elliot and Dowson History of India ii 255–8.

Descriptions: (1) L’ordre des chroniques, ou chronologie de l’histoire, par le Cadhi Beïdhawi…. Par A.I. Silvestre de Sacy (in Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale, tome iv (Paris, An 7 [= 1798]), pp. 672–99), (2) Elliot and Dowson History of India ii 252–8.

Turkish translations: (1) by Abū ’l-Faḍl M. al-Daftarī b. Idrīs Bidlīsī (d. ah 987/1579–80 or thereabouts): see Babinger Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen pp. 96–7. (2) Rieu Turk. Cat. p. 23b (possibly identical with the preceding).

[Brockelmann i 417; Ency. Isl. under Baiḍāwī, etc.]

§ 106. Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Faḍl Allāh b. ʿImād al-Daulah Abī ’l-K̲h̲air al-Hamadānī was born, probably at Hamadān, circ. 645/1247–8. He became physician to the Mongol Sulṭān Abāqā K̲h̲ān (reigned ah 663/1265–680/1281) and in 697/1298 wazīr to G̲h̲āzān K̲h̲ān (reigned ah 694/1295–703/1304). He was wazīr also to Ūljāytū (reigned ah 703/1304–716/1316) and built a fine suburb, called Ras̲h̲īdīyah, in Sulṭānīyah, the new capital. In the reign of Abū Saʿīd the intrigues of his enemies caused him to be first deprived of his office (ah 717/1317) and then (ah 718/1318) put to death at Tabrīz on a charge of having poisoned Ūljāytū. In addition to his great history he wrote (1) al-Majmūʿat al-Ras̲h̲īdīyah, a collection of four works entitled (a) al-Tauḍīḥāt, (b) Miftāḥ al-tafāsīr, (c) al-Sulṭānīyah, (d) Laṭāʾif al-ḥaqāʾiq (for the contents of which see Quatremère’s Histoire des Mongols de la Perse, pp. cxiv–cxx, cxlix–clv, and Browne Lit. Hist. iii 75–80), (2) al-Āt̲h̲ār wa-’l-aḥyāʾ, on rural economy etc., which is apparently lost (see Quatremère op. cit. pp. cxii–cxiv, clvi–clviii), and (3) Bayān al-ḥaqāʾiq, also lost (seè Quatremère, op. cit., pp. cxxx–cxxxi, clv–clvi). The four works comprised in al-Majmūʿat al-Ras̲h̲īdīyah, or the Arabic versions of them, are preserved at Paris in a fine ms. written in 710/1310 (de Slane 2324). The Miftāḥ al-tafāsīr is preserved at Cairo (with a supplement entitled Nafāʾis al-afkār; see the catalogue, vol. vi, p. 200) and the Persian version of the Laṭāʾif al-ḥaqāʾiq at Paris (ancien fonds, persan 107). For a valuable collection of some 52 of his letters (Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Ras̲h̲īdī) see Browne Coll. pp. 146–7 (cf. Browne Lit. Hist, iii 80–6). An abridged English translation of these letters has been prepared by Prof. M. S̲h̲afīʿ and will, it is hoped, be published. A ms. containing 25 of Ras̲h̲id al-Dīn’s letters belonging to the Rousseau collection in the Leningrad Public Library is mentioned in Quatremère’s Histoire des Mongols de la Perse, p. cxx.

Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲, begun by order of G̲h̲āzān ah 700/1300–1 and completed ah 710/1310–11, a general history of the world from the earliest times to ah 700/1300–1, with a special account of the Mongols to ah 703/1303–4 or 705/1305–69 (to ah 712/1312–13, according to Waṣṣāf (Quatremère p. lxxi), in the case of the life of Ūljāytū, which, however, seems to occur only in one of the recorded mss. (at Mas̲h̲had)10) divided originally11 (and in most, if not all, of the surviving mss.) into three volumes, viz. (i) called Tārīk̲h̲ i G̲h̲āzānī in two bābs, (a) Account of the Turkish and Mongol tribes, (b) History of C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān, his ancestors and successors down to G̲h̲āzān, (ii) also in two bābs (a) History of Ūljāytū, absent from all the recorded mss. except apparently one at Mas̲h̲had, (b) General history of the world in a muqaddimah (on the Patriarchs and Prophets) and two qisms,12 viz. (1) Pre-Islāmic kings of Persia, (2) History of Muḥammad and the Caliphate, the Islāmic dynasties of Persia (G̲h̲aznawids, Saljūqs, K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs, Salg̲h̲urids, Ismāʿīlīs), Og̲h̲ūz and the Turks, the Chinese, the Jews, the Franks, the Indians with a long account of Buddha, (iii) on geography (perhaps never written): Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii p. 509, Rawān Kös̲h̲kü 1518 = Tauer 19 (vol. i only (?). ah 717/1317), Blochet i 254 (vol. i only, defective at both ends and elsewhere. Many Pictures (described by Blochet in Revue des bibliothèques, 1899, p. 46 and in Les enluminures des manuscrits orientaux … de la Bibliothèque nationale, Paris 1926, pp. 75–78, pl. xxiii–xxviii). 1st half of 14th cent.), 255 (vol. i only, followed by the appendix (d̲h̲ail) on the reigns of Ūljāytū and Abū Saʿīd. ah 837/1433–4, transcribed for S̲h̲āh-Rukh.), 256 (vol. i to the death of C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān. 1st half of 14th cent.), 257–8 (vol. ii, second half (Fāṭimids of Egypt, Ismāʿīlīs of Alamūt, Og̲h̲ūz and the Turks, the Chinese, India, the G̲h̲aznawīds, Saljūqs, K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs and Salg̲h̲urids). 19th cent., transcribed from a copy written for Ulug̲h̲ Bēg.), 448 (Tūzuk i G̲h̲āzān K̲h̲ān, i.e. the third qism of the dāstān relating to G̲h̲āzān, defective at end. Late 14th cent.), Rieu i 78a (vol. i, latter half (from Jūjī to G̲h̲āzān). 14th cent.), 74a (vols, i–ii. Transcribed for S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲, not later than ah 837/1433), 79a (part of vol. ii (history of China, Europe, India). ad 1828), iii 882a (part of vol. ii (G̲h̲aznawīds, Saljūqs, K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs, Salg̲h̲urids, Ismāʿīlīs (defective at end), latter part of history of Europe and most of the history of India). Circ. ad 1850), 882b (account of India. ah 1267/1851), 883a (part of the account of India. ah 1267/1851), 883b (history of China, Europe, India. 19th cent.), Suppt. 25 (vol. i. ah 994/1586), 26 (vol. i, followed by the appendix on Ūljāytū and Abū Saʿīd. ah 1030/1821), Bag̲h̲dād Kös̲h̲kü 282 = Tauer 32 (in the Majmūʿah i Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū. Followed by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū’s continuation (d̲h̲ail) relating to ah 706/1306–7–795/1393. Transcribed in the reign of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲, therefore not later than ah 850/1447), Dāmād Ibrāhīm 919 = Tauer 33 (in the Majmūʿah i Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū. Followed by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū’s continuation. Transcribed probably in or about ah 885/1480–1), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3271 = Tauer 383 (only (Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū’s) continuation on the reigns of Ūljāytū and Abū Saʿīd. 15th cent.), Ivanow 4 (vol. i, part of Bāb ii, roughly equivalent to the portion edited by Blochet in the Gibb Memorial Series. Pictures. Late 9th/15th or early 10th/16th cent.), 5 (modern copy of the preceding), Dorn 289 (vol. i. ah 935/1528–9. Pictures), Bodleian 23 (vol. i (including Ūljāytū?). ah 944/1537), Aumer 207 (vol. i. ah 952/1545–6 and (the 3rd qism of the section on G̲h̲āzān) ah 1015/1606–7), 208 (fragments), Ḥakīm-og̲h̲lū ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā 703 = Tauer 35 (vol. i. 16th cent.), Ethé 17 (vol. i. N.d.), 282813 (vols. i–ii, lacking the reigns of Takūdār, Arg̲h̲ūn, Gaik̲h̲ātū and G̲h̲āzān but otherwise fairly complete. ah 1081–2/1671), iii 3004 (account of India only. In W.H. Morley’s hand), Flügel ii 957 (last third of vol. i (Hūlāgū to G̲h̲āzān). Old.), 958 (a supplement (from G̲h̲āzān’s death to ah 820/1417) composed for S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲. ad 1827), Rosen Inst. 7 (vol. ii, Qism 2, defective at the end and elsewhere, preceded by the Pre-Islāmic history from Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū’s Majmaʿ (Zubdat) al-tawārīk̲h̲.14 Not a good copy), Leningrad Pub. Lib. (vol. ii, Qism 2, preceded by the Pre-Islāmic history from Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū’s Majmaʿ (Zubdat) al-tawārīk̲h̲ (cf. Rosen Inst. 7 above). Two copies. See Mélanges asiatiques iii 727, nos. 9 and 10, and Rosen, Inst. p. 97), Mus. Asiat. (vol. ii, Qism 2, preceded by the Pre-Islāmic history from Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū’s Majmaʿ (Zubdat) al-tawārīk̲h̲. ah 1267/1851. See Mélanges asiatiques vi pp. 120–1, Rosen, Inst. p. 54), Dorn a.m. p. 205 (vol. i), Tashkent (see Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, p. 48, n. 2, Zapiski Vost. Otdyel. Arkh. Ob. xv 232. In this ms. the proper names occurring in genealogies are transcribed in Uigur letters), Lindesiana p. 209 no. 406 (an abridged version (?) described (j.r.a.s. 1908 p. 35) as containing the history of Pre-Islāmic Persia and Arabia, of the Jews, the Greeks, the Roman Empire to ah 717/1317, including the Popes, and of the Chinese. Circ. ad 1800), no. 364b (the account of Buddha. Circ. ad 1800), Chanykov 62 (ah 1256/ 1840), Mas̲h̲had iii p. 8215 (vol. i old, vol. ii dated ah 1300/1882–3).

Arabic version:16 Edinburgh 2017 (277 foll. (1–3 and 70–108 missing) containing the accounts of the Prophets (incomplete), Pre-Islamic Persian kings, the Prophet and the Caliphs (ah 1–122 missing), the G̲h̲aznawids. the Saljūqs and the K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs (defective at end). 70 Pictures (for which see F.R. Martin The miniature painting and painters of Persia, etc., London 1912, vol. i, figs. 12–15, T.W. Arnold Painting in Islam, Oxford 1928, pl. xix, xx, liii, E. Blochet Musulman painting, London 1929, pl. liii–lviii, T.W. Arnold and A. Grohmann The Islamic book, London 1929, pl. 41, Catalogue of the International Exhibition of Persian Art, London 1931, no. 537a, Binyon, Wilkinson and Gray Persian miniature painting, Oxford 1933, pp. 44–6). ah 707/1307–8), r.a.s. A. 27 = Morley 118 (59 foll, containing fragments of the history of the Prophet, the end of the history of China, most of the account of India and a fragment of the history of the Jews. With interlinear Persian translation. 100 Pictures (for which see jras. vi (1841), plate facing p. 20, Martin op. cit. vol. ii pi. 27–32, Blochet op. cit. pi. xlviii–lii, Catalogue of the International Exhibition of Persian Art no. 537b, B. Gray Persian painting, London 1930, pp. 40–3, Binyon, Wilkinson and Gray op. cit. pp. 45–6). ah 714/1314–15. Originally part of the same ms. as Edinburgh 20), Bodleian ms. Arab. b. 1 (part of the history of China), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3034 (see Tauer p. 93 n.).

Extracts: (1) [the account of the Turkish and Mongol tribes (i.e. Bāb 1) and the history of Chingiz Khān from Bāb 2 of vol. i with many omissions19] Sbornik lyetopisei. Istoriya Mongolov, sochinenie Rashid-Eddina. Vvedenie: o Turetshikh, i Mongolskikh plemenakh. Perevod s Persidskago, s vvedeniem i primyechaniyami, I.N. Berezina [Persian text with Russian translation by I.N. Berezin]. (In Trudy Vostochnago Otdyeleniya Imperatorskago Arkheologicheskago Obshchestva, pts. 5, 7, 13, 15, St. Petersburg 1858–88°* (i.o. lacks pt. 15).) (2) [From the accession of Ogotāy to the death of Tīmūr (Ūljāytū), the grandson of Qūbilāy, being part of Bāb 2 of vol. i] Djami el Tévarikh, histoire générale du monde par Fadl Allah Rashid ed-Din. Tarīkh-i Moubarek-i Ghazani, histoire des Mongols. Editée par E. Blochet. Tome II. Contenant l’histoire des empereurs mongols successeurs de Tchinkkiz Khaghan, London 1911°* (Gibb Memorial Series, vol. xviii, 2). (3) [the history of Hūlāgū together with the preface to the whole work and the latter part of the preface to vol. i] Histoire des Mongols de la Perse, écrite en persan par Raschid-Eldin, publiée, traduite en français, accompagnée de notes et d’un mémoire sur la vie et les ouvrages de l’auteur par M. Quatremère, Tome i (no more published), Paris 1836°* (Collection orientale. Manu­scrits inédits de la Bibliothèque Royale).20 (4) [from Hūlāgū’s arrival at Ṭūs to his capture of Bag̲h̲dād, being the bare Persian text reprinted from pp. 180–314 of the 1836 edition] Extrait de l’Histoire des Mongols de Raschid-Eldin publiée par M. Quatremère. Texte persan à l’usage des élèves de l’Ecole des Langues Orientales Vivantes, Paris 1844° (pp. 135–172). (5) [the whole of the bare Persian text of the chapter on Hūlāgū and the prefaces reprinted from pp. 4–422 of the 1836 edition] Extraits de l’Histoire des Mongols de Raschid-Eldin. Texte persan. Paris 1847°* (137 pp.).21 (6) [extracts relating to Māzandarān, Gīlān etc.] in B. Dorn Muhammedanische Quellen zur Geschichte der südlichen Küstenlānder des Kaspischen Meeres, St. Petersburg 1850–8°*, Theil iv, pp. 131–153.

Translations: (1) [Russian translation of the account of the Turkish and Mongol tribes and the history of C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān] see above Editions: (1). (2) Vollstaendige Uebersicht der aeltesten tuerkischen, tatarischen und mogholischen Voelkerstaemme nach Raschid-ud-din’s Vorgange bearbeitet von F. von Erdmann. Kazan, 1841°*. (3) [French translation of the life of Hūlāgū] see above Editions: (3). (4) Description de la Chine sous le règne de la dynastie mongole traduite du persan de Rachid-eddin et accompagnée de notes par M.J. Klaproth, Paris 1833°. (5) [extract from the account of China] V. Rosen Les manuscrits persans de l’Institut des Langues Orientales, St. Petersburg 1886°*, pp. 107–9. (6) [English translation of extracts from parts of the account of India] Elliot Bibliographical index pp. 28–47, and, in a revised version, Elliot and Dowson History of India i, 44–73 [cf. An endeavour to elucidate Rashiduddin’s geographical notices of India by H. Yule in jras, N.S. iv (1870) pp. 340–356]. (7) [English translation of Ras̲h̲id al-Dīn’s account of G̲h̲āzān’s administrative system, not indeed as given in the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ itself but as abridged therefrom in the Ḥabīb al-siyar and in ʿInāyat Allāh’s Dilgus̲h̲ā] The Institutes of Ghâzân Khan, Emperor of the Moghuls. By Captain William Kirkpatrick (in The New Asiatic Miscellany, vol. i, Calcutta 1789°*, pp. 149–226). Major H.G. Raverty’s rough ms. English translations at the India Office include Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn’s account of the Turkish and Mongol tribes, part of his account of India and various other extracts.

Descriptions: (1) Morley Descriptive catalogue, pp. 1–11; (2) Elliot Bibliographical index, pp. 1–47; (3) Elliot and Dowson History of India iii 1–21; (4) Flügel ii 957, where references are given to some of the older European sources of information; (5) Suggestions for a complete edition of the Jāmiʿu ’t-tawarikh of Rashidu ’d-Din Fadlu’llah. By E.G. Browne (in the jras. 1908, pp. 17–37); (6) Blochet Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols par Fadl Allah Rachid ad-Din, Gibb Mem. Ser. 1910 (cf. Barthold’s review in Mir Islama i (1912) pp. 56–107); (7) Browne Lit. Hist. iii pp. 68–87; (8) W. Barthold Turkestan down to the Mongol invasion, London 1928, pp. 44–8.

[Autobiographical information from the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ and from al-Majmūʿat al-Ras̲h̲īdīyah (de Slane 2324) as well as information from the Tārīk̲h̲ i Waṣṣāf, the Tārīk̲h̲ i Guzīdah, and other sources is given in the Mémoire sur la vie et les ouvrages de Raschid-eldin prefixed by Quatremère to his Histoire des Mongols de la Perse, where also will be found, on pp. cxlvii–clxxv, the Persian text of Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn’s list of his own works (see also Quatremère’s article in the Journal des savants, 1850, pp. 515–522, and the letters of Morley and D. Forbes in the jras. vi (1841) 11–41 and vii (1843) 267–272); Ibn Ḥajar al-Durar al-kāminah, Ḥaidarābād 1348–1350, iii 232; Daulats̲h̲āh 217; Ḥabībal-siyar iii, 1, 113–15; Ibn al-ʿImād S̲h̲ad̲h̲arāt al-d̲h̲ahab (Cairo 1350–1) vi 44–5; Elliot Bibliographical index pp. 1–47; Elliot and Dowson History of India iii 1–21; Flügel ii 957, where references are given to some of the older European sources of information; Brockelmann ii 200; Blochet Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols par Fadl Allah Rachid ad-Din, g.m.s. 1910, and Barthold’s review in Mir Islama, i (1912), pp. 56–107; Browne Lit. Hist. iii, pp. 68–87, etc.; W. Barthold Turkestan down to the Mongol invasion, Eng. trans., London 1928, pp. 44–8.]

§ 107. Abū ’l-Qāsim ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī b. M. al-Qās̲h̲ānī, the author of a life of Ūljāytū (see Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3019 = Tauer 382, Schefer 1419, Süssheim Das Geschenk aus der Seldschukengeschichte, p. xi, Blochet Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols, p. 113, and an article by W. Barthold in the Zapiski of the Russian Archaeological Society, vol. xviii, p. 0119), claims to be the real author of the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ (see Barthold Turkestan down to the Mongol invasion, pp. 46–7).

Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲ (?),22 compiled in Ūljāytū’s reign (ah 703/1304–716/1316), a general history from Adam to the fall of Bag̲h̲dād in a muqaddimah (Pre-Islamic history) and two qisms ((1) Pre-Islāmic kings of Persia, (2) From Muḥammad onwards): Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii p. 536 no. 6809, Berlin 368 (to ah 63/682–3).

§ 108. Nīkpay b. Masʿūd b. M. b. Masʿūd probably lived at the end of the 7th/13th and the beginning of the 8th/14th century.

A general history consisting of extracts from Ṭabarī, the Muntaẓam of Ibn al-Jauzī, Juwainī, the Niẓām al-tawārīk̲h̲ and other works and divided into four books ((1) (2) Pre-Islamic Persia, (3) Pre-Islamic Arabia, Muhammad, the Caliphs to the fall of Bag̲h̲dād, (4) dynasties contemporary with the ʿAbbāsids): Blochet i 253 (16th cent.).

Description with translations of a number of passages relating mainly to the Sāsānians: Histoire des Rois de Perse, des Khalifes, de plusieurs dynasties, et de Genghizkhan, par Nikbi ben Massoud. Par M. Silvestre de Sacy (in Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque du Roi, tome ii, Paris 1789, pp. 315–385).

§ 109. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Abū Sulaimān Dāwud b. Abī ’l-Faḍl M. Banākatī received in 701/1301–2 from the Mongol ruler G̲h̲āzān K̲h̲ān the title of Malik al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ. He died in 730/1329–30.

Raudat ūlī ’l-albāb fī tawārīk̲h̲ al-akābir wa-’l-ansāb, usually called the Tārīk̲h̲ i Banākatī, a history from Adam to the (official) accession of Abū Saʿīd in 717/1317, the date of composition, divided into nine qisms and mainly abridged from the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲: Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii p. 121 no. 2182, iii p. 499 no. 6635, Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3026 = Tauer 20 (ah 746/1345), Leyden v p. 228 no. 2634 (ah 962/1554–5), Browne Suppt. 716 (ah 980/1572–3. King’s 108), Rieu i 79b (ah 1004/1595), 80b (ah 1004/1596), iii 883b (ah 1262/1846), Blochet i 259 (ah 1013/1604–5), 260 (19th cent.), Bodleian 24 (ah 1088/1677), 25 (n.d.), ʿĀs̲h̲ir 254 = Tauer 21 (ah 1093 1682), Lindesiana p. 126 no. 368 (c. ad 1790), Bānkīpūr vi 452 (ah 1233/1817–18), Browne Coll. G. 6 (10) = Houtum-Schindler 3 (defective at both ends. ah 1272/1855–6 ?), Flügel ii 826 (“ziemlich alt”), Āṣafīyah i p. 240 no. 494, ‘Ās̲h̲ir p. 114 no. 254 Berlin 369, Dorn a.m. p. 143, Ethé 18, Majlis 255, Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3088, r.a.s. P. 26–7 = Morley 13–14, Salemann-Rosen p. 16 no. 285.

Edition (Qism viii only): Abdallae Beidavaei [sic] Historia Sinensisedita, Latinè quoque reddita ab A. MulleroBerlin 167723 (see Zenker i 857), Jena 1689°.

English Translation (Qism viii only): A Chinese Chronicle by Abdalla of Beyza [sic] Translatedby S. Weston. London 1820°*. Major H.G. Raverty’s rough ms. translations at the India Office include some extracts from Banākatī.

Latin Translation (Qism viii only): see above under Edition.

French Translation (small portion of Qism viii only); Quatremère Histoire des Mongols de la Perse, Paris 1836° pp. lxxxvi–xc.

Descriptions: (1) Hammer-Purgstall Wiener Jahrbücher vol. lxix, Anz. Bl. p. 33, (2) Elliot and Dowson History of India iii 55–9, (3) Browne Lit. Hist. iii 100–3, (4) Barthold Turkestan London 1928, p. 49.

[Autobiographical statements in the Rauḍat ūlī ’l-alhāb (see Rieu i 79b); Daulats̲h̲āh pp. 227–9; Ḥabīb al-siyar iii, 1, p. 113 Haft iqlīm, no. 1531; Quatremère Histoire des Mongols de la Perse, p. xcix; Hammer-Purgstall Geschichte der Ilchane ii p. 267; Rieu i 79b; Ency. Isl. under Banākitī.]

§ 110. Ṣafī al-Dīn M. b. ʿAlī known as Ibn al-Ṭiqṭaqā (for whom see Brockelmann ii 161, Ency. Isl. under Ibn al-Ṭiḳtaḳā and the introductions of Ahlwardt and Derenbourg to their editions of the Fak̲h̲rī) visited al-Mauṣil in 701/1301 and while there wrote and dedicated to the Governor of the town, Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn ʿĪsā, his Kitāb al-Fak̲h̲rī,24 of which the first part (less than a quarter of the whole) treats of the duties of a king and the second is a history of the Caliphate to the fall of Bag̲h̲dād, based mainly on Ibn al-At̲h̲īr. The Arabic text was published at Gotha by W. Ahlwardt in 1860, at Paris by H. Derenbourg in 1895, and at Cairo in 1317/1900 and 1923. A French translation by E. Amar appeared at Paris in 1910.

In 723/1323–724/1324 Hindūs̲h̲āh b. Sanjar b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ṣāḥibī al-Kīrānī wrote his Tajārib al-salaf as an offering for the Hazāraspid Atābak of Luristān, Nuṣrat al-Dīn Aḥmad, who reigned from 696/1296 to 733/1333. It is for the most part a translation of the historical portion of the Kitāb al-Fak̲h̲rī. Beginning with a brief account of the Prophet, it follows the original fairly closely for half its length, but in the second half contains a good deal of supplementary information, relating especially to the Fāṭimids, Buwaihids, and Saljūqs.

Tajārib al-salaf, Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii p. 191 no. 2432, Majlis 533 (ah 1280/1863–4), Browne Coll. G. 3 (ah 1286/1870), Blochet i 373 (ah 1304/1886).

Description: The Tajaribu’s-Salaf, a Persian version of the Arabic Kitabu’l-Fakhri, composed by Hindushah ibn Sanjar as-Sahibi al-Kirani in 723/1323. By E.G. Browne (in Centenary Supplement to the jras., Oct. 1924, pp. 245–254).

§ 111. Ḥamd Allāh b. Abī Bakr b. Aḥmad b. Naṣr Mustaufī Qazwīnī, a member of the old Mustaufī family of Qazwīn, whose great-grandfather was Mustaufī of al-ʿIrāq and whose brother was Nāʾib i Dīwān i Wizārat, enjoyed the patronage of the great Wazīr Ras̲h̲id al-Dīn Faḍl Allāh (see p. 54 supra), who at one time put him in charge of the finances of Qazwīn, Abhar, Zanjān, and Ṭārimain. In addition to the historical works mentioned below he wrote (in 740/1339–1340) the well-known cosmographical and geographical work Nuzhat al-qulūb.

(1)
Ẓafar-nāmah, a metrical history of Islām in 75,000 verses completed ah 735/1334–5, divided into three kitābs or qisms ((1) the Arabs (2) the Persians (3) the Mongols to Abū Saʿīd’s time) and forming a sort of sequel to the S̲h̲āh-nāmah: Ḥ.K̲h̲. iv p. 176 no. 8018, Rieu Suppt. 263 (ah 807/ 1405, with the S̲h̲āh-nāmah on the margin). Browne Coll. G. 19 (first 6,885 verses of the part relating to the Mongols. Transcribed circ. ad 1917 from Rieu Suppt. 263).

Descriptions: (1) Blochet Introduction à l’Histoire des Mongols pp. 106–8, (2) Browne Lit. Hist. iii 95–8.

(2)
Tārīk̲h̲ i Guzīdah, a general history to ah 730/139–30 the date of composition, dedicated to K̲h̲wājah G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Muḥammad, the son and successor of Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Faḍl Allāh, based mainly on the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ and divided into a fātiḥah, (on the creation), six bābs ((1) Prophets and sages, (2) Pre-Islāmic Persian kings, (3) From Muḥammad to the Banū ʿAbbās, (4) Islamic dynasties in 12 faṣls, (5) Imāms and Mujtahids, Qurʾān-Readers, Traditionists, S̲h̲aik̲h̲s, ʿUlamāʾ, Poets, (6) Account of Qazwīn) and a k̲h̲ātimah (genealogical tables, absent from most mss.): Ḥ.K̲h̲. v p. 177 no. 10644, Salemann-Rosen p. 13 no. 153 (ah 813/1410–11. See Barthold Turkestan p. 50 n. 6), Aumer 205 (lacks Bāb 6 and K̲h̲ātimah. Other lacunae, ah 823/1420), 206 (lacunae. ah 948/1541–2), Bodleian 26 (ah 847/1443), 27 (ah 851/1447), 28 (mostly ah 953/1546), 29 (old), 30 (n.d.), Leningrad Mus. Asiat. No. 578 (ah 847/1443. See Browne in jras. 1900 p. 726), Edinburg 406 (defective. ah 848/1444), 185 (ah 993/1584), ‘Āṭif 1856 = Tauer 22 (ah 849/1445), Asʿad 2169 = Tauer 23 (ah 854/1450), Rosen Institut 6 (defective at beginning ah 855/1451–2), Browne Coll. G. 4 (11) (ah 857/1453. The original of the Gibb Memorial facsimile), G. 5 (12) (ah 1293 1876), Fātiḥ 4460 = Tauer 24 (ah 859/1455), 4459 = Tauer 27 (ah 900/1495), Blochet i 264 (ah 872/1467), 265 (ah 943/1536), 266 (defective. Mid 16th cent.), 267 (defective at end. Late 17th cent.), 268 (18th cent.), Köprülü-Zādah M. = Tauer 25 (ah 886/1481), Rieu i 80b (ah 890/1485), 82a (ah 924/1518) 82a (ah 1009/1600), 82b (late 16th cent.), 82b (16th cent.) 82b (ah 1216/1803), iii 884a (defective. Circ. ad 1850), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3037 = Tauer 26 (15th cent.), 3072 = Tauer 29 (ah 994/1586), Dāmād Ibrāhīm 904 = Tauer 28 (ah 955/1548), Flügel ii 827 (ah 964/Feb. 1557), Browne Pers. Cat. 40 (ah 964/May 1557), 41 (ah 990/1582), Suppt. 246 (vol. i, ah 1225/1810), 248 (n.d. King’s 114), Ethé 19 (defective. ah 1043/1634), 20 (lacks K̲h̲ātimah. N.d.), Bānkīpūr vi 453 (17th cent.), 454 (hopelessly damaged. 16th cent.), Lindesiana p. 149 no. 157 (ah 1019/1610–11), Ivanow 6 (defective at end. 11th cent. h.), Āṣafīyah i p. 228 no. 449 (ad 1827), Būhār 1 (19th cent.), Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 30, Cairo p. 507 ((1) lacuna. N.d. (2) N.d.), Dorn a.m. p. 659 (cf. p. 100) (with a continuation to ah 794/1391–2 by Zain al-Dīn b. Ḥamd Allāh), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 3 (May 1926) p. 57), Majlis 233, Romaskewicz p. 4 no. 1213.

Edition: The Ta’ríkh-i-Guzídaof Ḥamdu’lláh Mustawfí-i-Qazwíníreproduced in facsimile from a manuscript dated ah 857 (ad 1453) [i.e. Browne Coll. G. 4 (11)] with an introduction by Edward G. Browne, Leyden and London 1910°* (Gibb Memorial Series, vol. xiv, 1). (For the indexes to this text see below under Translations.)

Extracts: (1) [Bāb iv (minus Faṣl 12) only] Târîkhè Gozîdè par Hamd Ollâh Mostooufi Qazvînî. Les dynasties persanes pendant la période musulmane, depuis les Saffârîdes jusques et y compris les Mongols de la Perse en 1330 de notre ère. Texte persan completet traduction française en regardPar J. Gantin. Tome i (no more published), Paris 1903°*. (2) [Bāb iv, Faṣl 2 (the Sāmānids)] Description topographique et historique de Boukhara par Mohammed Nerchakhy, suivie de textes relatifs à la Transoxiane. Texte persan publié par G. Schefer, Paris 1892°*, pp. 99–111. (3) [extract relating to the conflict of the Sāmānids with the Sīmjūrids] Barthold Turkestan v epokhu mongolskago nashestviya, St. Petersburg 1900°*, Texts pp. 11–12, 91–2. (4) [extracts on Ḥasan i Ṣabbāḥ and the sayings of Buzurjmihr] Salemann and Shukovski Persische Grammatik, Berlin 1889°*, 1*–9* and 41*–48*.

Translations: (1) The Ta’ríkh-i-Guzídaabridged in English from a manuscript dated ah 857 (ad 1453) by Edward G. Browne, with indices of the fac-simile text by R.A. Nicholson, Leyden and London 1913°* (Gibb Memorial Series, vol. xiv, 2). (2) Rough draft of an English translation made by G. le Strange at S̲h̲īrāz in 1879–1880, Browne Suppt. 247. (3) [French translation of Bāb iv (minus Faṣl 12)] see above under Extracts: (1). (4) [French translation of Bāb iv, Faṣl 6 (the Saljūqs) and part of Faṣl 9 (the Ismāʿīlīs of Persia)] Histoire des Seldjoukides, extraite du Tarikhi Guzideh ou Histoire choisie d’Hamd-Allah Mustaufi, traduite et accompagnée de notes par M. Defrémery (in the Journal asiatique, 4e série, tome xi (Jan.–June 1848) pp. 417–462, tome xii (July-Dec. 1848) pp. 259–279, 334–370, tome xiii (Jan.–June 1849) pp. 15–55). (5) [English translation of part of Bāb v, Fasl 6] Biographies of Persian Poets contained in Ch. v, § 6, of the Táríkh-i-GuzídaTranslated by E.G. Browne (in the jras. 1900, pp. 721–762, 1901, pp. 1–32). (6) [French translation of Bāb vi (minus Faṣl 1)] Description historique de la ville de Kazvin, extraite du Tarīkhé Guzidèh de Hamd Allah Mustôfi Kazvini, par M.C. Barbier de Meynard (in the Journal Asiatique, 5e série, tome x (July-Dec. 1857) pp. 257–308). Major H.G. Raverty’s rough ms. translations at the India Office include extracts from the Tārīk̲h̲ i Guzīdah.

Descriptions: (1) Elliot Bibliographical index 75–80, (2) Elliot and Dowson History of India iii 60–66 (both of these works contain a translated extract on Sulṭān Mahmūd of G̲h̲aznī) (3) Browne Lit. Hist. iii 87–95, (4) Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, pp. 49–50, (5) M. Nāẓim The life and times of Sulṭān Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna. Cambridge 1931, pp. 10–11.

[Tārīk̲h̲ i Guzīdah pp. 3–8, 598, and, for his ancestors, pp. 839–842; Nuzhat al-qulūb, author’s preface; Ḥabīb al-siyar iii, 1, p. 126; Haft iqlīm no. 1250; Rieu i 80–1, Suppt. pp. 172–3 Blochet Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols p. 106; Browne Lit. Hist. iii 87–100; Ency. Isl. under al-Ḳazwīnī.]

§ 112. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-S̲h̲abānkāraʾī25 was a poet and a panegyrist of the Mongol Sulṭān Abū Saʿīd’s wazīr G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Muḥammad,26 to whom in 733/1332–3, when more than forty years old, he dedicated his Majmaʿ al-ansāb. The wazīr’s house was pillaged after his death in 736/1336 and the book was lost, but the author wrote it afresh and completed it in 743/1342–3.

Majmaʿ al-ansāb or Jāmiʿ al-ansāb, a sketch of general history to Abū Saʿīd’s death ah 736/1335: Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (autograph. See Barthold Turkestan p. 46, n. 5), Yeñī 909 = Tauer 30 (15th cent.), Rieu i 83a (lacks sections on the G̲h̲aznawids and on Luristān. 16th cent.), iii 1020b (extract only. Circ. ad 1850), Lindesiana p. 190 no. 791 (ah 1080/1669–70), Blochet i 269 (def. at both ends. 17th cent.), Ivanow 7 (17th cent.), Bodleian 31 (def.), Browne Pers. Cat. 42 (1st half only), Ethé 21, 22 (def.), r.a.s. P. 28 = Morley 15.

Descriptions: (1) Browne Lit. Hist. iii 103, (2) M. Nāẓim The life and times of Suliṭān Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna, Cambridge 1931, P. 11.

[Autobiographical statements of the author (see Rieu i 83, Ethé 21).]

§ 113. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusain b. ʿAlī, known as (mus̲h̲tahir bi-) ʿAlāʾ al-Qazwīnī al-Hilālī, began in D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 778/April 1377 and completed in S̲h̲aʿbān 779/December 1377 his Manāhij al-ṭālibīn fī maʿārif al-ṣādiqīn, a. general history in three qisms ((1) the Creation, (2) the prophets and Caliphs, forming the great bulk of the work, (3) dynasties contemporary with and later than the ʿAbbāsids) extending to the year 777/1375–6 in the reign of Abū ’l-Fawāris S̲h̲āh S̲h̲ujāʿ, the Muẓaffarid, for whom it was written: Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3467 = Tauer 31 (ah 781/1379, written by the author’s nephew), Ethé 23 (ah 1025/1616), Dresden 383 (ah 1013/1604).

§ 114. K̲h̲usrau b. ʿĀbid, called Ibn i Muʿīn, Abarqūhī wrote in 808/1405–6

Firdaus al-tawārīk̲h̲, in two “sections” ((1) (a) the Creation, Pre-Islāmic prophets etc., (b) Pre-Islāmic Kings of Persia, (2) (a) Muḥammad and the Caliphs, (b) dynasties contemporary with the ʿAbbāsids, (c) the Mongols to Abū Saʿīd’s reign, (d) history of various dynasties subsequent to Abū Saʿīd) having at the end of the history of the Caliphs alphabetically arranged notices of theologians, physicians etc., and at the end of the work a biographical dictionary of Arabic and Persian poets: Ḥ.K̲h̲. iv, p. 413, no. 9014, Dorn 267 (apparently lacking “Section” 2, pt. (d). Autograph ?).

Description: Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, pp. 54–5.

§ 115. In 815/1412 and 816/1413 an unknown author living in Fārs at the court of Tīmūr’s grandson Iskandar b. ʿUmar S̲h̲aik̲h̲, the Governor of Fārs, wrote

A general history to ah 815/1412 (called by Barthold “The Anonym of Iskandar”) based chiefly on the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ and the Tārīk̲h̲ i Guzīdah but containing specially full information about the legendary history of the C̲h̲ag̲h̲atāy k̲h̲āns and providing a valuable contemporary record of Tīmūr etc.: Rieu iii 1062 (defective. ah 867/1463), Leningrad Mus. Asiat. 566b, c (see Barthold Turkestan p. 54, n. 3).

Description: Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, p. 54.

§ 116. Jaʿfar b. M. Ḥusainī composed in 820/1417 and dedicated to S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ (reigned 807/1404–850/1447) his

Concise general history from the Creation to ah 817/1414: Ivanow 8 (ah 988/1580).

§ 117. S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn ʿAbd Allāh27 b. Luṭf Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd al-K̲h̲wāfī, known as Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū, was born, according to ʿAbd al-Razzāq Samarqandī, at Harāt and educated at Hamadān He was an expert chess-player and was an intimate friend of Tīmūr’s. In 817/1414–15 he was ordered by S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ to write a work on geography.28 In 820/1417 he was instructed by the same ruler to combine in one work the most important histories of the world and in 828/1424–5, again by order of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲, he issued a new edition of the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲. In 826/1423 he had begun to write a history of the world in four volumes29 for Prince Bāysung̲h̲ur, but before completing it he died at Zanjān on 3 S̲h̲awwāl 833/25 June 1430.

(1)
Tārīk̲h̲ i S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲, a history of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s reign to ah 816/1413: Ethé 171.
(2)
Majmūʿah i Hāfiẓ i Abrū,30 the above-mentioned combination of the most important histories of the world, viz. Balʿamī’s translation of Ṭabarī (see p. 46 supra), Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn’s Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ (see p. 55 supra), and Niẓām i S̲h̲āmī’s Ẓafar-nāmah (cf. Rieu i 170, Tauer 32–431) with supplements by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū (viz. (a) introduction and index to the whole work, (b) the Tārīk̲h̲ i Ṭabarī, (c) D̲h̲ail i Tārīk̲h̲ i M. i Ṭabarī, a continuation by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū from al-Muqtadir to al-Mustaʿṣim, (d) introduction and index to the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲, (e) the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲, (f) Tārīk̲h̲ wa-nasab i Mulūk i Kurt bi-’l-ijmāl, by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū, (g) short sections by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū on the pādis̲h̲āhī i Ṭug̲h̲ā-Tīmūr, the pādis̲h̲āhī i Amīr Walī b. S̲h̲. ʿAlī Hindū, the Tārīk̲h̲ i umarā i Sarbadārīyah …, and the Tārīk̲h̲ i Amīr Arg̲h̲ūn-S̲h̲āh …, (h) D̲h̲ail i Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh,32 a continuation by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū from ah 706/1306–7 to ah 795/1392–3, i.e. to the point at which Niẓām i S̲h̲āmī begins, (i) a history of the Muẓaffarids by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū, (j) the Ẓafar-nāmah of Niẓām i Shāmī, (k) D̲h̲ail i kitāb i Ẓafar-nāmah i S̲h̲āmī, a continuation by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū to the death of Tīmūr, (l) history of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ to 819/1416 by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū): Bag̲h̲dād Kös̲h̲kü 282 = Tauer 32. Transcribed in the reign of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲, therefore not later than ah 850/1447. 20 Pictures in the Tārīk̲h̲i Ṭabarī), Dāmād Ibrāhīm 919 = Tauer 33 (transcribed, in part at least, ah 885/1480–1), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3267 = Tauer 34 (only the Ẓafar-nāmah and Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū’s D̲h̲ail. ah 828/1425), Ḥakīm-Og̲h̲lū ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā 703 = Tauer 35 (only vol. i of the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ preceded by the introduction and index. 16th cent.).
(3)
Majmaʿ al Tawārīk̲h̲ (Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲, see below), a history from Adam to ah 830/1426–7 written for Prince Bāysung̲h̲ur and divided into arbāʿ ((1) Pre-Islāmic prophets and early Persian kings, (2) Muḥammad and the Caliphs to al-Mustaʿṣim, (3) Persia after the fall of the Caliphate, the Saljūqs and the Mongols to the death of the Īl-K̲h̲ān Abū Saʿīd, (4) bearing the independent title Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲i Bāysung̲h̲urī and divided into two parts ((a) life of Tīmūr, being the text of Niẓām i S̲h̲āmī’s Ẓafar-nāmah corrected and enlarged in places together with (b) S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s reign to ah 830/1426–7, being probably a recast version of the Tārīk̲h̲ i S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ (see above) extended for 11 years)): Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii p. 535, Blochet i 270 (Rubʿ i. ah 829/1425), Browne Coll. G. 9 (12) (Rubʿ ii. ah 829/1426), Dorn 268 (Rubʿ i–ii. Fine copy, probably contemp. with author), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3353 = Tauer 36 (Rubʿ i and bāb 1 (Muḥammad) of Rubʿ ii. Bears S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s seal), 3035 = Tauer 37 (Rubʿ ii, bābs 2 (K̲h̲ulafāʾ Rās̲h̲idūn), 3 (Umaiyads), 4 (ʿAbbāsids)), Fātiḥ 4371/1 = Tauer 38 (Rubʿ iv. Prom S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s library), Rieu Suppt. 27 (Rubʿ i, imperfect. 15th cent.), Murād 1441b = Tauer 39 (Rubʿ iii. A defective brouillon), Rawān Kös̲h̲kü 1529 = Tauer 40 (Rubʿ ii, Bāb 1. ah 1043/1633–4), Leningrad Mus. Asiat. No. 566 (Rubʿ i only. Followed by Qism ii of the Jāmiʿ al-Tawārīk̲h̲ (see Rosen Institut pp. 54 seq.), Rosen Institut 7 (Rubʿ i only. Followed by Qism ii of the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲. “Assez ancien” (see Rosen op. cit. p. 82)), Bodleian 161 (Rubʿ iv, part 2 (containing the years ah 807–830). Poor ms., see Ency. Isl. under ʿAbd al-Razzāq Samarqandī), Flügel ii 952 (small fragment (20 foll.) of Rubʿ iii containing the years 624–647. ad 1835), Majlis 257 (ah 1297/1880).

Extracts: Dorn Muhammedanische Quellen zur Geschichte dersüdlichen Küstenländer des Kaspischen Meeres, St. Petersburg 1850–8°*, Theil iv pp. 426–455.

Descriptions: (1) Elliot and Dowson History of India iv 1–5, (2) W. Barthold Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū i ego sochineniya (in al-Muẓaffarīyah, Sbornik statei uchenikov Professora BaronaRozena, St.Petersburg 1897, pp. 1–28), (3) Vorbericht über die Edition des Ẓafarnāma von Niẓām Sāmī und der wichtigsten Teile der Geschichtswerke Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū’s. Von Felix Tauer (in Archiv Orientální, vol. iv, No. 2 (Prague, August 1932) pp. 250–6).

[Autobiographical statements in the author’s geographical work (cf. Rieu i 421–4) and his Majmaʿ al-tawārīkh; Mujmal i Faṣīḥī under ah 833 (translated in Browne Lit. Hist, iii 426); Rieu i 421–3, Suppt. pp. 16–17; W. Barthold Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū i ego sochineniya (in al-Muẓaffarīyah, Sbornik statei uchenikov Professora Barona Viktora Romanovicha Rozena, St. Petersburg 1897, pp. 1–28 (cf. Zapiski of the Russian Archæological Society xviii, pp. 0138–0144); Ency. Isl. under Ḥāfiz-i Abrū (Barthold); Browne Lit. Hist. iii 424–6.]

§ 118. M. b. al-amīr al-kabīr Amīr Faḍl Allāh al-Mūsawī was a native of K̲h̲urāsān.

Tārīk̲h̲ i k̲h̲airāt, or, as it has also been called (incorrectly according to Barthold33), Aṣaḥḥ al-tawārīk̲h̲, a history from the Creation to Tīmūr’s death ah 807/1405 begun ah 831/1428 but completed or supplemented much later, since, in the b.m. ms. at least, S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲’s death, ah 850/1447, is mentioned, and divided into a muqaddimah, three qisms, subdivided respectively into four, eight and twelve ṭabaqahs, and a mak̲h̲laṣ: Bodleian 32 (ah 843/1440), Tark̲h̲ān K̲h̲adījah Sulṭān 224 = Tauer 41 (ah 895/1490), Rieu Suppt. 423 (defective at beginning and end. 16th cent.).

§ 119. Muḥammad Bihāmad-K̲h̲ānī was the son of Bihāmad K̲h̲ān. afterwards Malik al-S̲h̲arq Malik Bihāmad, feoffee of Īric̲h̲ (Ērac̲h̲h) in Būndēlkhaṇḍ. Like his father he was successful as a military commander, but having become a disciple of Yūsuf Budh of Īric̲h̲, a celebrated saint, he saw the Prophet in a vision and devoted himself to a religious life.

Tārīk̲h̲ i Muḥammadī, a general history from the time of the Prophet (after whom the work is called) to ah 842/1438–9, and an original authority (but dealing mainly with the local dynasty of Kālpī) for the period subsequent to ah 755/1354: Rieu i 84a (17th cent.).

[Autobiog. in Tārīk̲h̲ i Muḥammadī fol. 478 seq.]

§ 120. Faṣīḥ al-Dīn Aḥmad b. M. known as Faṣīḥ34 al-K̲h̲wāfī was born at Harāt in Jumādā i 777/1375. He served both Sulṭān S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ (ah 807/1404 850/1447) and his son Mīrzā Bāysunqur (d. 837/1433) as dīwān (minister of finance).

Mujmal i Faṣīḥī, a valuable compendium of Islāmic history and biography to ah 845/1441–2 in a muqaddimah (Adam to the Prophet’s birth), two maqālahs ((1) to the Hijrah, (2) ah 1–845) and a k̲h̲ātimah (on Harāt): Browne Coll. G.7 (10)35 (cf. Le Muséon iiie série, i, 1, p. 49 foll. Lacks ah 718–840 and K̲h̲ātimah. Very old, perhaps contemp.), G. 8 (10) = Houtum-Schindler 5 (lacks ah 834–844 and K̲h̲ātimah. Modern), Bānkīpūr vi 455 (lacks foll. 2–15. ah 993/1585), Rosen Inst. 8 (lacks K̲h̲ātimah). Ivanow 9 (lacuna between ah 395 and 536. ad 1853), Leningrad Musée Asiatique (transcript of Rosen Inst. 8: vid. Rosen’s Inst. Cat. p. 113), Tiflis (see Barthold Turkestan p. 55 n. 5, where a reference is given to Berzhe Kratki Katalog Tiflisskoi Publ. Bibl., Tiflis 1861, p. 1033).

Descriptions: (1) B. Dorn in Bulletin de la classe historico-philologique de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg vol. ii (1845), pp. 1–42 (with translations of extracts), (2) E.G. Browne in Le Muséon, iiie série, tome i, pp. 48–78 (with translations of extracts), (3) Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, p. 55.

[Mujmal under some at least of the years 777, 796, 807, 818, 821, 825, 827, 828, 832, 836, 838, 841, 842, 843, 845; Dorn l.c.; Rosen Inst. p. 112; Le Muséon l.c., pp. 48–9, 51–2; Bānkīpūr vi 455; Browne Lit. Hist. iii 426–8.]

§ 121. Ḥasan b. S̲h̲ihāb b. Ḥusain b. Tāj al-Dīn Yazdī, who tells us that he was the author of a metrical history of the Saljūqs, wrote for G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn M. b. Bāysung̲h̲ur b. S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ his

Jāmiʿ al-tawārik̲h̲ i Ḥasanī, an unimportant history from the Creation to ah 855/1451 in six qisms: Fātiḥ 4307 = Tauer 42 (ah 859/1455).

§ 122. S̲h̲ukr Allāh b. S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad b. Zain al-Dīn Zakī al-Rūmī, an Anatolian who was in the Ottoman service from his 22nd year, was on two occasions sent on special missions by the Sulṭān Murād ii (reigned 824/1421–855/1451), once to Ibrāhīm Bey, the Qaramānid, and again in 852/1448–9 to Mīrzā Jahān-S̲h̲āh, of the Black Sheep. The Sulṭān Muḥammad (ii) Fātiḥ (reigned 855/1451–886/1481) is said to have treated him with great consideration. He was 73 years of age in 851/1456–7 when he completed his Bahjat al-tawārīk̲h̲, and he died at Stambul in 894/1488–9. Works of his entitled Anīs al-ʿārifīn and Minhāj al-ras̲h̲ād are mentioned by Ḥājjī K̲h̲alīfah.

Bahjat al-tawārīk̲h̲, a concise general history to the accession of the Sulṭān M. b. Murād (ah 855/1451) in 13 bābs: Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii p. 73, no. 1957, Flügel ii 828 (ah 936/1529–30), Rosen Inst. 9 (ah 938/1531–2), Blochet i 271 (ah 940/1533), 272 (defective at beginning. ah 955/1548), 273 (ah 987/1579), 274 (ah 1014/1605), 275 (17th cent.), Rieu Suppt. 28 (ah 949/1542), iii 884a (ah 1263/1847), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 2990 = Tauer 43 (16th cent.), Fātiḥ 4203 = Tauer 44 (16th cent.), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲-mānīyah 3059 = Tauer 45 (17th cent.), ʿUmūmīyah 4902 = Tauer 46 (17th cent.), Bodleian 34, Gotha 362 (in the Ergänzungsheft), Leyden iii p. 2 no. 907 (ch. 1–6 and 13), Rawān Kös̲h̲kü 1538 = Tauer 47, 1539 (2) = Tauer 48.

Edition of Bāb xiii (Ottoman history) prepared by Th. Seif: Mitteilungen zur Osmanischen Geschichte ii (1925), pp. 63 seq.

Extracts: Hammer-Purgstall Sur les origines russes, St. Petersburg 1827°*, pp. 105–9 (French translation, ibid. pp. 44–8).

Turkish translation completed ah 937/1531 by Muṣṭafā “Fārisī”: Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii p. 73, no. 1957 ult. For mss. (at Berlin, Paris, Cairo (4 copies) and Stambul (at least 4 copies)) see Babinger Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen p. 20.

Descriptions: (1) Hammer-Purgstall Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches ix 177–80, (2) Babinger Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen pp. 19–20.

[al-S̲h̲aqāʾiq al-Nuʿmānīyah i 102, Rescher’s translation (Constantinople 1927) pp. 56–7; Rieu iii 884; Babinger Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen pp. 19–20, where references will be found to several Turkish authorities.]

§ 123. M. b. K̲h̲āwand-S̲h̲āh b. Maḥmūd, known as Mīr K̲h̲wānd, belonged to a family of Saiyids long settled in Buk̲h̲ārā, but his father, the learned and saintly Burhān al-Dīn K̲h̲āwand-S̲h̲āh, migrated to Balk̲h̲ and died there. Mīr K̲h̲wānd was born in 837/1433, spent most of his life in Harāt, where he enjoyed the patronage of Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr, and died on 2 Rajab 903/24 Feb. 1498 at the age of sixty-six.

Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ fī sīrat al-anbiyāʾ wa-’l-mulūk wa-’l-k̲h̲ulafāʾ, a general history in a muqaddimah, seven volumes or qisms ((1) From the Creation to Yazdajird, (2) Muḥammad and the first four Caliphs, (3) The Twelve Imāms and the Umaiyad and ʿAbbāsid Caliphs, (4) Dynasties contemporary with the ʿAbbāsids, (5) C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān and his successors, (6) Tīmūr and his successors to the death of Abū Saʿīd, ah 873/1469,36 (7) Sulṭān Ḥusain and his sons to ah 929/1522–3, agreeing with the corresponding part of the Ḥabīb al-siyar and apparently written by K̲h̲wānd-Amīr (see Rieu i 93)), and a k̲h̲ātimah, sometimes called vol. viii (geographical, with additions probably by K̲h̲wānd-Amīr): Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii p. 501 no. 6651, Browne Pers. Cat. 44–56 (of which 45 (vols. iv–v) was collated, so far at least as vol. iv is concerned, ah 901/1495 in the presence of the author, 44 (vols. i–iii) is dated ah 980/1572, 51 (vols. i–iii) ah 994/1586, 50 (vol. vi) was written circ. ah 1000/1591–2, 55 (vol. vi) is dated ah 1028/1619, and 56 (K̲h̲ātimah) ah 1049/1639. Vol. vii is missing), Suppt. 720–4 (of which 723 (selections from earlier period. ah 1199/1784–5) and 724 (seven volumes, i dated ah 1003/1594–5 and v dated ad 1595–6) belong to King’s College), Hand-list 1265 (Nūd̲h̲ar to Yazīd i, defective), 1266 (vol. iii and K̲h̲ātimah), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3173 = Tauer 50 (vols. i–v. ah 930/1524–934/1528, corrected by K̲h̲wānd-Amīr. Superb copy), 3178 = Tauer 63 (vols. i–ii. ah 999/1591), 3174 = Tauer 70 (vols. i–ii. 16th cent.), and fifteen other mss., for which see Tauer 71–3, 81–4, 88, 90, 96, 98–100, 111–12, Dāmād Ibrāhīm 906 = Tauer 51 (vols. i–iii. ah 934/1527. Fine copy), 905 = Tauer 66, Ethé 24–75 (of which 28 (vols. i–vi) is dated ah 972/1565–978/1570, 25 (vols. i–vi and K̲h̲ātimah) ah 976/1569 and 42 (vols. ii–iii) ah 987/1579), ii 3005–8, Ross and Browne 134, Lālah-lī 2047 = Tauer 52 (vols. i–iii. ah 973/1565), 2048 = Tauer 53 (vols. iv–vi. 16th cent.), 2033 = Tauer 115 (K̲h̲ātimah only), Dorn 269–80 (of which 275 (vol. v) and 278 (vol. vi) are dated ah 975/1567–8, 272 (vols. iii–iv) and 277 (vol. vi and K̲h̲ātimah) ah 977/1569–70, 271 (vol. ii) ah 981/1573 and 269 (vols. i–ii) ah 992/1584. 273 (vol. iv) contains Pictures), Bodleian 36–68 (of which 47 (vols. iii–v) is dated ah 978/1570, 52 (vol. iv) and 58 (vol. v) ah 989/1581), r.a.s. P. 29–44 = Morley 16–31 (of which P. 43 (vols. iv–vi) is dated ah 978–9/1570–1, P. 42 (vol. vi) ah 991/1583, P. 39 (vol. v) ah 995/1586, P. 40 (vol. vi) ah 996/1587, P. 32 (vol. ii) and P. 35 (vol.iii) ah 1005/1596, and P. 37 (vols, i-iii) ah 1022–4/1613–15. P. 38 (vol. iv) contains Pictures), ‘Umūmīyah 5261 = Tauer 54 (vol. i. ah 979/1571), Flügel ii 830 (vols. i–vi. ah 979–80/1571–2), 831 (vols. i–ii. Not later than ad 1624), 832 (vols. iv–v. ah 1044/1635 and ah 1068/1657), 833 (vol. vi. ah 1258/1843), Blochet i 276–311 (of which 284 (vol. ii) and 294 (vols. iii and vi) are dated ah 978/1570–1, 295 (vol. iv), 305 (extracts from vol. v and conclusion (?)) and 307 (vol. vi) ah 980/1572, 285 (vol. ii) ah 983/1575, 306 (vols. v and vi) ah 986–8/1578–80, and 299 (vol. v) is assigned to the 16th century. 281 (vol. i. 17th cent.) contains Pictures (described in Revue des Bibliothèques, 1900, p. 295) and 308 (vol. vi and K̲h̲ātimah ah 1013/1604 and 1004/1595) illuminations (described in Revue des Bibliothèques, 1898, p. 138)), Decourdemanche s.p. 1860–1 (vols. i (ah 1078/1667–8) and iii–iv (ah 1018/1609–10)), s.p. 1862 (vols. i–iii. 16th cent.), s.p. 1863 (vols. iv–vi. 16th cent.), Lund Suppt. 55–6 (vols. i–vii, of which i is dated ah 981/1573–4 and iv ah 995/1586–7), Rieu i 87b–96a. (of which four 89b (vol. iii), 91b (vol. v), 94b (vols. i–ii), 946 (vols. iii–iv), are assigned to the 16th century, one, 93b (K̲h̲ātimah, imperfect), is dated ah 981/1573, another, 94a (vols. i–ii), is dated ah 987–8/1579–81, and one, 92b (vol. vi. ah 1030/1621), contains Pictures), i 417a–418a, ii 843a (1st portion of vol. vi. ah 999/1591), iii 885a. (extracts), 1064b–1065a (of which two volumes, i and vi, are assigned to the 16th century), Ḥamīdīyah 946–7 = Tauer 55–6 (vols. i–vi and K̲h̲ātimah. ah 987–8/1579–80. Transcribed from a ms. collated in the presence of the author by Maqṣūd b. Humām al-Dīn called K̲h̲wāndamīr), Bānkīpūr vi 456 (vols. i–iii. ah 1015/1606–7), 457 (vol. i. 16th cent.), 458 (vol. i), 459 (vol. ii. ah 1054/1644), 460 (vols. iv–v. ah 994 1586, but most of v is in a later hand), 461 (vol. vi and K̲h̲ātimah ah 1226/1811), Rehatsek pp. 88–90 no. 28 (vol. i. ah 996/1588), no. 29 (vol. v. N.d.), no. 30 (vol. vi. N.d.), no. 31 (vol. vii and K̲h̲ātimah. ah 1113/1701), no. 32 (K̲h̲ātimah. ah 1207/1793), Mas̲h̲had iii p. 83 no. 32 (ending with death of ʿAlī. ah 998), p. 84 nos. 33 and 34 (two fragments), Edinburgh 186–8 (vols. i–iii, ah 1001/1592, vols. iv–vi and K̲h̲ātimah, ah 999/1590), 71 (ah 1057/1647), Leyden iii p. 3 no. 909 (vol. vi. ah 1000/1591–2), v p. 285 no. 2722 (vol. i. Groningen), Upsala 237–42 (vols. i–vii of which iii and iv bear the dates ah 1001/1593 and 1002/1593–4), Calcutta Madrasah 122 (vol. i. 17th cent.), 123 (vol. ii. Akbar’s 12th year), 124 (vol. iii. ah 1104/1693), 125 (vols. iv–v. 16th cent.), Ivanow 10–27 (some of these belong to the early 17th cent. and one or two may be earlier), Berlin 370–96 (of which 376–82 (7 vols. lacking K̲h̲ātimah) bears several dates in the first half of the 17th century and 389 (vol. iv) is dated ah 1012/1604), Aumer 209–220 (of which 213 (vol. iii) bears the earliest date, ah 1016/1607–8), Rosen Institut 11 (vol. i), 12 (vol. i), 13 (vol. iv. ah 1016/1607–8), 14 (most of vol. iv), Lindesiana p. 188 nos. 801–8 (ah 1018/1609–10–1083/1672–3), nos. 173–8 (vols. i–iii, v–vii), nos. 179–82 (vols. i–iii, vi), nos. 387–94, no. 929 (vol. v. Circ. 1650), d.m.g. 4 (vol. i), 5 (vol. iv. ah 1030/1620–1), 6 (vol. i, defective. Seal dated 1025/1616), Cairo p. 504 (ah 1069/1659), Browne Coll. G. 11 (12) = Houtum-Schindler 42 (1) (K̲h̲ātimah), K. 6 (14) (4) = Houtum-Schindler, 43 (4) (K̲h̲ātimah. ah 1085/1674–5), Būhār 2 (latter part of vol. v. 17th cent.), Dorn A. M. p. 205 (vol. vi), p. 205 (vols. iii, v, vi), Madras (one complete copy and one vol. iii), Romaskewicz p. 10 nos. 970* (vol. i), 986 (vol. i), 987 (vol. ii), Salemann-Rosen p. 16 nos. 77 (vol. i), 78 (vol. iii), 79 (vol. vi), 132 (vols. v–vi), 154 (vol. ii), 158 (vol. iv), 159 (vol. iv), 166 (vol. vii), 196 (vol. v), 286–92 (vols. i–vii), 608–13 (vols. i–vi), Vollers 968 (vol. i), 969 (vol. iii), 970 (Ṭāhirids to Tīmūr), 971 (vol. vi, defective at end). In addition to the Stambul mss. mentioned above there are at least 49 others at Stambul (see Tauer).

Editions: Bombay 1845 (see G. i. P. ii p. 357), 1848 (see G. i. P. ii p. 357, Elliot and Dowson History of India iv p. 134), 1266/1850*, 1271/1855°, Ṭihrān 1270–4/1853–7° (2 vols. including a continuation to his own time, in three books, by Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān (d. 1288/1871), the editor37), Lucknow 1874°*, 1883 (see G. i. P. ii p. 357).

Extracts: (1) [The Preface] Le Jardin de la puretéPar M. Am. Jourdain38 (in Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale, tome ix (Paris 1813°)) pp. 249–60 (French translation by S. de Sacy, ibid. pp. 261–73). (2) [On the sons of Japheth] Hammer-Purgstall Sur les origines russes, St. Petersburg 1827°*, pp. 112–19 (French translation, ibid. pp. 52–9). (3) [The As̲h̲kānian dynasty] Mirkhonds berättelse om Askaniernas konungaätt i Persien [ed. with Swedish trans. and notes by C.J. Tornberg], Lund 1863°. o (4) [The Sāsānid dynasty] Histoire des Sassanides par Mirkhond (texte persan), Paris 1843° (one of the Chrestomathies orientales published for the use of students at the École des Langues Orientales Vivantes). (5) [Reign of Anūs̲h̲īrwān] Descriptive catalogue of the oriental library of the late Tippoo Sultan of MysoreBy C. Stewart, Cambridge 1809°*, pp. 192–1 201 [with English translation]. (6) [Death of al-Maʾmūn and stories of his liberality, etc.] Institutiones ad fundamenta linguae persicaeEdidit F. Wilken, Leipzig 1805°*, pp. 111–20 (Latin translation in Wilken’s Auctarium ad Chrestomathiam suam persicam, Leipzig 1805°*, pp. 5–10). (7) [Ṭāhirid and Ṣaffārid dynasties] Historia priorum Regum Persarum post firmatum in regno Islamismum. Ex Mohammede Mirchond persice et latine cum notis geographico literariis [By B. von Jenisch], Vienna 1782°. (8) [Ṭāhirid dynasty] Mirchondi Historia ThaheridarumPersice et latine edidit E. Mitscherlich, Göttingen 1814 (see Zenker i p. 105 no. 875), [Berlin 1819°]. (9) [Sāmānid dynasty] Mohammedis filii Chavendschahi vulgo Mirchondi Historia Samanidarum persiceedidit, interpretatione latina, annotationibus historicis et indicibus illustravit F. Wilken, Göttingen 1808°*. (10) [Sāmānid dynasty] Histoire des Samanides par Mirkhond. Texte persan traduit et accompagné de notespar M. Defrémery. Paris 1845°*. (11) [G̲h̲aznawid dynasty] Mohammedi filii Chondschahi vulgo Mirchondi Historia Gasnevidarum persiceediditlatine vertitF. Wilken, Berlin 1832°*. (12) [Extracts relating to the S̲h̲ārs of G̲h̲arjistān and their overthrow by Maḥmūd of G̲h̲aznī, Maḥmūd’s expedition against Sōmnāth, anecdotes of Maḥmūd] Institutiones ad fundamenta linguae persicaeEdidit F. Wilken, Leipzig 1805°*, pp. 120–52 [Latin translation in Wilken’s Auctarium ad Chresto-mathiam suam persicam, Leipzig 1805°*, pp. 10–31]. (13) [Buwaihid dynasty] Mirchonds Geschichte der Sultane aus dem Geschlechte Bujeh. Persisch und deutsch. Von F. Wilken, Berlin 1835°* (Reprinted from the Abhandlungen der K. Akademie der Wissenschaften).39 (14) [The Ismāʿīlīs of Persia] Le Jardin de la puretéPar Mohammed, fils de Khavendschah, connu sous le nom de Mirkhond. Par M. Am. Jourdain (in Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale, tome ix, pt. i (Paris 1813°)) pp. 192–248 (French translation, ibid. pp. 143–82). (15) [Saljūq dynasty] Mirchondi Historia Seldschukidarum persiceediditannotationibusillustravit J.A. Vullers, Giessen 1837°*. (16) [K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs] Histoire des Sultans du Kharezm par Mirkhond; texte persan accompagné de notes … [By C. Defrémery], Paris 1842°* (one of the Chrestomathies orientales published for the use of students at the École des Langues Orientales Vivantes), (17) [The Atābaks] The History of the Atábeks of Syria and Persia byMírkhónd. Now first edited…. by W.H. MorleyLondon 1848°* (Society for the Publication of Oriental Texts). (18) [G̲h̲ōrids and Qarā-K̲h̲itāʾīs] Mirchondi Historia Ghuridarum regum Persiae Indiaeque atque Carachitajorum imperatorum TartariaePersice et latine ediditE. Mitscherlich, Frankfurt a. M. 1818 (see Zenker i p. 105 no. 875). (19) [G̲h̲ōrids] Histoire des Sultans Ghourides extraite de l’Histoire universelle de Mirkhond, traduite et accompagnée de notes par M. Ch. Defrémery (in the Journal Asiatique, 4e série, tome ii (July–Dec. 1843), pp. 167–200, tome iii (Jan.–June 1844), pp. 258–91). (20) [C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān Vie de Djenghiz-Khan, par Mirkhond (texte persan) [Edited by P.A.E.P. Jaubert]. Paris 1841°* (one of the Chrestomathies orientales published for the use of students at the École des Langues Orientales Vivantes). (21) [Extracts relating to C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān] Notice de l’histoire de Djenguyz-Khân, contenue dans le manuscrit persan No. 104, in 4°, de la Bibliothèque nationale. Par le C.en Langlès (in Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale, tome v (Paris an vii [= 1798°*]) pp. 192–229. (22) [Tīmūr’s expedition against Tuqtāmis̲h̲ K̲h̲ān] Expédition de Timoûr-i-Lenk ou Tamerlan contre Toqtamicheen 793ou 1391Par M. Charmoy (in the Mémoires de l’Académie Imp. des Sciences de St-Pétersbourg, 6e série, tome iii (St. Petersburg 1836*)) pp. 270–321 (Persian text), 441–471 (French translation). (23) [Auto-biographical conclusion of Qism vi] Le Jardin de la puretéPar M. Am. Jourdain (in Notices et-extraits, tome ix (Paris 1813°)) pp. 185–7 (French translation ibid. pp. 123–5). (24) [Conclusion of the K̲h̲ātimah] ibid. pp. 187–91 (French translation ibid. pp. 125–8).

Turkish translations: see Babinger Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen p. 82, n. 1: “Dass Rustem Paša geschichtliche Studien begünstigte, scheint der Umstand zu beweisen, dass er durch Muṣṭafā b. Ḥasan Šāh im Jahre 957/1550 eine türkische Übersetzung des Mīrchwānd’schen Geschichtswerkes rauḍat al-ṣafā herstellen liess; über diese ḥadīqat ül-ʿuljā betitelte Übertragung vgl. ʿO[smānli] M[üʾellifleri, by Brūsalī Meḥmed Ṭāhir, Stambul 1334–43/1915–25], iii, 140; 180, 4 v.u. Wenige Jahre später, im D̲u’l-ḥiǧǧe 962/Okt. 1555 vollendete Balāṭzāde Mehmed Kemāl eine neuerliche türkische Übersetzung mit dem Titel terǧumān düstūr fī ḥawādis̱ el-azmān we’l-duhūr, die hsl. in Stambul, Laleli, Nr. 2025 [cf. 2021 ?], Nūr-i ʿos̱mānijje, Nr. 3238/50 (?) [cf. 3228] und Kairo, TK, 783 [read 183] (Autograph) vorhanden ist; gedruckt (1. Teil): Stambul, 1258 (1848 [read 1842]) 359 Ss. fol. Über den Übersetzer vgl. ʿOM, iii, 122.”

An Upsala ms. of 989/1581 beginning with the same words as the Cairo ms. of the Tarjumān al-dastūr has the title Ḥadīqat al-ʿulyā ascribed to it in Tornberg’s catalogue (nos. 243–8) where the work is said to have been written by Muḥammad Kamālī at the instigation of Muḥammad Pasha, the Grand Vizier of Murād iii. Are the two translations really one?

For a fragmentary translation by Rāg̲h̲ib Pās̲h̲ā (d. 1176/1763 see Babinger, op. cit., p. 290 (ms. at Munich).

Translations of extracts:40 (1) [The Preface (French tr. by S. de Sacy)] see above under Extracts (1). (2) [The Preface] History of the early Kings of PersiaTranslatedby D. Shea [see no. (6) below] pp. 1–22. (3) [The Introduction (Muqaddimah)] ibid. pp. 23–43. (4) [Pre-Islamic history and life of Muḥammad omitting the part translated by D. Shea (see no. (6) below)] The Rauzat-us-safa; or Garden of Purity. Containing the histories of Prophets, Kings, and Khalifs. By Muhammad bin Khâvendschâh bin Mahmûd, commonly called MirchondTranslatedby E. Rehatsek, London 1891–3°* (Oriental Translation Fund, n.s. i). (5) [The sons of Japheth (French)] see above under Extracts (2). (6) [Pre-Islamic Persian Kings to Alexander’s conquest] History of the early Kings of Persiato the conquest of Iran by Alexander the Great. Translatedby D. Shea, London 1832°* (Oriental Translation Fund). (7) [The As̲h̲kānians (German)] Zur Geschichte der Arsakiden. I. Geschichte der Arsakiden, aus Mirchond übersetzt von F. Mühlau. II. Ueber Quellen und Glaubwürdigkeit von Mîrchônd’s Geschichte der Ashkânischen Könige. Von A. von Gutschmid (in z.d.m.g. xv (1861) pp. 664–9 and 670–89). (8) [The As̲h̲kānians (Swedish)] see above under Extracts (3). (9) [The Sāsānians (French)] Mémoires sur diverses antiquités de la Perse, et sur les médailles des Rois de la dynastie des Sassanides; suivis de l’histoire de cette dynastie traduite du persan de Mirkhond. Par A.I. Silvestre de Sacy, Paris 1793°*. pp. 271–417. (10) [Reign of Anūs̲h̲īrwān (English)] see above under Extracts (5). (11) [al-Maʾmūn’s death etc. (Latin) (cf. Extracts (6))] Friderici Wilken Auctarium ad Chrestomathiam suam persicam, Leipzig 1805°*, pp. 5–10. (12) [The Ṭāhirids and Ṣaffārids (Latin)] see above under Extracts (7). (13) [The Ṭāhirids (Latin)] see above under Extracts (8). (14) [The Sāmānids (Latin)] see above under Extracts (9). (15) [The Sāmānids (French)] see above under Extracts (10). (16) [The G̲h̲aznawids (Latin)] see above under Extracts (11). (17) [The S̲h̲ārs of G̲h̲arjistān, Maḥmūd of G̲h̲aznī etc. (Latin)] see above under Extracts (12). (18) [Some passages on the G̲h̲aznawids (English)] Elliot and Dowson History of India iv 134–40. (19) [The Buwaihids (German)] see above under Extracts (13). (20) [The Ismāʿīlīs of Persia (French)] see above under Extracts (14). (21) [The Saljūqs (German)] Mirchond’s Geschichte der Seldschukenübersetzt und mitAnmerkungen erläutert von J.A. Vullers, Giessen 1838°*. (22) [The G̲h̲ōrids (Latin)] see above under Extracts (18). (23) [The G̲h̲ōrids (English)] History of the Afghans: translated from the Persian of Neamet Ullah, by B. Dorn, Part i, London 1829°*, pp. 81–92. (24) [The G̲h̲ōrids (French)] see above under Extracts (19). (25) [Passages relating to C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān (French)] see above under Extracts (21). (26) [The K̲h̲āns of Qipc̲h̲āq, the S̲h̲īrwān-S̲h̲āhs etc. (French)] Fragments de géographes et d’historiens arabes et persans inédits, relatifs aux anciens peuples du Caucase et de la Russie méridionale; traduits et accompagnés de notes critiques, par M. Defrémery. V. Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond) (in the Journal Asiatique, 4e série, tome xvii (Jan.–June 1851), pp. 105–62). (27) [Tīmūr’s expedition against Tuqṭāmis̲h̲ K̲h̲ān (French)] see above under Extracts (22). (28) [The autobiographical conclusion of Qism vi (French)] see above under Extracts (23). (29) [The Conclusion of the K̲h̲ātimah (French)] see above under Extracts (24).

Descriptions: (1) Le Jardin de la puretéPar M. Am. Jourdain (in Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale, tome ix (Paris 1813), pt. 1, pp. 117–274; (2) Hammer-Purgstall in Wiener Jahrbücher, vols. lxix and lxx, Anz. Bl.; (3) Journal des savants, Paris 1843, pp. 170–6 (Quatremère); (4) Elliot Bibliographical index, pp. 85–95; (5) Elliot and Dowson History of India iv, pp. 127–140; (6) Browne Lit. Hist. iii 431–3; (7) Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, pp. 57–8.

[Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ, preface; Ḥabīb al-siyar iii, Juzʾ 3, pp. 198 (Burhān al-Dīn K̲h̲āwand-S̲h̲ah), 339 (Mīr K̲h̲wānd); K̲h̲azīnah i ganj i Ilāhī (see Sprenger p. 72); Ātas̲h̲-kadah no. 704; Silvestre de Sacy Mémoires sur diverses antiquités de la Perse, Paris 1793, pp. ix–xiv; Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale, tome ix (Paris 1813), pt. 1, pp. 118–121; Journal des savants, Paris 1843, pp. 170–5 (Quatremère); Elliot and Dowson History of India iv 127–8; Rieu i p. 87; Browne Lit. Hist. iii 431–3; Ency. Isl. under Mīrk̲h̲wānd; Ency. Brit. under Mirkhond.]

§ 124. M. b. Ḥusain [b. ?] Luṭf Allāh was employed at the court of the Bahmanī sulṭān Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh ii (reigned ah 887/1482–924/1518), to whom he dedicated his Ṣifwat al-ak̲h̲bār. The k̲h̲ātimah of this work (on the Bahmanīs) is described by him as an extract from a larger work of his own entitled Sirāj al-tawārīk̲h̲.

Ṣifwat al-ak̲h̲bār, a brief history from Adam to the death of M. b. Humāyūn S̲h̲āh Bahmanī (ah 887–1482), begun ah 902/1496 and for the most part translated from an Arabic work entitled Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲: Bodleian 35.

§ 125. G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn b. Humām al-Dīn M., surnamed (mulaqqab) K̲h̲wānd-Amīr, was, on his mother’s side, the grandson of Mīr K̲h̲wānd (for whom see pp. 70–71 supra), and was born, probably at Harāt, circ. 880/1475–6. Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr (d. 906/1501, see below under Biography: Poets) in 904/1498–9 placed at his disposal the historical works in his private library. Subsequently he entered the service of Badīʿ al-Zamān, Sulṭān Ḥusain’s eldest son. He was at Harāt when it was captured by S̲h̲aibānī in 1507 and by S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl in 1510. In 920/1514 he was at Bas̲h̲t, a village in G̲h̲arjistān, engaged in literary work. In 934/1528 he went to India, was presented to Bābur (d. 937/1530) at Āgrah in 935/1528 and accompanied him on his expedition to Bengal in 1529. He went with Humāyūn on his expedition to Gujarāt, and died, it seems, on the return march, probably in 942/1535–6, though 941/1534–5 is the date usually given. In accordance with his own desire he was buried at Delhi near Niẓām al-Dīn Auliyā, the celebrated saint, and Amīr K̲h̲usrau, the poet.

As already stated K̲h̲wānd-Amīr added a seventh volume to his grandfather’s Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ. Other works of his are the Makārim al-ak̲h̲lāq (see below under Biography), the Dastūr al-wuzarāʾ (see below under Biography), the Humāyūn-nāmah (see below under History: India: Tīmūrids) and the Ins̲h̲ā i G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn (ms. in i.o.).41

(1)
Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-mulūk, written in the lifetime of Mīr K̲h̲wānd (d. 903/1498), on the institutions, foundations and wise sayings of kings and ancient sages, arranged in historical order: Ḥ.K̲h̲. v p. 350, no. 11260, Rieu Suppt. 29 (def. at end. 19th cent.), Majlis 619 (1).
(2)
K̲h̲ulāṣat al-ak̲h̲bār fī bayān aḥwāl al-ak̲h̲yār, completed in 905/1499–1500 and dedicated to Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr, a general history to ah 875/1470–1, in a muqaddimah, 10 maqālahs and a k̲h̲ā̲t̲imah devoted to a description of Harāt and to notices of eminent contemporaries: Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii p. 163, no. 4744, Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3190 = Tauer 125 (ah 908/1503), 3191 = Tauer 126 (ah 1001/1592–3), Rieu i 96b (ah 917/1511), 97b (17th cent.), 97b (latter part, from middle of Maqālah viii. 17th cent.), 97b (latter half, Maqālah viii onwards. Late 18th cent.), 885a (def. at end. 16th cent.), Suppt. 30 (vol. i only (i.e. Maqālahs i–vi). 18th cent.), Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 63 (ah 940/1533–4), 64 (ah 930/1523–4), Blochet i 312 (1st half of 16th cent.), 313 (17th cent.), 314 (breaks off in Maqālah viii. Early 16th cent.), Bānkīpūr vi 463 (lacks Maqālah ix and parts of viii and x. ah 966/1558–9), Ethé 76 (ah 970/1563), 77 (ah 985/1578), 78, Berlin 397 (ah 975/1568), 398 (ah 1014/1606), 399 (vol. ii (i.e. Maqālahs vii–x and K̲h̲ātimah). ah 1015/1607)) r.a.s. P. 45 = Morley 32 (ah 977/1569), Bodleian 83 (ah 1001/1593), 84 (n.d.), 85 (n.d.), 86 (n.d.), Rosen Institut 15 (ah 1008/1599–1600 or 1007/1598–9), Ivanow 33 (late 10th or early 11th cent. ah), Browne Hand-list 1253 (ah 1055/ 1645), Suppt. 432, 433 (King’s 155), Dorn 282, 283 (lacks Maqālahs i–iii and part of iv. ah 1056/1647), Lindesiana p. 177 no. 370 (circ. ad 1650), Būhār 3 (17th cent.), Chanykov 63, Dorn a.m. p. 205, p. 382 (defective), Flügel ii 834, Lund Suppt. 57 (14 Pictures. See Catalogue of the International Exhibition of Persian Art, London 1931, no. 720 B), Madras, Majlis 249, Romaskewicz p. 6 no. 1049, Salemann-Rosen p 14 no. 851.

Extracts: (1) [Account of the Greek etc. philosophers and scientists from Maqālah ii, with English translation] F. Gladwin The Persian Moonshee, Calcutta 1795° pp., London 1801°*, pt. ii, pp. 31–42. (2) [Reigns of the Saljūqs Ṭug̲h̲ril Bēg and Alp Arslān from Maqālah viii, with French translation] Histoire des Seldjoukides, extraite de l’ouvrage intitulé, Khélassat-oul-akhbar, et traduite du persan de Khondémir, par Julien Dumoret (in Journal asiatique, n.s., tome xiii (Jan.–June 1834) pp. 240–256). (3) [On the slaves of the G̲h̲ōrid Sulṭāns who themselves became Sulṭāns, from Maqālah viii] Elliot Bibliographical index, Muntak̲h̲bāt, pp. 21–4. (4) [Tīmūr’s expedition against Tuqtāmis̲h̲ K̲h̲ān, from Maqālah x] Expédition de Timoûr-i-Lenk ou Tamerlan contre Toqtamicheen 793ou 1391 … Par M. Gharmoy (in the Mémoires de l’Académie Imp. des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 6e série, tome iii (St. Petersburg 1836*) pp. 321–7 (Persian text), 471–5 (French translation).

Translations of extracts: (1) [Account of the Creation (i.e. the Muqaddimah) and of Adam and his descendants to the time of Jacob (from Maqālah i)] An account of the Preadamites, and the history of the WorldExtracted (Translated) from the Khelassut ul Akhbar of Khondemeer [by an anonymous translator] (in the Asiatick Miscellany, vol. i (Calcutta 1785°*), pp. 60–70, 140–155, 267–277, 433–443. (2) [Account of the Greek philosophers and scientists from Maqālah ii (English)] See above under Extracts (1). (3) [a few extracts relating to Pre-Islamic Arabia] Essay towards the history of ArabiaBy Major D. Price (see p. 48 supra), London 1824°*, pp. 87–8 etc. (4) [Accounts of al-Ḥasan, al-Ḥusain, Muʿāwiyah, considerable portions of the accounts of the early ʿAbbāsids, practically all the account of the dynasties contemporary with, and subsequent to, the ʿAbbāsids (Ṭāhirids, Ṣaffārids, Sāmānids, Buwaihids, G̲h̲aznawids, Ismāʿīlīs, Saljūqs, K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs, Atābaks, Qarā-K̲h̲itāʾīs. Muẓaffarids, Sarbadārids, G̲h̲ōrids, Tīmūr’s ancestors (but not Tīmūr himself), S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ and his successors to the time of Abū ’l-G̲h̲āzī Sulṭān Ḥusain) freely translated] D. Price Chronological retrospect (London 1811–1821°*, see p. 48 supra), vol. i pp. 365–389, vol. ii 2–28, 42–3, 53–7, 64–6, 84–5, 137–220, 224–456, vol. iii 1–18, 485–501, 508–513, 519–656 (some of these groups of pages contain short passages from other sources). (5) [Reigns of the Saljūqs Ṭug̲h̲ril Bēg and Alp Arslān from Maqālah viii (French)] see above under Extracts (2). (6) [On the slaves of the G̲h̲ōrid Sulṭāns who themselves became Sulṭāns, down to Rukn al-Dīn Fīrūz-S̲h̲āh, i.e. about the first half of the extract mentioned above under Extracts (3)] Elliot Bibliographical index, pp. 111–12, Elliot and Dowson History of India iv pp. 145–7. (7) [Tīmūr’s expedition against Tuqtāmis̲h̲ K̲h̲ān from Maqālah x (French)] see above under Extracts (4).

Descriptions: (1) Elliot Bibliographical index pp. 106–111, (2) Elliot and Dowson History of India ii p. 433, iv pp. 144–5

(3)
Ḥabīb al-siyar fī ak̲h̲bār afrād al-bas̲h̲ar, dedicated to Karīm al-Dīn Ḥabīb Allāh Sāwajī, civil administrator of Harāt, a general history extending to Rabīʿ I ah 930/1524, a few months before S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl’s death, and divided into an iftitāḥ and three mujallads, each subdivided into 4 ajzāʾ (viz. (1) (a) Prophets and sages, (b) Pre-Islāmic kings of Persia and Arabia, (c) Muḥammad, (d) first four Caliphs, (2) (a) Twelve Imāms, (b) Umaiyads, (c) ʿAbbāsids, (d) dynasties (mainly) contemporary with the ʿAbbāsids, (3) (a) K̲h̲āns of Turkistān. C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān and his descendants, (b) Mamlūks of Egypt, Qarā-K̲h̲itāʾīs of Kirmān, Muẓaffarids, Atābaks of Luristān, Kings of Rustamdār and Māzandarān, Sarbadārs, Kurts, (c) Tīmūr and his descendants to Sulṭān Ḥusain’s sons, (d) S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl Ṣafawī) with an ik̲h̲titām containing a description of the inhabited globe and its curiosities: Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii p. 14, Dāmād Ibrāhīm 901 = Tauer 127 (vols. i–ii) and Juzʾ 1–3 of vol. iii. ah 928–9/1522), 900 = Tauer 139 (complete. ah 1090/1679), Upsala 249–50 (vols. i–ii. ah 929 30/1523–4, corrected by the author), Cairo p. 502 (vol. i only. ah 931/1525, said to be an autograph), Blochet i 316–326 (of these 320 (vol. iii and Ik̲h̲titām) is assigned to the early 16th cent., 321 (vol. iii and Ik̲h̲titām) is dated ah 956/1549 and 322 (3rd pt. of vol. iii) ah 997/1588, 325 (4th pt. of vol. iii) is of the 16th cent., 326 (3rd pt. of vol. iii) is dated Harāt, ah 1009/1600 and 316 (vols. i–ii) ah 1011/1602), Rehatsek p. 81 (vol. iii. ah 956/1549), Muṣṭafā Efendī 638 = Tauer 128 (vol. iii and Ik̲h̲titām. ah 971/1563–4), Browne Pers. Cat. 57 (vol. i. ah 997/1589), 58 (vol.ii. ah 1039/1630), Suppt. 381–7 (of which 385 (King’s 138) contains vols. i–ii undated, vol. iii dated 966/ 1558–9 and vol. iv42 ah 1077/1666–7. 386 and 387 also belong to King’s College), Leyden iii p. 4 no. 911 (vol. i, def. at end.), 912 (vol. iii, pts. 3, 4 and Ik̲h̲titām. ah 979/1571/2), Yeñī 842–3 = Tauer 129–30 (vols. i–iii and Ik̲h̲titām. ah 980/1572), Ḥamīdīyah 897 = Tauer 131 (vol. iii and Ik̲h̲titām. ah 982/1574, transcribed from an autograph), Dorn 284 (vol. iii, pt. 3 (?). ah 989/1581–2 (?)), Ivanow 34–40 (of which 38 (vol. iii, pts. 1 (beg.), 3 (end) and 4) is dated ah 993/1585), Curzon 2 (vol. ii, pt. 1 and beg. of pt. 2. 18th cent.), 2nd Suppt. 925 (vol. i. Late 17th or early 18th cent.), 926 (vol. iii. ah 1029/1620), Bodleian 70–82 (of which 76 (vol. iii, pt. 1) is dated ah 995/1587, 79 (vol. iii, pt. 4) ah 1010/1601, 75 (vol. iii, pts. 1 and 2) ah 1026/1617, and 73 (vol. ii) is described as old), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3403 = Tauer 132 (complete. ah 996/1588), Rieu i 98a–102b (of which two, Add. 6559 (100a) (vol. i) and Add. 6562 (100b) (vol. iii, pt. 4 and Ik̲h̲titām) are assigned to the 16th century, Add. 27,237 (98b) (vol. ii) is dated ah 1005/1597 and Add. 26,186 (101b) (vol. iii, pt. 4) ah 1009/1600, while several are of the 17th century), i 424b ult. (Ik̲h̲titām only. ah 1056/1646), ii 843a (latter half of vol. i. ah 999/1591), iii 1065b (latter portion of vol. iii, pt. 3. ah 1052/1642), Suppt. 31 (vol. iii 16th cent.), r.a.s. P. 46–54 cf. Morley 33–41 (of which P. 51 (vol. ii, pt. 1) is dated ah 999/1590 and P. 48 (vol. ii) ah 1026/1617), Aumer 221–7 (of which 223 (vol. i, pts. 3 and 4) is assigned to the 10th cent. ah and 224 (vol. ii) is dated ah 1045/1636. 225 (vol. ii, pts. 1 and 2 (ah 1071/1660–1), vol. iii, pt. 4 (ah 1072/1661–2), biographical appendix (modern), Ik̲h̲titām (modern)) is the only one containing a part of vol. iii), Lindesiana p. 177 nos. 809–11 (ah 1000/1591–2–1063–1652–3), nos. 815–16 (circ. 1650), nos. 398–9 (ah 1146/1733–4), no. 165 (vol. ii only. Circ. 1750), Ethé 79–99 (of which 89 (vol. iii, def. at end) is dated ah 1012/1603, 94 (vol. iii, pt. 3, large fragment) ah 1026/1617 and 79 (vol. i) ah 1070 (?)/1659–60, while 90 (vol. iii lacking Ik̲h̲titām) is described as old), i.o. 3962 (vol. iii), 4079, i.o. D.P. 629, Chanykov 64 (defective), 65 (vol. i. ah 1052/1643), Berlin 400–411 (of which 401 (vol. i) is dated ah 1059/1649), p. 1060 no. 405* (vol. iii and Ik̲h̲titām. ah 1058/1648), Bānkīpūr vi 464 (vols. i–ii. 17th cent.), 465 (vol. i. 17th cent.), 466 (vol. iii, pt. 3. Old.), 467 (vol. iii, pt. 4. 18th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 224 no. 1, iii p. 100 no. 1162 (vols. i–ii. Aurangzēb’s 35th year), Būhār 4–5 (vol. i. 18th cent.), d.m.g. 7 (vol. iii, pt. 3. ah 1244/1828–9), Flügel ii 835 (vol. i, def. at end, and vol. iii dated ad 1843), Edinburgh 72 (vol. iii, pts. 1 and 2. Late 18th cent.), Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 51, Dorn a.m. p. 205 (vol. iii), Majlis 248 (vol. iii), Mas̲h̲had iii p. 83 no. 30 (vol. i), no. 31 (vol. ii), Romaskewicz p. 5 nos. 1036 (vol. iii, pts. 1–4), 1112 (vol. iii), 1176 (vol. ii), Salemann-Rosen p. 14 no. 283 (vol. i). In addition to the Stambul mss. mentioned above there are at least 13 others at Stambul (see Tauer).

Extracts (ms.): K̲h̲ulāṣah i Ḥabīb al-siyar, the biographies found in different parts of the work collected into one volume: Ethé 100

Editions: Ṭihrān 1271/1855°, Bombay 1857°*.

Extracts: (1) [the earlier part of the fourth Juzʾ of Mujallad ii, viz. the history of the Ṭāhirids, Ṣaffārids, Sāmānids, G̲h̲aznawids, the Kings of Ṭabaristān and Māzandarān to the death of S̲h̲ams al-Mulūk Rustam, the Buwaihids, the Ḥasanwaihids and the Ziyārids] A history of the minor dynasties of Persia. Being an extract from the Ḥabīb-us-siyar of K̲h̲ondamīr. Edited by G.S.A. Ranking, London 1910°*. (2) [The history of Ṭabaristān, Māzandarān and Rustamdār (from Mujallad ii, Juzʾ 4 and Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 2) and that of the Sarbadārs (from Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 2)] Die Geschichte Tabaristan’s und der Serbedare nach Chondemir. Persisch und deutsch. Von B. Dorn (in the Mémoires de l’Académie des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg, vie série. Sc. polit. hist., tome viii (St. Petersburg 1855°*, actually read in 1849 and published separately, it seems, in 1850°*), pp. 1–182. (3) [Short extract from the history of the G̲h̲aznawids in Mujallad ii, Juzʾ 4] Elliot Bibliographical index, p. 28. (4) [The life of Ibn Sīnā from Mujallad ii, Juzʾ 4] Biographie abrégée d’Abou Aly SynâPar M.A. Jourdain (in Fundgruben des Orients, vol. iii (Vienna 1813°*) pp. 163–7 (Persian text), 168–177 (French translation)). (5) [From the reign of C̲h̲ag̲h̲atāy K̲h̲ān to that of Maḥmūd K̲h̲ān b. Yūnus K̲h̲ān, being a portion of Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 1] Histoire des Khans mongols du Turkistan et de la Transoxiane, extraite du Habib Essiier de Khondémir, traduite … et accompagnée de notes, par M.C. Defrémery (in the Journal asiatique, 4e série, tome xix (Jan.–June 1852) pp. 58–94, 216–288, followed in tome xx (July–Dec. 1852), pp. 370–406, by extracts from the Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahān-gus̲h̲āy i Juwainī relating to the revolt of Maḥmūd Tārābī and the reigns of C̲h̲ag̲h̲atāy K̲h̲ān, his son and grandson). (6) [The history of the Qarā-K̲h̲itāʾī dynasty of Kirmān from Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 2] Chuandamir’s afhandling om Qarachitaiska dynastin i Kerman med inleding och anmärkningar … af E.A. Strandman, Helsingfors 1869°. (7) [Life of Tīmūr, from Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 3] Habeeb-os-sear. Life of Tamerlane etc., Bombay 1891° (the b.m. copy apparently lacks pp. 1–20). (8) [Tīmūr’s expedition against Ṭuqṭāmis̲h̲ K̲h̲ān, from Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 3] Expédition de Timoûr-i-Lenk ou Tamerlan contre Toqtamiche … en 793 … ou 1391 … Par M. Charmoy (in the Mémoires de l’Académie Imp. des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 6e série, tome iii (St. Petersburg 1836*)) pp. 328–349 (Persian text), 475–492 (French translation). (9) Intik̲h̲āb i Ḥabīb al-siyar [pp. 149] Cawnpore 1910*.

Translations of extracts: (1) [The Caliphate of ʿUt̲h̲mān from Mujallad i, Juzʾ 4] D. Price Chronological retrospect (see p. 48 supra) vol. i, pp. 150–187 (roughly). (2) [ms. English translation (more than 500 pp.) by G. le Strange of considerable portions] Browne Suppt. 384. (3) [Rough ms. translation by Major H.G. Raverty of copious extracts relating to K̲h̲urāsān and Turkistān (from the 2nd and 3rd Juzʾ of Mujallad ii), certain independent dynasties contemporary with the ʿAbbāsids (Ṭāhirids, Ṣaffārids, Sāmānids, G̲h̲aznawids, G̲h̲ōrids, G̲h̲ōrid slaves, K̲h̲aljīs of Bengal, Īltutmis̲h̲ and his successors, K̲h̲aljīs of Delhi, Kings of Sijistān, K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs, from Mujallad ii, Juzʾ 4), C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān and his successors, C̲h̲ag̲h̲atāy and his successors, Hūlāgū and his successors from Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 1, the Qarā-K̲h̲itāʾīs, the Kurts (from Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 2), Tīmūr and his descendants (from Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 3), S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl’s war against the Uzbaks (from Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 4)] i.o. mss. Eur. D. 203–4. (4) [The history of Ṭabaristān and Māzandarān and that of the Sarbadārs (German)] see above under Extracts (2). (5) [The G̲h̲aznawids, from Mujallad ii, Juzʾ 4] Elliot and Dowson History of India iv pp. 158–212 (translated by Henry Lushington). (6) [The life of Ibn Sīnā from Mujallad ii, Juzʾ 4 (French)] see above under Extracts (4). (7) [The K̲h̲āns of Turkistān, C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān and his descendants, i.e. Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 1] D. Price Chronological retrospect (see p. 48 above) vol. ii, pp. 457–716. (8) [Russian translation of the history of the Mongols from Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 1]. Istoriya Mongolov. Ot drevnyeishikh vremen do Tamerlana. Perevod s Persidskago [by V.V. Grigor’ev], St. Petersburg 1834°. (9) [From the reign of C̲h̲ag̲h̲atāy K̲h̲ān to that of Maḥmūd K̲h̲ān b. Yūnus K̲h̲ān from Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 1 (French)] see above under Extracts (5). (10) [English translation of the account of G̲h̲āzān’s administrative system from Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 1] The Institutes of Ghâzân Khan, Emperor of the Moghuls. By Captain William Kirkpatrick (in The New Asiatic Miscellany, vol. i, Calcutta 1789°*, pp. 149–226). (11) [extracts relating to the K̲h̲āns of Qipc̲h̲āq from Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 1] Fragments de géographes et d’historiens arabes et persans inédits relatifs aux anciens peuples du Caucase et de la Russie méridionale. Traduitspar M. Defrémery … Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond) (in the Journal asiatique, 4e série, tome xvii (Jan.–June 1851) pp. 105–162). (12) [Tīmūr’s life, from Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 3] A literal translation of Habeeb-us-siyar, life of Tamerlane, Bombay 1900 (Pts. 5–8 are in the b.m.). (13) [Tīmūr’s expedition against Ṭuqṭāmis̲h̲ from Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 3 (French)] see above under Extracts (8). (14) [Part of Sulṭān Abū ’l-G̲h̲āzī Ḥusain’s life, from Mujallad iii, Juzʾ 3 (French)] Vie de Sultan Hossein Baïkara traduit de Khondémir, par H. Ferté, pt. 1 (86 pp.: no more published) Paris 1898° (For reviews see Journal Asiatique, n.s., tome xi (Jan.–June 1898) pp. 357–60 and j.r.a.s. 1898 pp. 889–892).

Descriptions: (1) Elliot Bibliographical index pp. 121–6; (2) Elliot and Dowson History of India iv pp. 154–8.

[Ḥabīb al-siyar iii, 3, 198, 179, 194; Bābur-nāmah in English 605 (see also index); Tuḥfah i Sāmī; Haft iqlīm, no. 1495; K̲h̲azīnah i ganj i ilāhī (see Sprenger p. 75); Journal des savants, Paris 1843, pp. 386–394 (Quatremère); Elliot, Bibliographical index, pp. 106–110; Elliot and Dowson History of India, iv, pp. 141–4 and v, p. 116; Rieu i 96–8, iii 1079b ad 96b, 1079b–1080a ad 98a, Suppt. 31; Browne Lit. Hist, of Persia iii 434; Ency. Isl. under K̲h̲wāndamīr; Bānkīpur Cat. vi pp. 25–6.]

§ 126. ʿAbd al-Karīm b. M. al-nmydī[?]h[?]ī [al-Namīdīhī ?]43 tells us [Eton 160, fol. 446b, if, as is probable, muʾallif gūyad should be read there] that the first king to whom he did obeisance was Tūrān-S̲h̲āh, the ruler of Hurmūz [d. 875/1470–1], who for a year or two assigned him a stipend of 1,000 dīnārs. In 878/1473–4 he saw with his own eyes a two-headed monstrosity born at Burhānpūr [Eton 160, fol. 449a]. In 887/1482 he was present at the enthronement of Maḥmūd-S̲h̲āh ii Bahmanī [Eton 160, fol. 457a]. In 892/1487 he was sent by the ruler of Hurmūz on a mission to the King [of Gujarāt presumably] and was shipwrecked on the way [Eton 160, fol. 464a]. It was by order of Maḥmūd-S̲h̲āh Bēgarah [reigned ah 863/1459–917/1511] that he wrote al-Ṭabaqāt al-Maḥmūd-S̲h̲āhīyah.

al-Ṭabaqāt al-Maḥmūd-S̲h̲āhīyah,44 a general history to ah 905/1499–1500 divided into a Fātiḥah (the first thirteen years of the Prophet’s mission), nine ṭabaqāt (each devoted to the events of a century, year by year, beginning with the Hijrah) and a k̲h̲ātimah (on the first five years of the tenth century), the ninth ṭabaqah and the k̲h̲ātimah containing much information about events in Southern India, especially Gujarāt: Eton 160 (17th cent. Not very correct).

§ 127. Malik al-quḍāt Ṣadr i jahān Faiḍ Allāh b. Zain al-‘ābidīn b. Ḥusām Banbānī tells us that in 907/1501–2 he was at Bīdar, whither he had been sent on a mission by his sovereign Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh Bēgarah of Gujarāt (reigned ah 863/1459–917/1511), and that he was then engaged on his history. A work of his entitled K̲h̲ulāṣat al-ḥikāyāt is preserved at the India Office (i.o. 3730).

(Tārīk̲h̲ i Ṣadr i jahān),45 a general history extending from the Creation to the 9th century46 and containing in Qism iii47 a first maqālah in nine ṭabaqahs devoted to dynasties contemporary with the ʿAbbāsids (the last two being (8) the Sulṭāns of Egypt and Syria to ah 719/1319 and (9) the Ismāʿīlīs to the death of Rukn al-Dīn K̲h̲wurs̲h̲āh ah 654/1256), a second maqālah dealing with Indian dynasties and perhaps a third maqālah (or a fourth qism or a k̲h̲ātimah ?) devoted to (1) poets (2) Aṣḥāb, (3) Tābiʿīn, (4) ʿulamāʾ etc.: Rieu i 885b (lacks nearly all the Indian portion. ah 1012/1604), iii 885a (extending to the death of al-Ḥasan. Circ. ad 1850), iii 1035a (Or. 1908 foll 58–61, 110–16) (extracts from the Paris ms. (see Rieu iii 1079) ad 1851), Blochet i 315 (18th cent.), Browne Pers. Cat. 43 (ends with the Ismāʿīlīs of Persia. ah 1230/1815), Browne Coll. G. 12 (12) = Houtum-Schindler 4 (slightly defective at both ends), Bānkīpūr vi 462 (ends with the Ismāʿīlīs of Persia ah 1240/1825).

[Rieu i 86b, iii 1079.]

§ 128. It was at the command of Abū ’l-G̲h̲āzī Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Laṭīf Bahādur K̲h̲ān, Uzbak ruler of Transoxiana ah 947/1540–959/1551, that Masʿūdī48 b. ʿUt̲h̲mān Kūhistānī wrote his

Tārīk̲h̲ i Abū ’l-K̲h̲air-K̲h̲ānī, a florid general history closing with a long account of Abū ’l-K̲h̲air K̲h̲ān, the founder of the Uzbak dynasty (b. 1412, d. 1468, see Ency. Isl. under Abū ’l-K̲h̲air) and a sketch of the history of his descendants in Samarqand and K̲h̲urāsān: Bānkīpūr vi 468 (ah 999/1591), Rieu i 102b (imperfect. 17th cent.), Salemann-Rosen p. 12 no. 852,49 Tashkent (see Kahl p. 21).

§ 129. Mīr Yaḥyā b. ʿAbd al-Laṭif al-Ḥusainī50 al-Saifī al-Qazwīnī was born in D̲h̲ū ’l-Qaʿdah 885/1481. In 960/1552–3 being denounced as chief of the Sunnīs of Qazwīn he was imprisoned by order of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp at Iṣfahān and died there in Rajab 962/1555. Mīr ʿAbd al-Laṭīf Qazwīnī, Akbar’s teacher, and Mīrzā ʿAlāʾ al-Daulah “Kāmī” Qazwīnī, the author of the Nafāʾis al-maʾāt̲h̲ir, were his sons, and Naqīb K̲h̲ān, a noble of the reigns of Akbar and Jahāngīr and one of the translators of the Mahābhārata, his grandson.

Lubb al-tawārīk̲h̲, a sketch of general history to ah 948/1542, the date of completion, written for Abū ’l-Fatḥ Bahrām Mīrzā, fourth son of S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl, and divided into four qisms ((1) Muḥammad and the Imāms, (2) Pre-Islāmic Persian kings, (3) Post-Islāmic kings, (4) the Ṣafawīs): Ḥ.K̲h̲. v p. 307, Leyden iii p. 6 no. 913 (ah 972/1564–5), no. 914 (ah 1055/1645–6), Riḍā Pās̲h̲ā = Tauer 147 (ah 992/1584), Blochet i 327 (end of 16th cent.), 328 (ah 995/1586), 329 (ah 1006/1597), 330 (ah 1007/1598), 331 (ah 1050/1640), 332 (ah 1070/1659), 333 (17th cent.), 334 (ad 1640), 335 (17th cent.), Bāyazīd 2444= Tauer 148 (ah 997/1588–9), Leningrad Asiat. Mus. (at least four copies, of which one is dated ah 998/1589–90 and another ah 1014/1605. See Dorn a.m. p. 670 and Mélanges asiatiques i (St Petersburg 1852) pp. 3–14, iii (1859) p. 493 and vi (1873) p. 120), Bodleian 88 (ah 1009/1601), 89 (defective. n.d.), 90 (ah 1055/1645), 91 (defective), 92 (defective), 93 (defective), 94 (small extract), 95 (same extract), Flügel ii 836 (1) (ah 1021/1612), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3189 = Tauer 149 (ah 1030/1621), Ethé 101 (ah 1031/1622), 102 (n.d.), 103 (ah 1053/1644), i.o. 3672 (ah 1217/1802), Ross and Browne 135 (ah 1270/1853–4), Būhār 6 (ah 1073/1662 ?), Rieu i 104a (17th cent.), 105b (17th cent.), 105b (ah 1242/1826), ii 797b (ah 1197/1783), Bānkīpūr vi 469 (17th cent.), Ivanow Curzon 3 (beginning of Qism i. 17th cent.), Rehatsek p. 86 no. 25 (ah 1240/1825), Āṣafīyah i p. 250 nos. 373 (ah 1254/1838–9), 514 (n.d.), Edinburgh 239 (old), Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 95, Krafft p. 87, Leningrad Pub. Lib. (see Mélanges asiatiques iii (St. Petersburg 1859) p. 727), Majlis 270, Salemann-Rosen p. 18 no. 177*, Vatican 48.

Extracts: (1) [3 pages on the S̲h̲īrwān-S̲h̲āhs, with German translation] Dorn Das Asiatische Museum (St. Petersburg 1846°*) pp. 670–6, (2) [12 pages on the Buwaihids] Mélanges asiatiques, tome i (St. Petersburg 1852°*), pp. 3–14.

Latin translation: Lubb-it Tavarich seu Medulla Historiarum auctore Ommia Jahhia, Ad [sic]-Ullatifi filio, Kazbiniensi; interpretibus e persico Gilberto Gaulmino et Antonio Gallando. [Paris 1690 (see z.d.m.g. vol. 15 (1861) pp. 674, 687).51] Halle 1783° (in A.F. Büsching’s Magazin für die neue Historie und Geographie, Theil 17, pp. 1–180).

Extract from Gaulmin and Galland’s translation: M. Thévenot Relations de divers voyages curieuxnouvelle édition, Paris 1696°,52 tom. ii, pt. iv, pp. 17–48.

In 1621 Pietro della Valle expressed his intention of translating the work into Italian (see Elliot and Dowson History of India iv 293).

Descriptions: (1) Elliot Bibliographical Index p. 134; (2) Elliot and Dowson History of India iv pp. 293–7.

[Haft iqlīm no. 1261; Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ iii 81–3 (in the life of Nāqīb K̲h̲ān); Elliot and Dowson History of India iv 293–4; Aʾīn i Akbarī, tr. Blochmann, i 447; Rieu i 104, iii 1080a.]

§ 130. It was apparently in 957/1550–153 (or at any rate not much later) that Ibrāhīm ibn Jarīr [if the “Ḥarīr” of Ethé 105 fol. 1a is to be so read] completed his

Tārīk̲h̲ i Ibrāhīmī or Tārīk̲h̲ i Humāyūnī, a concise general history extending to ah 956/1549 or ah 957/1550:54 Ethé 105 (defective and much damaged. Not later than 1069/1658–9), 104 (ah 1096/1685), Blochet i 336 (ah 1092/1681), Bodleian 97 (old), Rieu iii 1013a (account of Humāyūn only. Circ. ad 1850), 1046a (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850).

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India iv 213–17 (where copies belonging to the Moti Mahall at Lucknow, the Nawwāb of Jhajjar, and Ḥājjī Muḥammad of Peshawar are mentioned).

§ 131. K̲h̲wurs̲h̲āh b. Qubād al-Ḥusainī, a native of al-ʿIrāq, was sent by Burhān Niẓām-S̲h̲āh I of Aḥmadnagar (reigned ah 914/1508–961/1553) on an embassy to S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp, who received him at Qazwīn in 952/1545. In 971/1563–4 he was still at the court of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp, but he is said to have died at Golconda on the 25th of D̲h̲u ’l-Qaʿdah 972/1565. Firis̲h̲tah was unable to obtain a work of his containing a detailed account of the Quṭb-S̲h̲āhs (cf. Rieu i 111a).

(Tārīk̲h̲ Īlc̲h̲ī i Niẓām-S̲h̲āh), a general history to ah 970/1562–3, in a muqaddimah (Adam and Noah) and seven maqālāt ((1) Pre-Islāmic Persia, the Yemen etc., (2) Muḥammad and his successors to the fall of the ʿAbbāsids, (3) dynasties contemporary with the ʿAbbāsids, (4) the Chingizids etc., (5) the Tīmūrids, (6) Qarā-Quyūnlūs, Āq-Quyūnlūs, S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl, S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp, Pādis̲h̲āhs of Rūm, (7) Sulṭāns of India), valuable for the history of Ṭahmāsp and the minor Persian dynasties contemporary with Ismāʿīl and Ṭahmāsp: Rieu i 107a (lacks guftārs 4 (Ṭabaristān and adjacent countries, viz. S̲h̲irwān, Jīlān, Māzandarān, Rustamdār, Hazārjarīb) and 5 (Turkey) of Maqālah vi and whole of Maqālah vii (India), ah 1095/1684), 110a (contains only Maqālah vi guftārs 3 (S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl and S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp), 4 and 5 and Maqālah vii. ah 972/1565), Rieu Suppt. 32 (Maqālahs i–v Maqālah vi guftārs 1 (Qarā-Quyūnlūs), 2 (Āq-Quyūnlūs) and most of 3 (S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl). 18th cent.), Āṣafīyah iii p. 94 no. 1330. Guftārs 4 and 5 of Maqālah vi and Maqālah vii are incorporated in the later recension of the Fawāʾid i Ṣafawīyah represented by Rieu i 133.

Extract (viz. Guftār iv of Maqālah vi on the rulers of S̲h̲irwān, the Jīlānāt, Māzandarān, Rustamdār and Hazārjarīb contemporary with S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl and S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp): C. Schefer Chrestomathie persane, tome ii, Paris 1885°*, pp. 55–104 and (notes) pp. 65–133.

[Autobiographical information in the Tārīk̲h̲; note concerning his death by the transcriber of Rieu i 110a; Rieu i 107a; Schefer Chrestomathie persane ii (notes) 65–8.]

§ 132. Qāḍī Aḥmad b. M. al-G̲h̲affārī al-Qazwīnī was a descendant of the well-known S̲h̲āfiʿī jurist ʿAbd al-G̲h̲affār al-Qazwīnī (author of al-Ḥāwī ’l-ṣag̲h̲īr, d. 665/1266, see Subkī v 118, Brock. i 394), and his father was Qāḍī of Rai. Sām Mīrzā mentions him in his Tuḥfah i Sāmī as a guest in his house. He died ah 975/1567–8 at Daibul in Sind on his return from a ḥajj.

(1)
Nigāristān, composed in 959/1552 and (according to some copies) dedicated to S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp, a collection of 330 historical narratives and anecdotes arranged under dynasties: Ḥ.K̲h̲. vi p. 381, Bodleian 337 (author’s brouillon), 339 (ah 1077/1667 ?), 340, Rieu i 106a (ah 970/1563), 106b (16th cent.), 107a (ah 1014/1605), 107a (ah 1044/1634), 107a (ah 1080/1669), iii 885b (abridged. ah 1188/1775), 1045a (extracts with analysis of the work. Circ. ad 1850), 1065b (ah 1085/1674), Muṣṭafā Efendī 722 = Tauer 151 (ah 988/1580), Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 4353 (1) = Tauer 152 (ah 989/1581), Chanykov 69 (ah 1008/1599), Blochet i 337 (ah 1008/1599), 338 (ah 1032/1622), 339 (early 17th cent.), 340 (ditto), 341 (ah 1062/1651), 342 (ah 1074/1663), 343 (ah 1099/1687), Lindesiana p. 143 no. 400 (circ. 1600), no. 22 (before ah 1058), no. 326 (circ. 1650), no. 327 (circ. 1700), nos. 324–5 (circ. 1750), Bānkīpūr vi 470 (ah 1018/1609), Browne Pers. Cat. 59 (ah 1023/1614), Suppt. 1327 (n.d. Corpus 3), Dorn a.m. p. 205, p. 383, p. 676 (ah 1058/1648), Ḥakīmog̲h̲lū ʿAlī 816 = Tauer 156 (ah 1072/1662), Krafft 246 (List of the Anecdotes. ah 1085/1674), Berlin 414 (ah 1110/ 1699), Amīrī Efendī Pers. 781 = Tauer 157 (ah 1119/1707), Ethé 606–613, i.o. D.P. 773 (16th cent.), i.o. 3939, Ivanow 298 (17th cent.), 299, Yeñī 910 = Tauer 153 (17th cent.), Asʿad 2941 = Tauer 154 (17th cent.), Būhār 7 (ah 1168/1755 ?), Eton 89 (ah 1197/1782–3), Aberystwyth 1 (ah 1210/1795), d.m.g. 8 (ah 1211/1796–7), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 3 (May 1926) p. 57 (ah 1239/1824)), Āṣafīyah i p. 230 no. 766, p. 258 nos. 258 and 360, Breslau 20, Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 113, Dorn 285 (defective), Leningrad Pub. Lib. (see Mélanges asiatiques iii (St. Petersburg 1859) p. 727), Asiat. Mus. (see Mélanges asiatiques vi (1873) p. 122), Leyden iii p. 6 no. 915, Mas̲h̲had iii p. 103, r.a.s. P. 55 = Morley 42, Rehatsek p. 88 no. 27, Romaskewicz p. 15 no. 1107*, Salemann-Rosen p. 20 nos. 95, 184, 616.

Editions: Bombay 1829°*, 1275/1859°.

Extracts: Dorn, Muhammedanische Quellen zur Geschichte der südlichen Küstenländer des Kaspischen Meeres, St. Petersburg 1850–8°*, iv 423–5.

Descriptions: (1) Hammer-Purgstall Geschichte der schönen Redekünste Persiens, Vienna 1818, pp. 307–9 (where a German translation of the first anecdote is given), (2) Elliot and Dowson History of India ii 504.

Turkish translation: b.m. ms. Add. 7852.

(2)
Nusak̲h̲ i jahān-ārā (chron. = 972/1564–5), commonly called the Jahān-ārā, a general history to ah 972/1564–5, dedicated to S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp, valuable for local and otherwise little-known dynasties instructively arranged “according to the affiliation or natural connection of dynasties” (Rieu), and divided into an ʿunwān (on the age of the world and prophetship) and three nusak̲h̲ ((1) on the Prophets and the 12 Imāms, (2) Pre-Islamic and Islamic kings, (3) the Ṣafawīs): Ḥ.K̲h̲. under Jahān-ārāy, Bāyazīd 2397 = Tauer 158 (ah 990/1582. Bad ms.), i.o. D.P. 626 (ah 997/1589), Ethé 106 (n.d.), 107 (lacunæ), 108 (lacunæ), Rieu i 111b (17th cent. Full Analysis), 109b (extracts only), ii 808b, Bodleian 98 (n.d.), Breslan 21, Flügel ii 837 (last five ṣafḥahs of Nusk̲h̲ah ii and Nusk̲h̲ah iii. Modern transcript of a ms. of ah 990), Browne Coll. G. 10 (13) = Houtum-Schindler 6 (incomplete: ends at 927/1521).

Text and trans. of the chapters on the Pīs̲h̲dādians, Kayānians, Mulūk al-ṭawāʾif, and Sāsānians: Epitome of the ancient history of Persia. Extracted and translated from the Jehan AraBy W. Ouseley, London 1799°*.

Descriptions: (1) Wiener Jahrbücher, vol. 69, Anz. Blatt, pp. 35–7, (2) Elliot and Dowson History of India iv 298–300.

[Tuḥfah i Sāmī; Nafāʾis al-maʾāt̲h̲ir; Haft iqlīm no. 1265; ʿAbd al-Qādir Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ iii 185; Ilāhī (Sprenger p. 70); Ātas̲h̲-kadah no. 516; S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman p. 57; Raḥmān ʿAlī 18; Ency. Isl. under G̲h̲affārī.]

§ 133. M. Muṣliḥ al-Dīn b. Ṣalāḥ b. Jalāl b. Kamāl b. M. al-Lārī al-Anṣārī al-Saʿdī al-ʿUbādī55 al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, a native of Lār, studied, doubtless at S̲h̲īrāz, under Mīr G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Manṣūr S̲h̲īrāzī, Mullā Ṣadrā’s son (d. 948/1541–2 or 949/1542–3, see Majālis al-muʾminīn 350, Rauḍāt al-jannāt iv 129–30, Rieu ii 826, Brockelmann ii 414), and Mīr Kamāl al-Dīn Ḥusain [b. M. b Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn b. ʿAlī al-Lārī ?], a pupil of al-Dawwānī’s [presumably he who in 918/1512–13 or 928/1521–2 completed a commentary on al-Dawwānī’s al-Zaurāʾ, see Ahlwardt 3226, Ḥ.K̲h̲. iii 6113 and 6874]. Subsequently he went to India and was well received by Humāyūn (reigned 937/1530–963/1556). On Humāyūn’s death he went on the pilgrimage to Mecca and thence to Constantinople. Dissatisfied with the stipend granted to him, he migrated to Āmid, where Iskandar Pās̲h̲ā appointed him first tutor to himself and his sons and then [in 967/1559 according to Babinger] Director of K̲h̲usrau Pās̲h̲ā’s Madrasah. He died at Āmid, more than sixty years old, in D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 979/1572. He was the author of several commentaries and ḥawās̲h̲ī (see the list in al-ʿIqd al-manẓūm) including (1) S̲h̲amāʾil i Nabawī, a Persian commentary on al-Tirmid̲h̲ī’s S̲h̲amāʾil al-Nabī (see p. 136 infra), (2) a commentary on al-Qūs̲h̲jī’s Persian Risālah fī ’l-haiʾah (mss.: Decourdemanche s.p. 1879, Flügel ii 1423), (3) a ḥās̲h̲iyah on al-Maibud̲h̲ī’s commentary on al-Abharī’s Hidāyat al-ḥikmah (see Ahlwardt 5067, Brockelmann i 464).

Mirʾāt al-adwār wa-mirqāt al-ak̲h̲bār, a general history from the Creation to the accession of Sulṭān Salīm ii b. Sulaimān, ah 974/1566, divided into a muqaddimah and 10 bābs (the tenth dealing with Ottoman history) and having in the latter part biographies of scholars etc. inserted after the most important reigns: Ḥ.K̲h̲. v p. 479 no. 11718, Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3156 = Tauer 159 (ah 987/1579), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3085 = Tauer 160 (ah 1029/1620), K̲h̲āliṣ Efendī 4374 = Tauer 161 (17th cent.), Rieu i 115b (breaks off in 934/1527–8. 17th cent.), Blochet i 344 (early 18th cent.), Flügel ii 838 (an abridgment. ah 1135/1723), Ethé 109 (defective at beginning. N.d.), Mas̲h̲had iii p. 101, Leningrad Imp. Pub. Lib. (see Mélanges asiatiques iii (St. Petersburg 1859) p. 728), Mus. Asiat. (see Mélanges asiatiques iv (St. Petersburg 1860–3) p. 498 and vi (1873) p. 122).

Amplified Turkish translation (omitting Bāb x (Ottoman history)) by the well-known Saʿd al-Dīn b. Ḥasan Jān (d. 1008/1599, see Ency. Isl. under K̲h̲od̲j̲a Efendī, Babinger Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen pp. 123–6 etc.): Ḥ.K̲h̲. v, p. 479, Flügel ii 845, Lindesiana p. 257. For other mss. (several at Constantinople) see Babinger Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen pp. 94–5.

[ʿAlī b. Bālī al-ʿIqd al-manẓūm fī d̲h̲ikr afāḍil al-Rūm (in Arabic), on margin of Ibn K̲h̲allikān. Cairo 1310, vol. ii pp. 247–252; Haft iqlīm no. 265; M. Maʿṣūm Tārīk̲h̲ i Sind, tr. Malet, p. 131; ‘Aṭāʾī Ḥadāʾiq al-ḥaqāʾiq fī takmilat al-S̲h̲aqāʾiq (in Turkish), Stambul 1268, p. 169 foll.; Rieu i 116; Brockelmann ii 420; Babinger Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen p. 94.]

§ 134. Muns̲h̲ī Būdāq Qazwīnī dedicated to S̲h̲ah Ismāʿīl ii (reigned ah 984/1576–985/1578) his

Jawāhir al-ak̲h̲bār, a general history to ah 984/1576–7: Dorn 288 (autograph).

Extract relating to Tīmūr’s expedition against Tuqtāmis̲h̲ K̲h̲ān: Expédition de Timoûr-i-Lènk ou Tamerlan contre Toqtamiche … en 795 … ou 1391, par M. Charmoy (in Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale des sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg, vie série, sciences politiques, histoire et philologie, tome iii (St. Petersburg 1836°*)) pp. 350–7.

French translation of the above extract: ibidem pp. 492–501. [Jawāhir al-ak̲h̲bār towards end.]

§ 135. In the year 993/1585 Akbar gave orders for the compilation of a history of Islām down to the thousandth year of the Hijrah (cf. ʿAbd al-Qādir Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ ii 318–19 etc.). Short periods having been assigned to different compilers, Naqīb K̲h̲ān56 and S̲h̲āh Fatḥ Allāh57 (to whom were allotted the first and the second year respectively), Ḥakīm Humām,58 Ḥakīm ʿAlī,59 Ḥājjī Ibrāhīm Sirhindī,60 Mirzā Niẓām al-Dīn Aḥmad,61 ʿAbd al-Qādir Badāʾūnī62 and others, thirty-five years were finished in the course of a week. For the period from the thirty-sixth year onwards Mullā Aḥmad b. Naṣr Allāh Daibulī Tattawī63 was made solely responsible. He had written two volumes extending to the time of G̲h̲āzān K̲h̲an64 when in 996/1588 he was murdered, and the continuation of the work was entrusted to Āṣaf K̲h̲ān (Jaʿfar Bēg),65 who brought it down to 997/1588–9. In 1000/1591–2 ʿAbd al-Qādir Badāʾūnī was ordered to revise the work and in one year he dealt with the first two volumes. The third66,67 he entrusted to Āṣaf K̲h̲ān.

Tārīk̲h̲ i alfī, a large history of Islām from the Riḥlat, or death of the Prophet (which is treated here as the beginning of an era), to ah 997/1588–9: Ethé 112 (vols. ii–iv (Riḥlat 183/ah 193/ad 808–9—Riḥlat 987/ah 997/ad 1588–9). ah 1015/1606), 110 (first half, down to ah 510/1116–17. ah 1058/1648), 111 (vol. ii, defective at end (Riḥlat 135/ah 145/ad 762–3—Riḥlat 506/ah 516/ad 1122–3)), 113 (vols. ii (small part only), iii, iv defective at end (Riḥlat 484/ah 494/ad 1100–1—Riḥlat 975/ah 985/ad 1577–8)), 114 (part of 2nd half, Riḥlat 545/ah 555/ad 1160—Riḥlat 974/ah 984/ad 1576–7), 115 (part of 2nd half, Riḥlat 585/ah 595/ad 1199—Riḥlat 974/ah 984/ad 1576–7), 116 (part of 2nd half, Riḥlat 553/ah 563/ad 1167–8—Riḥlat 932/ah 942/ad 1535–6), 117 (Riḥlat 501/ah 511/ad 1117–18—Riḥlat 679/ah 689/ad 1290), 118 (extracts only), Rieu i 117a (nearly the first half, breaking off in Riḥlat 581/ah 591/ad 1195. 17th cent.), 1186 (to Riḥlat 503/ah 513/ad 1119–20. 18th cent.), 118b (Riḥlat 351/ah 361/ad 971–2— Riḥlat 649/ah 659/ad 1261. 18th cent.), 119a (defective at end, Riḥlat 650/ ah 660/ad 1261–2—Riḥlat 974/ah 984/ad 1576–7. Same hand), iii 885b (extracts. Circ. ad 1850), 1011a (extracts. ad 1848), 1014a (extracts. Circ. ad 1850), 1022a (abstract only. Circ. ad 1850), Suppt. 424 (vol. ii, defective at end (Riḥlat 501/ah 511/ad 1117–18—Riḥlat 791/ah 801/ad 1398–9. 18th cent.)), Lindesiana p. iii nos. 903–4 (vols. ii–iii. Circ. ad 1750), Ivanow 41 (part of vol. i (ah 11/632–3—ah 96/714–15. 18th cent.)), Curzon 4 (vols. i–ii (Riḥlat 1/ah 11/ad 632–3—Riḥlat 503/ah 513/ad 1119–20. 17–18th cent.)), Blochet i 345 (ending with Riḥlat 919/ah 929/ad 1522–3. Late 18th cent.), 346 (ah 681/1282–3—ah 985/1577–8. 18th cent.), 347 (Riḥlat 553/ah 563/ad 1167–8—Riḥlat 575/ah 585/ad 1189. 18th cent.), Bodleian 99 (Riḥlat 1/ah 11/ad 632–3—Riḥlat 698/ah 708/ad 1308–9. Early 19th cent.), Berlin 417 (first half, down to Riḥlat 550/ah 560/ad 1164–5. Relatively old), Browne Suppt. 229 (down to ah 708/1308–9. King’s 112), Majlis 222 (to Riḥlat 500/ah 510/ad 1116–17), 223 (Riḥlat 687/ah 697/ad 1297–8—Riḥlat 936/ah 946/ad 1539–40), Mas̲h̲had iii p. 74 (vol. i), p. 75 (vol. ii (Riḥlat 501/ah 511/ad 1117–18—Riḥlat 984/ah 994/ad 1586)), Rehatsek p. 94 no. 42 (Riḥlat 708/ah 718/ad 1318–19—Riḥlat 984/ah 994/ad 1586), p. 95 no. 44 (Riḥlat 553/ah 563/ad 1167–8— Riḥlat 707/ah 717/ad 1317–18), Eton 40 (selections).

Rough ms. English translation by Major H.G. Raverty: i.o. mss. Eur. D. 221–3.

Description and 17 pp. of translated extracts: Elliot and Dowson History of India v 150–76 (cf. Elliot Bibliographical index, pp. 143–62 and ۴۶-۳۸ (Persian text of the extracts)).

Abridgment: Aḥsan al-qaṣaṣ wa-dāfiʿ al-g̲h̲aṣaṣ, compiled ah 1248/1832–3 by Aḥmad b. Abī ’l-Fatḥ al-S̲h̲arīf al-Iṣfahānī: Houtum-Schindler 12 = Browne Coll. G. 13 (12), Leningrad Asiat. Mus. (see Mélanges asiatiques vi (St. Petersburg 1869–73) p. 121), Mas̲h̲had iii p. 73 (ah 1298/1881).

§ 136. Mir M. S̲h̲arif “Wuqūʿī” Ḥusainī Nīs̲h̲āpūrī belonged to a distinguished family of Nīs̲h̲āpūrī Saiyids. He entered the service of the Emperor Akbar for the second time in 998/1590 and died (at Lahore according to the K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah) in 1002/1593–4. Verses by him are quoted in the Āʾīn i Akbarī, and by Badāʾūnī, who speaks of him as an excellent calligraphist and letter-writer and well acquainted with history, but a believer in tanāsuk̲h̲ and other heresies.

Majāmiʿ al-ak̲h̲bār, a compendium of history to ah 1000/1591–2 in two maqālahs ((1) Pre-Islāmic (2) Islāmic): Ethé 119 (not later than ah 1027/1618).

[Taqī Kās̲h̲ī K̲h̲ulāṣat al-as̲h̲ʿār (see Sprenger p. 33, where “Wuqūʿī” is given among the poets of Ād̲h̲arbāijān); Ṭabaqāt i Akbarī ii 505; Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ iii 378–81; Āʾīn i Akbarī, ed. Blochmann, p. 254, tr. Blochmann, p. 591; Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Raḥīmī iii 687–97; Safīnah i K̲h̲wus̲h̲gū ii (Bodleian 376) no. 292; Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (Ivanow Curzon 57) no. 2507; K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah (Bodleian 381) no. 127; K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār (Bodleian 391) no. 462; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib (Bodleian 395) no. 2940.]

§ 137. Ṭāhir Muḥammad Sabzawārī was the son of K̲h̲wājah ʿImād al-Dīn Ḥasan, who in 988/1580–1 was Governor of Cambay. His elder brother K̲h̲wājagī Sulṭān Aḥmad was one of the poets of Akbar’s court. In 987/1579–80 Akbar sent him to the garrison of Goa and in 1013/1604–5 from Āgrah to Burhānpūr with a message to the K̲h̲ān-k̲h̲ānān. In 1015/1606–7 he accompanied Sulṭān K̲h̲urram [afterwards the Emperor S̲h̲āh-Jahān] from Āgrah to Jahāngīr’s court at Lahore.

Rauḍat al-ṭāhirīn, sometimes called the Tārīk̲h̲ i Ṭāhirī, a general history to ah 1014/1605–6, in 5 qisms ((1) Prophets, early Persian and Arabian kings, (2) Caliphs etc. (3) C̲h̲ingiz and his descendants, Tīmūr etc., Ṣafawīs, (4) Hindu traditions from the Mahābhārata etc. (5) Indian history abridged from the Ṭabaqāt i Akbarī): Rieu i 119b (lacks preface. ah 1045–6/1635–6), ii 797b (preface, contents and 1st 5 pp. of Qism i only. ah 1197/1783), iii 886a (rubrics and some extracts. Circ. ad 1850), iii 1024b (last chapter (on islands) only. ad 1850), iii 1040a (extracts. Circ. ad 1850), Būhār 8 (17th cent.), Ivanow 42 (Qisms i–iii only. 17th cent.), Berlin 415 (part of Qism i only, def. at both ends, breaking off in history of Alexander), Bodleian 100, Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (lacks first 2 or 3 leaves and part of Qism v. See Mélanges asiatiques v (St. Petersburg, 1868), pp. 119–20), Majlis 256 (Qisms iv–v (?)).

Descriptions and 2 pp. of translated extracts (on M. b. Sām and M. ʿĀdil): Elliot Bibliographical index, 298–304 (text of the extracts pp. ۷۲۶۹), Elliot and Dowson History of India vi 195–209.

[Autobiographical statements of the author; inscription described by Rieu (ii 788b); Rieu i 119–20, ii 788b, iii 1080a.]

§ 138. Ḥasan Bēg b. M. Bēg K̲h̲ākī S̲h̲īrāzī, a member of an old family of S̲h̲īrāz, went to India in the reign of Akbar, by whom he was sent in 1007/1598–9 as Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī to Gujarāt. In 1019/1610–11 Jahāngīr appointed him Dīwān of the ṣūbah of Bihār, and he died at Patna in Ṣafar 1022/1613. He was part-author of the tad̲h̲kirah entitled But-k̲h̲ānah (Bodleian 366).

Muntak̲h̲ab (or, as in some copies, Aḥsan) al-tawārīk̲h̲, a general history to ah 1021/1612–13 based mainly on the Nusak̲h̲ i jahān-ārā (for which see p. 89 supra) and, for Indian history, on the Ṭabaqāt i Akbarī: Rehatsek p. 84 no. 24 (ah 1060/1650), i.o. 3734 (ah 1145/1733), Eton 163, Rieu iii 886a (ah 1212/1797), 1015a (extracts only. ad 1850–1), 1047b (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850).

Descriptions and 3 pp. of translated extracts (on ah 1003–8 and ah 1019): Elliot Bibliographical index 305–9 (text of the extracts pp. ۷۵۷۳), Elliot and Dowson History of India vi 201–6.

[Autobiographical statements in the Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ (cf. Elliot and Dowson vi pp. 205, 206); note by his friend ʿAbd al-Laṭīf al-ʿAbbāsī prefixed to i.o. ms. 3734; Tārīk̲h̲ i Muḥammadī (Rieu 895a) fol. 141; Rieu iii 886, 1096a.]

§ 139. Aḥmad b. Bahbal b. Jamāl Kanbō68 compiled circ. 1023/1614, in Jahāngīr’s reign, his Maʿdin i ak̲h̲bār i Aḥmadī (or Jahāngīrī), a general history in two volumes ((1) Pīs̲h̲dādians to Ibrāhīm Lōdī, (2) Tīmūr to Jahāngīr) divided into sections called d̲h̲ikr: Rieu iii 888a (part of vol. i, early Persian kings to G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn K̲h̲aljī of Lakhnautī. 18th cent.), 1034a (abstract only. 18th cent.), 1034a (1st 14 d̲h̲ikrs (Pīs̲h̲dādians—K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs). 18th cent.), Ethé 121 (part of vol. ii, Tīmūr to ah 999/1590–1 (Akbar)).

§ 140. Ḥaidar b. ʿAlī Ḥusainī Rāzī began in 1020/1611–12 and finished in 1028/1618–19 at the age of 35 his

(Tārīk̲h̲ i Ḥaidarī), called by Blochet and on a fly-leaf of the b.m. ms. Majmaʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲, and in an endorsement on a Berlin ms. Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲, a vast general history divided into five bābs ((1) the Arab world, (2) the Persian world, (3) Central and Eastern Asia, (4) the West, (5) India): Berlin 418 (slightly defective at end. Not later than ah 1089/ 1678–9), 419 (Bāb i only, defective at end), Blochet 541–2 (apparently lacking Bāb i and first half of Bāb ii. ah 1279/1862–3), Rieu Suppt. 33 (main part of Bāb ii and last portion: of Bāb i. ah 1272/1855).

Extracts: (1) [Preface only (with Latin translation)] Mohammedi filii Chondschahi vulgo Mirchondi Historia Gasnevidarum, Berlin 1832°*, pp. xii–xvi (several other extracts in the notes to this work). (2) [Chapters on the Qarā-K̲h̲ānids and the Qarā-K̲h̲itāʾīs] Descriptionde Boukhara parNerchakhy, ed. Schefer, Paris 1892°*, pp. 230–43.

Detailed description with extracts: Über die Chronik des Haidar Ben Ali Husaini er-Razi; von Dr. Richard Gosche (in ms. Rieu iii 887b).

Descriptions: (1) Elliot and Dowson History of India ii 431, vi 574, (2) W. Barthold, Turkestan, London 1928, p. 37.

[Ency. Isl. under Ḥaidar b. ʿAlī (Barthold).]

§ 141. M. Amīn b. Daulat M. al-Ḥusainī al-Bālakī69 was in the service of Sipahdār K̲h̲ān (Mirzā M. Ṣāliḥ Tabrīzī), Governor (Qalʿah-dār) of Aḥmadnagar, when in 1036/1626–7 he compiled at Aḥmadnagar his

Anfaʿ al-ak̲h̲bār (a chronogram = 1036), a general history: Rieu iii 1023a (extracts relating chiefly to events at Aḥmadnagar in Jahāngīr’s time. Circ. ad 1850).

Description and 3 ½ pp. of translated extracts (on ah 1003, 1012–14 (Akbar) and 1036 (Jahāngīr) and a fragment of the K̲h̲ātimah (on Sipahdār K̲h̲ān): [Elliot Bibliographical index 389–9470 (Persian text of the extracts, pp. ۹۴۹۱)], Elliot and Dowson History of India vi 244–50.

§ 142. Mirzā M. Ṣādiq “Ṣādiqī” b. M. Ṣāliḥ Zubairī Iṣfahānī Āzādānī71 was born ah 1018/1609 at Sūrat, where his father was in the service of ʿAbd al-Raḥīm, the K̲h̲ān-k̲h̲ānān. S̲h̲āh-Jahān appointed him news-writer (Wāqiʿah-nawīs), and soon after his accession (ah 1037/1627) gave him a jāgīr in Bengal. He went to Jahāngīrnagar (Dacca), which was then the capital of the province, and served the successive Governors Qāsim K̲h̲ān and Aʿẓam K̲h̲ān. In the governorship of Islām K̲h̲ān he was confined at Salīmābād until 1048/1638. He died in Bengal ah 1061/1651 at the age of forty-three. He was the paternal uncle of Ṭāhir Naṣrābādī, the author of the well-known tad̲h̲kirah. His S̲h̲āhid i ṣādiq, an immense miscellany containing extracts, proverbs, anecdotes, etc. arranged under innumerable subject-headings, was begun in 1054/1644–5 and the collection of the materials occupied three years (for copies see Bānkīpūr ix 913, Berlin 96, Būhār 468, Ethé 2226–7, Ivanow 1365–6, Majlis 770, Rieu ii 775, iii 1005). The “Taḥqīq al-iʿrāb” and the “Taqwīm al-buldān”, of which an English translation by J.C. was published at London in 1832 under the title of The Geographical Works of Sádik Isfaháni (Oriental Translation Fund), are extracts from the S̲h̲āhid i ṣādiq.

Ṣubḥ i ṣādiq,72 begun ah 1041/1631–2, finished ah 1048/1638–9, dedicated to S̲h̲āh S̲h̲ujāʿ, S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s second son, and divided into four volumes (mujallad) (viz. (1) from the Creation to the ʿAbbāsids, (2) Persian dynasties before C̲h̲ingiz to S̲h̲āh-Jahān, (3) celebrated men of the 1st ten centuries, (4) geography): Bānkīpūr vi 471–4 (vols. i–ii. 17th cent.), Bodleian 102 (vol. i only. ah 1197/1783), 106 (extract on events in Transoxiana ad 990–1610), 107 (a transcript of 106 ?), 108 (extract on the Mug̲h̲als, C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān, Tīmūr etc. ah 1194/1780), 109 (a transcript of 108 ?), 110 (biographies of amīrs in reigns of Bābur and Humāyūn. ah 1194/1780), 111 (transcript of 110), 112 (extracts relating to Humāyūn’s stay in Persia. ah 1194/1780), 113 (transcript of 112), Būhār 45 (extracts corresponding to Bodleian 106–13. ah 1197/1783), Ivanow Curzon 695 (first 5 of the 8 maṭlaʿs of vol. i. 19th cent.), Rieu iii 889a (extracts from vol. iii. 19th cent.).

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India vi 453.

[Autobiography in Ṣubḥ i ṣādiq vol. iii, maṭlaʿ 12; Tad̲h̲kirah i Ṭāhir i Naṣrābādī (in Ṣaff i, Firqah 2); Gul i raʿnā; Tārīk̲h̲ i Muḥammadī (Rieu iii 895) fol. 197; Rieu ii 775, iii 1093b ult. Bānkīpūr vi 471.]

§ 143. Najm al-Dīn Aḥmad b. Faḍl Allāh al-K̲h̲ūzānī73 called Aḥmad Bēg K̲h̲ān al-Iṣfahānī, having in his wanderings come to the Deccan, was employed there “in the service of the kings”. He is said to have been a son-in-law of Bāqir K̲h̲ān Najm i T̲h̲ānī (for whom see Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i 409–12).

Ṭirāz al-ak̲h̲bār (a chronogram = 1052/1642–3, the date of commencement), a large general history divided into an iftitāḥ, two kitābs and an ik̲h̲titām and dedicated to Aurangzēb: Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (Iftitāḥ and Kitāb i (pre-Islāmic history) only). Autograph. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1926), p. 58), Ethé 122 (Kitāb i only), Rieu iii 1056a (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), Āṣafīyah ii p. 878 no. 137 (? author not stated), Yaḥyā Efendī 274 (? author not stated).

§ 144. M. Yūsuf b. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Raḥmat Allāh Aṭakī Kanʿānī was born at Kanʿān [?]74 but his family belonged to Attock, where he lived. It was to S̲h̲āh-Jahān that he dedicated his

Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲, completed ah 1056/1646–7, a general history consisting of extracts from earlier histories divided into a muqaddimah (on the creation etc.), five qisms ((1) prophets and sages, (2) early Persian kings and their contemporaries, (3) Muḥammad and the Caliphs, (4) Islāmic local dynasties, (5) Imāms, saints, scholars and poets) and a k̲h̲ātimah (geographical) and ending with the accession of S̲h̲āh-Jahān ah 1037: Browne Pers. Cat. 60 (Qisms iv, v and K̲h̲ātimah. ah 1101/1688 [?]), Rieu i 122b (Qisms i, ii and K̲h̲ātimah. ah 1139/1726), 124a (Qisms iv, v and K̲h̲ātimah. 18th cent.), iii 889b (Qisms i–iii, defective. Circ. 1850), Būhār 9 (Qisms i–iii. 19th cent.), Bānkīpūr vi 476 (contains all the qisms, but is defective and damaged. 19th cent.), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (Qism v, Bāb 2 only (biographical), see Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 3 (May 1926) p. 58).

An abridgment: Intik̲h̲āb i Muntak̲h̲ab i tawārīk̲h̲ or Intik̲h̲āb i Muntak̲h̲ab, by ʿAbd al-S̲h̲akūr b. S̲h̲. ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ Tattawī, finished ah 1084/1673–4 under Aurangzēb: Ethé 123 (ah 1155/1742 [?]), Majlis 218.

§ 145. Muṣṭafā b. ʿAbd Allāh called Kātib C̲h̲elebī. but best known in Europe as Ḥājjī K̲h̲alīfah, was born at Istanbul in D̲h̲ū ’l-Qaʿdah 1017/Feb.–March 1608. At the age of fourteen he enlisted in the cavalry corps of the Siliḥdārs and at the same time he was appointed a junior clerk in the Anatolian Audit Office. From 1033/1624 to 1045/1635 he served almost continuously with the army in the campaigns against Abāzah Pās̲h̲ā, the rebel governor of Erzerūm, and the Persians. In 1663–4 while the army was wintering in Aleppo he performed the pilgrimage to Mecca. He returned to Istanbul after the conquest of Erivan in 1045/1635 and devoted himself increasingly to literary work, having inherited a considerable fortune. In 1055/1645 he resigned his appointment in the Office of Control of the Cavalry (Suwārī Bās̲h̲ Muqābalah Qalamī), to which he had been attached since 1038/1628–9 apparently, but three years later he was given the post of second k̲h̲alīfah in that office. He died on 17 Dhū ’l-Ḥijjah 1067/6 Oct. 1657 at the age of fifty lunar years.

The Ency. Isl. gives a list of twenty-two works written by him, beginning with an Arabic Fad̲h̲lakah written in 1051/1641–2 and ending with the Mīzān al-ḥaqq fī ’k̲h̲tiyār al-aḥaqq, also in Arabic, written in Ṣafar 1067/Nov. 1656. By far the most celebrated of these is the bibliographical dictionary Kas̲h̲ f al-ẓunūn ʿan asāmī ’l-kutub wa-’l-funūn, of which the first volume was completed in 1064/1653–4. Also well-known are the two Turkish works, Jahān-numā, on geography, and Tuḥfat al-kibār fī asfār al-biḥār, on the history of the Ottoman navy.

Taqwīm al-tawārik̲h̲, chronological tables of events from the creation to ah 1058/1648, the date of compilation, in Persian so far as the tables themselves are concerned but with Turkish introduction and appendices: Ḥ.K̲h̲. ii p. 395 no. 3496, Āq-sarāy 735,75 Asʿad 2234, Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3162, Bāyazīd 2409–11, Berlin Turkish Cat. 195, 196–8 (fragments), Būhār 10 (possibly autograph), Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 51, Cairo Turkish Cat. 194, C̲h̲elebī ʿAbd Allāh 257, Fleischer p. 518 no. 273 (ah 1061/1651), Flügel ii 866, Gotha Turkish Cat. 147 (very defective), Hamburg 266 (continued to ah 1095/1683), Ḥamīdīyah 929, K̲h̲usrau Pās̲h̲ā 379–80, Köprülü 1064, Krafft 252, Leyden iii no. 937, Lindesiana 146, Mehren 45, Munich Staatsbibl. 60, 61 (Aumer Turk. Cat. 18), Murād 1451 (“Tārīk̲h̲ i Taqwīm.” Author not stated), Paris Bibl. Nat. c.r. 45, Rieu Turkish Cat. 33 foll., Schefer Turkish MSS. 1149, Stockholm 77, ʿUmūmīyah 4990, Upsala 251, 252, Venice Marciana 79, Yeñi 839.

Editions: Istanbul 1146/1733 (with a continuation to 1146/1733 by Ibrāhīm Mutafarriqah, the printer of the work. See Babinger Die Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen p. 197), Paris 1291/1874 (a fragment only, ending with p. 128,76 continued from 1147/1734 to 1227/1812 by ʿAlī Suʿāwī, for whom the fragment was printed).

Italian translation: Cronologia Historica scritta in linguaturca, persiana & araba da Hazi Halifé Mustafa, e tradottada G.R. Carli, Venice 1697° (see Edwards col. 574, Babinger Die Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen, p. 197).

Latin translation: by J.J. Reiske (ms. in Royal Library at Copenhagen. See Babinger loc. cit.).

Arabic translation: Cureton-Rieu 1253.

Persian translation by an anonymous writer who came across the original at Bag̲h̲dād in 1075/1664–5 and translated it with additions: Majlis 247 (where the work is called Ḥuqqah i namak-dān. ah 1091/1680), Ivanow 44 (continued to ah 1108/1697. ah 1146/1733–4), Ethé 2730 (continued to ah 1085/1674 and on the margin to ah 1091/1680. ah 1179/1765), Rieu i 137b (continued to ah 1085/1674. Defective at beginning. 18th cent.), iii 889b (continued to ah 1084/1673–4. 19th cent.), 890a (ad 1849), Eton 168 (?).

For references to some translated extracts (in Italian and German) see Babinger Die Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen p. 197.

[Autobiography at end of the Mīzān al-ḥaqq (German translation in Hammer-Purgstall’s Encyclopädische Übersicht der Wissenschaften des Orients, Leipzig 1804, 3–15); Manāqib i Kātib C̲h̲elebī prefixed to the 1146 edition of the Taqwīm al-tawārīk̲h̲; Brockelmann ii 427–9; Kātib C̲h̲elebī, by Brūsalī M. Ṭāhir, Istanbul 1331/1913; Ency. Isl. under Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa (by J.H. Mordtmann), q.v. for further information: Babinger Die Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen 195–203; Sarkis Dictionnaire encyclopédique de bibliographie arabe col. 732–4.]

§ 146. M. Bāqir b. ʿInāyat Allāh b. Ṣadr al-Dīn M. Tabrīzī known as (mus̲h̲tahir bi-) Afṣaḥ was in the service of Sulṭān Murād-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲, S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s fourth son (Ṣūbah-dār of Gujarāt ah 1064/1654–1067/1656–7), upon whom he was in attendance at Aḥmadābād when he compiled from books that he found there his

Afṣaḥ al-ak̲h̲bār, a general history to the accession of S̲h̲āh-Jahān ah 1037/1628 in 7 bābs: Rieu i 121b (lacks Bābs v (Maḥmūd G̲h̲aznawī, Kings of Delhi and Indian local dynasties) and vi (Bābur to Jahāngīr and S̲h̲ēr S̲h̲āh). 18th cent.).

§ 147. Kamāl K̲h̲ān b. Jalāl Munajjim went as astrologer with the Sipah-sālār Rustam K̲h̲ān77 in his Georgian campaign ah 1041/1631–2–1042/1632–3 and was similarly sent in 1059/1649 to the army of Qandahār. Sir J. Malcolm calls him M. Kamāl b. Ismāʿīl, an officer of eminence at the court of ʿAbbās ii. Morley calls him royal astrologer.

Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲, a concise general history including a detailed account of the Ṣafawīs to ah 1063/1652: ʿĀṭif Efendi 1861 = Tauer 450 (autograph ?), r.a.s. P. 56 = Morley 43 (ah 1088/1677), Rieu iii 1055 (extracts only, relating principally to S̲h̲āh Ṣafī and ʿAbbās ii).

For a Muk̲h̲taṣar al-tawārīk̲h̲ and a Lubb al-tawārīk̲h̲, one or both of which are ascribed to Kamāl b. Jamāl [sic] Munajjim, see Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 102.

[Autobiographical statements of the author.]

§ 148. M. Ṣafī b. Walī Qazwīnī, already mentioned (p. 15 supra) as the author of the Zēb i tafāsīr, wrote in 1076/1665–6 at Murādābād for Aṣālat K̲h̲ān, the Faujdār, his

Tuḥfat al-ak̲h̲yār, a general history to ah 1076/1665–6: Rieu i 125 (vol. i only (ending with the K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs). 17th cent.), Ivanow Curzon 5 (vol. i, defective at end. 18th cent.).

§ 149. M. Yūsuf “Wālih” was a brother of Ṭāhir Waḥīd, the well-known author of the ʿAbbās-nāmah, and by his influence obtained the post of royal letter-writer (k̲h̲idmat i taḥrīr i arqām). In 1058/1648, when he accompanied S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās on the campaign which resulted in the taking of Qandahār, he was over seventy years of age.

K̲h̲uld i barīn, an enormous general history composed ah 1078/1667–8, in the reign of S̲h̲āh Sulaimān, and divided into eight rauḍahs ((1) Pre-Islāmic prophets and kings, (2) Muḥammad and the Imāms, (3) Umaiyads and ʿAbbāsids, (4) dynasties contemporary with the ʿAbbāsids, (5) C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān and his successors, (6) Tīmūr and his successors, (7) the Qarā-Quyūnlū, the Āq-Quyūnlū and other successors of the Tīmūrids, (8) the Ṣafawīs to ah 1071/1660–1) and a k̲h̲ātimah (S̲h̲āh Sulaimān):78 Browne Coll. G. 14 (15) = Houtum-Schindler 7 (apparently lacking only the k̲h̲ātimah. ah 1271–2/1854–5 and ah 1236/1821), Rieu Suppt. 34 (Ḥadīqah 6 (S̲h̲āh Ṣafī) and Ḥadīqah 7 (S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās ii) of Rauḍah viii).ah 1247/1831), 35 (same portion. ah 1278/1862), Majlis 25279 (Ḥadīqahs 1–4 (S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl, S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp, S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl ii and Sulṭān M. S̲h̲āh) of Rauḍah viii (with a few lacunae). ah 1270/1853–4), 253 (Ḥadīqah 5 (S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās i) of Rauḍah viii).

[Autobiographical statements of the author (see Rieu); Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 3002.]

§ 150. In the time of ʿAbd Allāh Quṭb-S̲h̲āh (ah 1035/1626–1083/1672) and partly at least in the year ah 1078/1667–8 an unknown author composed the

Tārīk̲h̲ i Ganjīnah, a general history, in a dībāc̲h̲ah and twelve k̲h̲izānahs subdivided into ganjīnahs: Rieu iii 1027b (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850).

§ 151. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ M. Baqā “Baqā” b. G̲h̲ulām M. Sahāranpūrī was born at Sahāranpūr in 1037/1627–8. After his father’s death he became a disciple of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ M. Maʿṣūm Sirhindī (son of the celebrated S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Aḥmad Sirhindī called “Mujaddid i alf i t̲h̲ānī”) and began to lead a life of retirement and devotion. Invited to court, however, by Iftik̲h̲ār K̲h̲ān,80 Mir K̲h̲ān-sāmān, he was given employment which left him leisure for literary work. Subsequently he became Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī̱ and Wāqiʿah-nigār at Sahāranpūr, where he built a suburb called Baqāpūrah and where he died 22 S̲h̲aʿbān ah 1094/1683. His works included (1) a Majmūʿah completed ah 1077/1666–7 and consisting of extracts from the Ḥadīqah of Sanāʾī, the Manṭiq al-ṭair and the Mat̲h̲nawī, (2) the Riyāḍ al-auliyāʾ, (3) a Tad̲h̲kirat al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ and (4) the Mirʾāt al-ʿālam.81 All of these by a “courteous fiction”, as Rieu says, are ostensibly the works of M. Bak̲h̲tāwar K̲h̲ān, a favourite eunuch of Aurangzēb’s, who became Dārōg̲h̲ah i K̲h̲awāṣṣān in the 13th year of the reign and died at Aḥmadnagar in the 28th year (15 Rabīʿ i 1096/1685).

(1)
Āyinah (?) i bak̲h̲t,82 composed ah 1068/1657–8 (?) and divided into forty muʿāyanahs, possibly the original draft of the Mirʾāt al-ʿālam: Ivanow Curzon 7 (18th cent.), Browne Suppt. 145 (King’s 42).
(2)
Mirʾāt al-ʿālam, a compendium of eastern history and biography divided into a muqaddimah, seven ārāyis̲h̲, an afzāyis̲h̲ and a k̲h̲ātimah composed ah 1078/1667 (but some later dates occur) and valuable especially for Aurangzēb’s reign: Rieu i 125b (circ. close of 17th cent.), 127b (18th cent.), iii 1022a (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), 1049a (extracts only. Circ. 1850), Ivanow Curzon 6 (v. incompl. Beg. 18th cent.), Bānkīpūr vi 477 (18th cent.), Blochet i 350 (18th cent.), Lindesiana p. 126 no. 827 (circ. ad 1750), Būhār 11 (18th cent.), 12 (extracts), 482 ii (last section only—on Persian poets. 19th cent.), Bodleian 114 (17th–18th cent.), 115, 116, Ethé 124 (n.d.), 125 (fragments), Eton 161, Āṣafīyah i p. 254 no. 513, iii p. 98 no. 1260 (defective), r.a.s. P. 57 = Morley 44, Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 105 (?).

Description and 9 pp. of translated extracts (on Aurangzēb’s habits etc.): Elliot and Dowson History of India vii 145–165.

(3)
Mirʾāt i jahān-numā, an enlarged edition of the preceding work, left unfinished at the author’s death and existing in two recensions:—
(a)
that of his sister’s son M. S̲h̲afīʿ b. M. S̲h̲arīf, who completed his task ah 1095/1684, divided into a muqaddimah, seven ārāyish (pīrāyis̲h̲ acc. to Būhār) and a k̲h̲ātimah: Būhār 13 (early 18th cent.), Rieu iii 890a (little more than latter half of the work. ah 1239/1824), 1020a (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), 1021b (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), [1022a83 (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), 1049a1 (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850)], Eton 164 (vol. i), 165 (vol. ii. Apparently with an extension (by M. Salīm ?) to the 6th year of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (ah 1137)).

Extracts translated by muns̲h̲īs for Sir H. Elliot: b.m. mss. Add. 30,778, foll. 50–139 and Add. 30, 779 foll. 103–123.

(b)
that of his younger brother M. Riḍā, completed in Ṣafar 1111/1699 and divided into a muqaddimah, eleven ārāyis̲h̲ and a k̲h̲ātimah: Ethé 126 (lacks first two leaves. ah 1148/1736), Berlin 420 (1149/1736), Browne Suppt. 1180 (King’s 109), Rieu iii 892 (Pīrāyis̲h̲ 1 of Ārāyis̲h̲ viii on celebrated wazīrs. ad 1850), 1018a (extracts only. ad 1849).

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India vii pp. 146–9.

[Mirʾāt al-ʿālam (Rieu 125b) fol. 478b; Mirʾāt i jahān-numā (end of k̲h̲ātimah in M. S̲h̲afīʿ’s recension, k̲h̲ātimah in M. Riḍa’s recension); Elliot and Dowson History of India vii 150–5; Rieu iii 890–1, 1020a, 1080a; Bānkīpūr vi 477; Ency. Isl. under Muḥammad Baqā.

For Bak̲h̲tāwar K̲h̲ān see Mirʾāt al-ʿālam (end of Afzāyis̲h̲); Maʾāt̲h̲ir i ʿĀlamgīrī 253; Tad̲h̲kirat al-umarāʾ; Elliot and Dowson History of India vii 150–3; Rieu i 125–6; Bānkīpūr vi 477; Ency. Isl. under Bak̲h̲tāwar K̲h̲ān.]

§ 152. ʿAziz Allāh began in 1086/1675–6 and probably completed in 1087/1676–7 (passages concerning later events having apparently been added by a transcriber) his

Zīnat al-tawārīk̲h̲, a valueless general history: Rieu iii 1017b (extracts only (foll. 30–3, 60–72). Circ. ad 1850).

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India vii 166–7.

§ 153. Ḥājjī Muḥammad-Qulī Qājār, a native of Ganjah, belonged to a military family and was himself a soldier. It was in 1097/1685–6 that he composed his

Lubb al-lubāb, an outline of Islāmic history in twenty-three faṣls, of which the last contains short notices of 220 Persian poets: Rieu Suppt. 38 (19th cent.).

§ 154. Najm al-tawārīk̲h̲, a compendium of general history compiled ah 1099/1687–8, the rought draft of an unknown writer: Rieu iii 1035b (extracts only from a ms. at Tōnk. Circ. ad 1850).

§ 155. S. Ḥasan b. S. Murtaḍā al-Ḥusainī composed for S̲h̲āh Sulṭān Ḥusain the Ṣafawī in 1115/1703–4 his

Tārīk̲h̲ i Sulṭānī, a general history in three chapters ((1) the Creation, Prophets, Imāms etc., (2) Pre-Islāmic and Post-Islāmic kings to the Ṣafawī period, (3) the Ṣafawīs to ah 1051/1641–2): Browne Coll. H. 16 (15) = Houtum-Schindler 8 (defective at end).

§ 156. M. ʿAlīm b. Ḥāfiẓ Jān-Muḥammad, Imām and K̲h̲aṭīb of a mosque at Delhi, wrote in 1115/1703–4

Muntak̲h̲ab al-badāʾiʿ, a brief summary of general history: Blochet i 352 (ah 1115/1703–4).

§ 157. Mullā Muḥammad Māh began in 1117/1705–6 his Tanqīh al-ak̲h̲bār, a concise general history to ah 1125/1713 in Farruk̲h̲-siyar’s reign: Ethé 127 (transcribed from an autograph. ah 1128/1716), 128 (defective at both ends), Āṣafīyah i p. 234, no. 524 (defective).

§ 158. Mirzā Muḥammad,84 who may conceivably be identical with Mirzā M. b. Rustam b. Qubād (see p. 110 infra), wrote in 1126/1714 his

Jannāt al-firdaus,85 chronological tables of Muḥammadan dynasties to ah 1126: Rieu i 138a (19th cent.), Bānkipūr vi 478 (19th cent.).

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 413–14.

§ 159. Saiyid Mufaḍḍal K̲h̲ān in his Tīmūr-nāmah i Mufaḍḍalī (for which see below under the histories of the Tīmūrids) calls himself a born slave (k̲h̲ānah-zād) of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh.

Tārīk̲h̲ i Mufaḍḍalī, an extensive general history to the reign of Farruk̲h̲-siyar (ah 1124/1713–1131/1719) in seven maqālahs: Rieu iii 892 (only Maqālah vi (from the Sāmānids to Ibrāhīm Lōdī) and the early part (Tīmūr and S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲) of Maqālah vii (Tīmūr and his descendants). Copied from a damaged original circ. ad 1850), 1049a (extracts only).

Translation of the rubrics and of an abridgment of the C̲h̲ac̲h̲-nāmah contained in it: b.m. ms. Add. 30,778, foll. 1–49.

Description and 3 pp. of translated extracts (relating to S̲h̲āh-Jahān): Elliot and Dowson History of India vii 141–4.86

§ 160. A former companion of Prince M. Muʿaẓẓam (afterwards Bahādur-S̲h̲āh i, reigned ah 1119/1707–1124/1712) compiled ah 1133/1721 his

Miḥakk al-sulūk wa-miṣqalat al-nufūs, a general history intermixed with theological and Ṣūfistic discussions, in fifteen maqālahs and a k̲h̲ātimah: Ethé 129 (lacks 1 or 2 leaves at end).

§ 161. Qipc̲h̲āq K̲h̲ān, commonly called (ʿurf) K̲h̲wājam-Qulī Bēg Balk̲h̲ī, was the son of Qipc̲h̲āq K̲h̲ān, commonly called Imām-Qulī, who was Qūs̲h̲-begī87 to Subḥān-Qulī K̲h̲ān the “Wālī of Tūrān” (i.e. the Jānid ruler of Balk̲h̲ for 23 years and subsequently of Buk̲h̲ārā ah 1091/1680–1114/1702). In 1107/1695–6 he was taken as a prisoner to India, and in 1125/1713 he was at Lahore, then governed for Farruk̲h̲-siyar by ʿAbd al-Ṣamad K̲h̲ān.

Tārīk̲h̲ i Qipc̲h̲āq-K̲h̲ānī, a general history in an introduction (fātiḥah), five bābs and a k̲h̲ātimah, completed in 1134/1721–2, revised in 1137/1724–5 and enlarged in 1138/1726 with an account of that year: Blochet i 348 (circ. 1138 (sic lege)/1726. “Exemplaire de luxe”), Bodleian 117 (probably circ. ad 1782).

[Autobiographical statements of the author in his fātiḥah and k̲h̲ātimah.]

§ 162. M. Muḥsin was Mustaufī to Nādir S̲h̲āh, by whose order he compiled in 1154/1741–2 for the use of Prince Riḍā-Qulī his

Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲, a general history including a short but valuable contemporary record of the decline of the Ṣafawīs and the rise of Nādir and ending with chapters on Luqmān, Barṣīṣā etc.: Rieu Suppt. 36 (18th cent., possibly autograph), Browne Coll. G. 15 (13) = Houtum-Schindler 9.

§ 163. K̲h̲wus̲h̲-ḥāl C̲h̲and b. Jīwan-Rām b. Ānand-Rām Kāyath (i.e. Kāyastha) was a muns̲h̲ī in the office of the Dīwān of the Province of Delhi.88

Tārīk̲h̲ i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī or Nādir al-zamānī, a general history, especially of India, in two maqālahs (viz. (1) Majmaʿ al-ak̲h̲bār (dated 1154/1741–2) in two kaifīyats ((i) Prophets, Caliphs etc. (ii) India to Ibrāhīm Lōdī), (2) Zubdat al-ak̲h̲bār in two maṭlaʿs ((i) Bābur to Rafīʿ al-Daulah, dated 1151/1738, (ii) Muḥammad S̲h̲āh)): Rieu i 128a (latter part of 2nd kaifīyat and most of 1st maṭlaʿ. 18th cent.), iii 894a (Bahādur S̲h̲āh to Rafīʿ al-Daulah. 19th cent.), 894b (same portion. Circ. ad 1850), 1031a (extracts. Circ. ad 1844), Suppt. 37 (1st kaifīyat and latter part of 1st maṭlaʿ (from S̲h̲āh-Jahān). 18th cent.), Berlin 495 (latter part of 1st maṭlaʿ (from death of Aurangzēb) and 2nd maṭlaʿ (Muḥammad S̲h̲āh to ah 1159/1746, followed by short notices of 258 poets (list given by Pertsch)).

ms. trans. of part of 2nd kaifīyat (Bahādur S̲h̲āh to accession of Jahāndār S̲h̲āh) by Lt. R.P. Anderson: b.m. ms. Add. 30,778, foll. 365–401.

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 70–189 (cf. vii p. 565–7, where part (= Rieu iii 894a) is described under the incorrect title Tārīk̲h̲ i Bahādur-S̲h̲āhī, and some extracts (2 pp.) are translated).

[Autobiographical statements of the author; Elliot and Dowson loc. cit.; Rieu i 128, iii 894a.]

§ 164. M. ʿAlī b. M. Ṣādiq Ḥusainī Nīs̲h̲āpūrī Najafī Burhānpūrī composed in 1148/1735–6 and dedicated to Nawwāb Burhān al-Mulk Saiyid Saʿādat K̲h̲ān, Ṣūbah-dār of Oudh, his

Burhān al-futūḥ, a concise general history to ah 1148/1735–6, meritorious in its close attention to dates, divided into a muqaddimah, 18 bābs and a k̲h̲ātimah: Rieu iii 893a (autograph. ah 1148/1736), 1050b (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), Berlin 603 (3) (Faṣl 15 (Sulṭāns of Little Tibet) of Bāb xiii, Bāb xiv (learned men), Bāb xv (ṣūfīs) and part of Bāb xvi (poets). Quite modern).

Translation of the preface and some extracts: b.m. ms. Add. 30,780, foll. 74–105.

Description and 7 pp. of translated extracts: Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 25–36.

Subsequently the author enlarged the work, expanding the history of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh and bringing the narrative down to ah 1169/1756, and dedicated the new edition (entitled Mirʾāt al-ṣafāʾ) to Ṣamṣām al-Daulah S̲h̲āh-nawāz K̲h̲ān (the well-known author of the Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ, d. 1171/1758, see Ency. Isl. under Ṣamṣām al-Dawla).

Mirʾāt al-ṣafāʾ: Ethé 130 (Daftar ii only (from Tīmūr to ah 1169/1755–6). Autograph, ah 1169/1756), Rieu i 129a (a still later edition, continued to ah 1179/1765. ah 1197/1783), iii 894 (extracts (156 foll.). Circ. ad 1850), 1050b (extracts), Āṣafīyah ii p. 110 no. 1300 (defective at both ends), no. 1040.

He wrote also, by order of Nawwāb Mīr Najaf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān S̲h̲amshēr-Jang,

Tārīk̲h̲ i rāḥat-afzā, a history of which the subject is not stated in the Āṣafīyah catalogue: Āṣafīyah iii p. 96 no. 1001 (ah 1298/1881), no. 1313 (ah 1185/1771–2).

§ 165. Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲ēr “Qāniʿ” b. S. ʿIzzat Allāh Tattawī90 was born in 1140/1727–8, wrote a mat̲h̲nawī, Qaḍā u qadar, in 1157/1744–5, another, on the love-story of Kāmrūp and Kāmlatā, in 1169/1755–6, and a dīwān in 1171/1757–8, completed his Maqālāt al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ, on the poets of Sind, in 1174/1760–1, his Tuḥfat al-kirām in 1181/1767–8, and his Miʿyār i sālikān i ṭarīqat in 1202/1787–8, when he had nearly completed his 63rd year.

Tuḥfat al-kirām (a chronogram = 1180/1766–7, the date of inception, ah 1181 being given as the date of completion, but later dates (e.g. 1188) occur), a general history in three volumes (mujallad), of which the last is a special history of Sind: Bānkīpūr vi 479 (ah 1233/1817–18), Rieu ii 846a (ah 1246/1830) iii 950b (vol. i only. ad 1851), 950b (vol. ii only. 19th cent.), 950b (vol. iii only. ah 1261/1845), 950b (vol. iii only. ah 1266/1850).

Edition: Lucknow 1304/1886–7*.

Translations of extracts: (1) Elliot and Dowson History of India i pp. 327–351, (2) A history of Sind, vol.ii91 [to the end of the Kalhōrah dynasty] … Translated from Persian books [viz. the Tuḥfat al-kirām and the Tārīk̲h̲ i Maʿṣūmī] by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg, Karachi 1902°, (3) Account of the expedition of Chachand extracts from the Tôhfat ul Khwán [sic]. [Translated] by Ensign [T.] Postans (in JASB. vii (1838) pp. 93–104, 297–310, (4) Translation of [a part of] the Toofut ul Kiram … By Lieut. [T.] Postans (in JASB. xiv (1845) pp.75–99, 155–73), reprinted separately, [Calcutta, 1845°].

[Maqālāt al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (Rieu ii 848a) foll. 498–509.]

§ 166. Muẓaffar Ḥusain, entitled Mahārat K̲h̲ān, the son of Ḥakīm G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad K̲h̲ān, was born at Aurangābād in 1118/1706. He studied medicine under Ḥakīm M. Ḥusain, entitled Buqrāṭ K̲h̲ān, physician to Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (reigned 1131/1719–1161/1748). Eventually he himself became one of the Royal Physicians. If he was so in 1180/1766–7, when he completed the Jām i jahān-numā, the Emperor in question must have been S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam (reigned 1173/1759–1221/1806). He wrote works entitled Uṣūl al-ṭibb, Sirāj al-ḥajj, Minhāj al-ḥajj, etc.

Jām i jahān-numā, completed ah 1180/1766–7, a miscellany in five books ((1) on the art of conversation, manners etc., (2) history, (3) geography, the famous men of each country and the poets of India, (4) on the angels, the elements, animals etc., (5) on language, grammar, rhetoric etc.): Rieu iii 1019b (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), 1026a (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850).

Translated extracts: b.m. ms. Add. 30,780, foll. 195–214.

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India viii pp. 158–62 (from a ms. belonging to the Rājah of Benares).

[Jām i jahān-numā; Elliot and Dowson loc. cit.]

§ 167. Yūsuf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān b. G̲h̲ulām ʿAlī K̲h̲ān was a friend of ʿAlī-Wirdī K̲h̲ān Mahābat-Jang, the Governor of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa (d. 1169/1755), and married a daughter of ʿAlāʾ al-Daulah Sarfarāz K̲h̲ān. He died before ah 1195/1781. His Tārīk̲h̲ i Mahābat-Jang, a history of ʿAlī-Wirdī K̲h̲ān and his successor S̲h̲ujāʿ al-Daulah, was completed at Allahabad in 1177/1763–4.

Ḥadīqat al-ṣafāʾ, completed 1184/1770, a concise general history in 3 volumes (jild) ((1) Pre-Islāmic times, early Islām, the ʿAbbāsids etc., (2) Tīmūr and the Tīmūrids to Muḥammad S̲h̲āh, (3) Non-Tīmūrid rulers in India, abridged from Firis̲h̲tah) with a k̲h̲ātimah containing a biographical dictionary of Persian poets92 (cf. Sprenger 62): Bodleian 118 (autograph), Rieu ii 872b (vol. iii only. 18th cent.), Berlin 661 (k̲h̲ātimah only. ah 1213/1799), Bānkīpūr vi 480 (most of vol. i and end of k̲h̲ātimah. 19th cent.), Ivanow 45 (18th–19th cent.), 46 (vol. ii only. Early 19th cent.), i.o. 3972 (extracts only).

Extract on the conquest of Assam: Quarterly Oriental Magazine iii pp. 267–285 (see Rieu ii 8726b).

[Sprenger p. 192; Rieu i 312.]

§ 168. M. Aslam b. M. Ḥafīẓ Parasrūrī93 Anṣārī Qādirī, a native of Lucknow, met Colonel J.B.J. Gentil94 at Faiḍābād (Fyzabad) in 1182/1768–9 and was encouraged by him to write his history, which he completed in 1184/1770–1 and dedicated to the reigning Nawwāb-Wazīr of Oudh, S̲h̲ujāʿ al-Daulah.

Farḥat al-nāẓirīn, a history, mainly of India, “somewhat ambitious in style, but of no great value for its contents,” to ah 1184/1770–195 in a muqaddimah (Creation etc.), three maqālahs ((i) Prophets, Caliphs etc., (ii) Rājahs and Sulṭāns of India, (iii) Tīmūr and Indian Tīmūrids to S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam) and a k̲h̲ātimah (geography of India, learned and holy men, family of S̲h̲ujāʿ al-Daulah): Blochet i 550 (late 18th cent.), Rieu i 131a (breaks off at Aurangzēb’s accession. Early 19th cent.), 131b (portion only. 19th cent.), iii 1013a (extracts. Circ. ad 1850), Lindesiana p. 191 no. 80 (ah 1197/1782–3), Bodleian 119, Browne Pers. Cat. 61 (slightly defective at end), i.o. 3914 (Maqālah iii only).

Description with 8 ½ pp. of translated extracts (on Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Abdālī, ʿĀlamgīr ii, S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam etc.): Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 163–174.

Extracts: Iqtibās az Farḥat al-nāẓirīn S̲h̲āh Aurangzēb ke ʿahd ke mashāyik̲h̲ ʿulamā aur s̲h̲uʿarā ke tarājim [Edited with notes by M. S̲h̲afīʿ in Oriental College Magazine, vol. iv, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1928) pp. 92–6, no. 4 (August 1928) pp. 53–111.]

[Farḥat al-nāẓirīn, preface; Elliot and Dowson loc. cit.; Rieu i 131a, iii 1080b; Browne loc. cit.]

§ 169. Mirzā Muḥammad b. Muʿtamad K̲h̲ān (Rustam) b. Diyānat K̲h̲ān (Qubād) al-Ḥārit̲h̲ī al-Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ī was born at Jalālābād (now in Afg̲h̲ānistān) on Friday 21 Jumādā i in the 30th year of Aurangzēb, i.e. 1098 (4 April 1687). He was introduced to Aurangzēb by Rūḥ Allāh K̲h̲ān in 1115/1703 and received a manṣab of 150. Having found the Ḥabīb al-siyar (see p. 80) and the Muntak̲h̲ab al-lubāb (see below under History: India: General) very deficient and the work of M. Ṣādiq (see pp. 97–98) inaccurate, he wrote his Tārīk̲h̲ i Muḥammadī. He is, however, best known as the author of his own memoirs, the ʿIbrat-nāmah. Two Arabic works of his, Miftāḥ al-najāʾ fī manāqib Āl al-ʿAbāʾ and Tarājim al-ḥuffāẓ, are described in the Būhār Arabic Catalogue (nos. 208 and 252–3) and a third, Tuḥfat al-muḥibbīn bi-manāqib al-K̲h̲ulafāʾ al-Rās̲h̲idīn, in the Rāmpūr Arabic Catalogue (p. 668).

Tārīk̲h̲ i Muḥammadī, a chronicle from the Hijrah to ah 1190/1776–7, begun ah 1124/1712–3 and completed ah 1190: i.o. 3889 (vol. i), 3890 (vol. ii), 3980, Rieu iii 895a (numerous extracts, mainly obituary and relating to India. Circ. ad 1850).

[ʿIbrat-nāmah; Bānkīpūr vii 623; Būhār Arab. Cat., no. 208.]

§ 170. Murtaḍā Ḥusain, entitled (muk̲h̲āṭab) Allāh-Yār, b. Allāh-Yār ʿUt̲h̲mānī Bilgrāmī was born at Bilgrām in 1132/1719–20. In 1142/1729–30, on the death of his father, Allāh-Yār, who was Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī under Mubāriz al-Mulk Sar-buland K̲h̲ān, Ṣubah-dār of Gujarāt, the latter summoned him to Āgrah and gave him the rank and title (Allāh-Yār K̲h̲ān,96 presumably) of his father. From that date until 1187/1773–4 he served under Mubāriz al-Mulk, Saʿādat K̲h̲ān and Ṣafdar-Jang, Ṣūbah-dārs of Oudh, M. Qāsim K̲h̲ān. Nāẓim of Bengal, ʿAlī-Qulī K̲h̲ān Dāg̲h̲istānī (for whom see the section Biography: Poets), and Aḥmad K̲h̲ān Bangas̲h̲, Raʾīs of Farruk̲h̲ābād. In 1190/1776 Captain Jonathan Scott, Persian Secretary to Warren Hastings, appointed him one of his muns̲h̲īs. It was at Captain Scott’s request that he compiled the Ḥadīqat al-aqālīm, and the rough draft was submitted to Captain Scott, Colonel Polier97 and Maulawī Darwīs̲h̲ ʿAlī. He died circ. 1795.

Ḥadīqat al-aqālīm, a geographical, historical and biographical account of the seven climates written, mainly at least, in the years 1192/1778–1196/1782, based largely on the Haft iqlīm (but with more geographical information (including a sketch of European geography translated from J. Scott’s English) and much fuller treatment of India, the history including a valuable narrative of contemporary events in Bengal, Oudh and Bihār), and ending with a tatimmah or k̲h̲ātimah (on the Copernican system, Europe, America etc.) compiled in 1202/1787: Bodleian 422 (autograph ? Full analysis), Lindesiana p. 122 no. 69 (ah 1207/1792–3), Blochet i 670–2 (late 18th cent.), Ivanow 286 (very defective. ah 1211/1796–7), Curzon 97 (k̲h̲ātimah only. ah 1231/1816), Bānkīpūr vii 637 (1253 Faṣlī/1845), 638 (ah 1218/1803), 639–41 (ah 1218/1803 ?), Berlin 421 (n.d.), 422 (third climate only. ah 1224/1809), Rieu iii 992 (ah 1254/1838), iii 1029b (extracts. Circ. ad 1850), Āṣafīyah i p. 236 no. 33, no. 436 (k̲h̲ātimah only. ah 1287/1870–1), Ethé 730 (n.d.), i.o. 3879, i.o. D.P. 1462, 1463, 1463a.

Editions: Lucknow 1879°*, 1881 (see Rieu iii 993b, Berlin p. 414).

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 180–3. The work was used by W. Francklin for his History of the reign of Shah Aulum.

[Ḥadīqat al-aqālīm, preface; Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 180–1; Rieu iii 992; Buckland Dictionary of Indian Biography p. 309.]

§ 171. M. Qudrat Allāh “S̲h̲auq” b. S̲h̲. Qabūl M. b. S̲h̲. M. ʿĀbid Ṣiddīqī was born at the village of Mavī in the Bahēṛī taḥṣīl of the Barēlī (“Bareilly”) district. He is the author of a tad̲h̲kirah entitled Takmilat al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ Jām i Jams̲h̲īd,98 which he compiled after completing his Jām i jahān-numā.

Jām i jahān-numā, a general history begun ah 1191/1777, completed ah 1199/1785 and divided into a muqaddimah, 39 ṭabaqāt and a k̲h̲ātimah (the last of these containing biographies of scholars, saints etc.): Rāmpūr (Ramaḍān 1199/1785, autograph. See Oriental College Magazine vol. vii no. 1 (Lahore, November 1930), pp. 69–74).

Descriptions: (1) Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 184–6,99 (2) Oriental College Magazine, loc. cit. (an article by Ḥāfiẓ Aḥmad ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, Director of the Rāmpūr State Library, who gives an Urdu translation of the author’s account of his ancestors from the k̲h̲ātimah).

[Oriental College Magazine, loc. cit.]

§ 172. M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Anṣārī b. ʿIzzat al-Daulah Hidāyat Allāh K̲h̲ān was appointed Dārōg̲h̲ah of the Faujdārī ʿAdālat (Criminal Court) of Tirhut and Ḥājīpūr by his patron Saiyid M. Riḍā K̲h̲ān S̲h̲īrāzī Muẓaffar-Jang, Nāʾib Nāẓim of Bengal and Bihar, who died at Murs̲h̲idābād ah 1206/1792. ʿInāyat K̲h̲ān “Rāsik̲h̲” and S̲h̲ākir K̲h̲ān were paternal uncles of his. In addition to the Baḥr al-mawwāj he wrote the Tārīk̲h̲ i Muẓaffarī, a history of the Indian Tīmūrids, and the Tārīk̲h̲ i Aḥmad-S̲h̲āhī (Ethé 423).

Baḥr al-mawwāj, a general history completed according to the preface in 1209/1794–5 but extending to 1211/1796 and divided into three volumes, viz. (1) = Baḥr i–ix (non-Indian history), (2) = Baḥr x (non-Mug̲h̲al Indian dynasties) and Mauj 1–11 (Bābur-Muḥammad S̲h̲āh) of Baḥr xi, (3) = Mauj 12–14 (Aḥmad S̲h̲āh—S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam ii) of Baḥr xi: Berlin 423–5 (complete, n.d.), Bānkīpūr vii 544 (vol. ii. Early 19th cent.), 545 (S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam’s reign to ah 1200/1785. Possibly a part of the Tārīk̲h̲ i Muẓaffarī), Rieu iii 1025a (extracts from vol. i. Circ. ad 1850), i.o. 3983 (extracts only).

Description of vol. i: Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 235–6.

[Tārīk̲h̲ i Muẓaffarī; Rieu i 282b, iii 1084b; Bānkīpūr vii 544.]

§ 173. Mīrzā Abū Ṭālib K̲h̲ān “Ṭālib” b. Ḥājjī M. Bēg K̲h̲ān Tabrīzī Iṣfahānī, sometimes called Abū Ṭālib Landanī, was born in 1166/1752–3 at Lucknow, where his father, an Iṣfahānī by birth, an Ād̲h̲arbāijānī Turk by descent, had settled. In 1189/1775, soon after the accession of Āṣaf al-Daulah (D̲h̲ū ’l-Qa‘dah 1188/Jan. 1775), he returned from Murs̲h̲idābād, where he had lived from his thirteenth to his twentieth year at the court of Muẓaffar-Jang, to Lucknow and was appointed ʿAmal-dār of Etawah by Muk̲h̲tār al-Daulah, the Nāʾib. After the fall of Muk̲h̲tār al-Daulah (ah 1190/1776) he was superseded and pensioned, but subsequently he assisted Col. A. Hannay at Gōrakhpūr and N. Middleton, the British Resident. Under the latter he suppressed Rājah Bālbhadra Singh’s rebellion. ah 1202/1787–8 is given as the date of his migration to Calcutta, and he was editor of the dīwān of Ḥāfiẓ published there in 1791. In the years 1213/1798–1218/1803 he made with Captain D. Richardson the journey to Europe which he described in the Masīr i Ṭālibī completed in 1219/1804. He died at Lucknow in 1220100/1805–6. In addition to the Masīr i Ṭālibī he wrote (1) Tafḍīḥ al-g̲h̲āfilīn (for which see below under History: India: Oudh), (2) K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār (for which see below under Biography: Poets), (3) a dīwān (for which see Bodleian 1994 and Poems of Mirza Abu Talib Khan (ed. with English translation by G. Swinton), London 1807, and, for the mat̲h̲nawī, Surūr-afzā, in praise of London, Edinburgh 324), (4) Miʿrāj al-tauḥīd, a metrical treatise on astronomy with a prose commentary composed in 1219/1804 and dedicated to Abū ʼl-Fatḥ Sulṭān M. Ṣafawī (see Edinburgh 93), (5) the five treatises, which are to be found at the end of some manuscripts of the K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār (see below under Biography: Poets, where the titles are given) and of which the last, sometimes found separately, is

Lubb al-siyar u jahān-numā, a summary of universal history compiled ah 1208/1793–4, dedicated to Āṣaf al-Daulah and divided into four bābs ((1) the Prophets, (2) the Caliphs, (3) biographies of philosophers, companions of the Prophet, scholars, poets etc., (4) dynasties contemporary with the Caliphs and subsequent to them): Ethé 696 foll. 396–473 (appended to the K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār. Transcribed by G. Swinton from an autograph and corrected by the author ad 1804), 697 foll. 322b–390 (n.d.), Bodleian 391 (appended to the K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār. ah 1210/1796), Āṣafīyah iii p. 98 no. 1312 (ah 1220/1805–6), Rieu iii 895b (only the preface and Faṣl viii (India) of Bāb iv. ad 1850), Suppt. 116 ii (early 19th cent.).

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 298–300.

[K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār, k̲h̲ātimah; Michaud Biographie universelle, Paris 1843, i, pp. 85–7 (cited by S.A. Rochlin in bsos. vii, pt. i (1933) p. 50); Beale Miftāḥ al-tawārīk̲h̲ 564; Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 298–9; Rieu i 378; Ency. Isl. under Abū Ṭālib K̲h̲ān; Edinburgh Univ. Lib. Cat. of Arabic and Persian mss., no. 90; portrait engraved for the European Magazine in the Edinburgh ms. of the Surūr-afzā.]

§ 174. M. S̲h̲arīf b. Mullā Muṣṭafā S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām was Qāḍī of Ardilān. It was for K̲h̲usrau K̲h̲ān, the governor of that district, that he compiled in 1215/1800–1 his

Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲ i Sinandijī,101 a general history, mainly of Persia, very jejune before Section x (Ṣafawids to ah 1168/1754–5), after which come xi (on the genealogy of the Kurds and of the rulers and governors of Ardilān), xii (a brief account of the Qājārs) and a k̲h̲ātimah (on the sources of the work etc.): Browne Coll. G. 18 (9) = Houtum-Schindler 10 (ah 1275/1859).

§ 175. Nawwāb ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, entitled S̲h̲āh-nawāz K̲h̲ān.102 Hās̲h̲imī Banbānī Dihlawī was preceptor to the favourite daughter of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam “Āftāb” (reigned 1173/1759–1221/1806) and subsequently sole manager of the imperial household, an office which he held until his death six months after Akbar S̲h̲āh’s accession, i.e. ah 1222/1807.

Mirʾāt i āftāb-numā (a chronogram = 1218/1803–4), a sketch of general history (with a more detailed account of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam’s reign), biography and geography: Rieu i 131b (not later than ad 1805), 132b (ad 1832), 133a (extracts only), iii 896a (ah 1226/1811), 896a (fragment only), 1031a (extracts only), 1052a (extracts only), r.a.s. 58 = Morley 45 (ah 1228/1813), i.o. D.P. 723 (ad 1806 ?), i.o. 3915, 3974, Ivanow Curzon 8 (ah 1233/1817), 9, Bānkīpūr vi 481 (13th year of Akbar ii), Bodleian 120 (ah 1244/1829), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii no. 3 (May 1926) p. 59).

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 332–3.

[Biog. by S.M. Riḍā Ṭabāṭabāʾī (Rieu iii p. 1018b); Ak̲h̲bārāt i Hind (Rieu iii 914 fol. 178); Rieu iii 896a, 1080b.]

§ 176. Harsukh Rāy b. Jīwan-Dās b. Rāy Basant Rāy Khatrī was a resident of Lahore.

Majmaʿ al-ak̲h̲bār, a general history to ah 1220/1805–6, the date of completion, in eight books called ak̲h̲bār, of which the seventh, on Indian local dynasties, is the most important: Rieu iii 896b (ah 1264/1848), 1052a (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850).

Translation of extracts: b.m. Add. 30,782, foll. 234–306.

Description and 13 pp. of translated extracts (on the Jāṭs of Bharatpūr and on the E.I.Co.): Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 355–372.103

§ 177. Mīrzā M. Riḍā “Bandah” b. M. S̲h̲afī‘ S̲h̲ahāwarī Tabrīzī was Muns̲h̲ī al-Mamālik and a favourite of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh (reigned 1211/1797–1250/1834). He died at Ṭihrān ah 1223/1808–9. By order of Fatḥ-ʿAlī he and ʿAbd al-Karīm b. ʿAlī Riḍā Is̲h̲tihārdī104 (who dealt with the Prophets and Imāms and Fatḥ-ʿAlī’s reign to ad 1801) compiled the

Zīnat al-tawārīk̲h̲, a large history of the East, especially Persia, to ah 1221/1806–7, in an āg̲h̲āz (the Creation) and two pīrāyahs ((1) Prophets, Imāms, biographies of famous men, (2) political history): Rieu i 135 (complete. Circ. ad 1810), 136b (about 1st half of Pīrāyah ii (early kings of Persia—Āq-quyūnlūs). ah 1225/1810), 136b (Qājārs and Zands. ah 1227/ 1812), Suppt. 39 (vol. i, i.e. Āg̲h̲āz and Pīrāyah i. ah 1220/1805), Browne Coll. G. 16 (13–14) = Houtum-Schindler 11 (vol. i dated ah 1289/1872–3, vol. ii (defective at end) ah 1227/1812), Majlis 258 (ah 1228/1813), Aumer 229 (vol. ii = Pīrāyah ii).

[Nigāristān i Dārā (Rieu Suppt. 123) fol. 83; Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān (Rieu Suppt. 120) fol. 40b; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii 80.]

§ 178. Abū ’l-Qāsim b. M. ʿAlī Simnānī Sāsānī is the author of a work entitled Jām i jahān-numā i Sāsānī (Lindesiana p. 109 no. 364a), and it was he who at the suggestion of Francis Gladwin prepared a revised edition of the Persian translation of al-Ṭabarī’s history (see p. 49 supra).

Sulālat al-siyar, composed ah 1222/1807, a compendium of general history in two maqālahs ((1) non-Indian dynasties, (2) Indian dynasties): Bodleian 122 (ad 1814).

§ 179. M. Ḥusain b. Karam-ʿAlī Iṣfahānī was over sixty years of age in 1222/1807 when he was writing at Mas̲h̲had his

Compendium of general history to ah 1223/1808, being virtually a transcript of the Nusak̲h̲ i jahān-ārā with a brief continuation: Rieu i 136b (circ. ah 1223/1808).

§ 180. M. Riḍā “Najm” b. Abī ’l-Qāsim Ṭabāṭabā’ī entitled Najm al-Daulah Iftik̲h̲ār al-Mulk Ḥusām-Jang was born at Patna. In 1227/1812, having served for nine years as Collector at Bareilly, he was called to Delhi where he succeeded to his father’s title and offices and served for eight years as (deputy ?) steward of the Household and Dārōghah of the Treasury. Then after filling for seven years the office of Dīwān to Rājah Raghujī at Nāgpūr he retired and devoted himself to literary pursuits at Lucknow. In addition to the works mentioned in this section he wrote also the Ak̲h̲bārāt i Hind, the Mafātīḥ al-riʾāsat, the Nag̲h̲mah i ʿandalīb and the K̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd i lāmiʿ or Manẓar al-ʿālam (a geographical work), all of which form parts of his historical encyclopædia Baḥr al-zak̲h̲k̲h̲ār.

(1)
Zubdat al-g̲h̲arā’ib, a general history in five volumes, composed in 1231/1816 (or between 1816 and 1830 according to Elliot and Dowson viii p. 434): i.o. D.P. 262 (Bilg. 1333) (vol. v (lives of philosophers, saints, poets, etc. Autograph (?)), Rieu iii 1024b (extracts from vol. v (biographies of philosophers, saints and poets). Circ. ad 1850), 1026a (preface and table of contents only. Circ. ad 1850), 1053a (extracts from vol. iv (Indian Tīmūrids)).

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 434.

(2)
Majmaʿ al-mulūk, a very brief general history commenced about 1260/1844 and forming vol. iii of the author’s historical encyclopædia entitled Baḥr al-zak̲h̲k̲h̲ā̱r: Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 70 (autograph. M. ʿAlī Ḥusain’s Library, Ḥaidarābād), Rieu iii 1014b (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), 1053a (extracts only), cf. 1048a.

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 432–5.105

[Nag̲h̲mah i ʿandalīb under “Najm”; Mafātīḥ al-riʾāsat, preface; Elliot and Dowson viii 432–3, 436–7; Rieu iii 914.]

§ 181. ʿInāyat Ḥusain (“of Mahrard” according to Elliot and Dowson) mentions the accession of Akbar ii in his Kās̲h̲if al-ak̲h̲bār, which must consequently have been completed later than ah 1220/1805.

Kās̲h̲if al-ak̲h̲bār, a general history of no value: Rieu iii 1013a (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), 1020a (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850).

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 372–3.

§ 182. Bahādur Singh b. Hazārī-Mal b. Lac̲h̲hmī C̲h̲and, a Gōndlīwāl Kāyastha of the Baṭhnāgar caste, describes himself as an inhabitant of S̲h̲āhjahānābād and says that in 1232/1816–17, having to leave the capital, he settled in Lucknow, where he devoted himself to the compilation of his

Yādgār i Bahādurī, completed ah 1249/1833–4, a general history in four sāniḥahs with some chapters on biography, geography, arts and sciences: Rieu iii 897a (19th cent.).

English translation of a considerable portion by Muns̲h̲ī Sadāsukh Lāl: b.m. ms. Add. 30,786, foll. 292–391.

Description and 5 pp. of translated extracts (mainly on Oudh): Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 417–25.

§ 183. Qāḍī Faqīr Muḥammad b. Qāḍī M. Riḍā is described by his son Nawwāb ʿAbd al-Laṭīf, C.I.E. (Member of the Bengal Legislative Council etc., b. 1828, d. 1893; see Buckland, Dictionary of Indian Biography p. 2, where he is said to have been the “son of a leading pleader in the Sadr Diwani Court at Calcutta”), as a very learned and pious man who lived in Calcutta and died there in 1844 at the age of seventy.

Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲, a general history written ah 1250/1834–5 and divided into fourteen faṣls: i.o. 4422, Rieu iii 899b (extracts only. 19th cent.), 1016a (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850).

Editions: Calcutta 1836°*, [Lucknow], 1871*, Lucknow 1291/1874°* (with a preface by his son ʿAbd al-Laṭīf).

Description and a translated extract of 3 pp. (on the battle of Plassey and the accession of Mīr Jaʿfar): Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 425–9.

§ 184. Saiyid M. Bāqir ʿAlī K̲h̲ān b. S̲h̲āh Kalīm Allāh Buk̲h̲ārī was tutor to Mirzā Jahāngīr and Mirzā Bābur, presumably Mug̲h̲al princes, and was subsequently appointed Munṣif at Ḥamīrpūr.

Tārīk̲h̲ i Hinrī, a general history of no value abridged mainly from the Mirʾāt i aftāb-numā, written ah 1251/1835–6 and dedicated to Henry Pidcock: Rieu iii 1052b (foll. 72–131. Papers relating to the work (with extracts ?)).

Translated extracts (?): b.m. ms. Add. 30,781, foll. 118–140.

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 414–15.106

§ 185. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb “Qaṭrah” of C̲h̲ahār Maḥāll is spoken of by Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān in 1284/1867–8 as still alive. For his dīwān see Rieu Suppt. 357

S̲h̲ams al-tawārīk̲h̲, a general history to the rise of the Qājār dynasty compiled in the reign of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh Qājār (ad 1834–41) and divided into a muqaddimah (on the Prophet, his predecessors and successors), forty chapters (on the various dynasties) and two k̲h̲ātimahs (on the Qājārs and the Ottomans respectively): Browne Coll. G. 17 (9) = Houtum-Schindler 13 (probably autograph).

[Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii 422–4; Rieu Suppt. 357 (q.v. for further references).]

§ 186. Thomas William Beale, a clerk in the office of the Board of Revenue, North West Provinces, died at Āgrah in 1875 at an advanced age. His best-known work, The Oriental Biographical Dictionary (Calcutta 1881, new edition, revised and enlarged by H.G. Keene, London 1894), is full of inaccuracies.

Miftāḥ al-tawārīk̲h̲, or, to quote the title-page of the first edition, Miftah-ul-Tawarikh, or The Key to History, being a collection of the most valuable chronograms in the Persian language [chronologically arranged and] shewing the exact year and date of the births, deaths, &c., &c. of Mahomedan kings, philosophers and other eminent men with historical observations; also inscriptions of ancient buildings with their descriptionsto the 1265th year of the Hijree era …: Āgrah 1849°*, Cawnpore 1867°* (part of this edition (or another edition ?) was issued with a title-page describing the work as the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ of Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn G̲h̲āzānī (for which see p. 55 supra)).

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 441–4.

[Buckland Dictionary of Indian Biography 31.]

§ 187. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. ʿAlī As̲h̲raf b. ʿAlī b. Ismāʿīl b. M. Mahdī S̲h̲īrāzī composed in 1257/1841–2 his

Nuk̲h̲bat al-ak̲h̲bār, a general history, with special reference to Persia, in a muqaddimah (Creation and Adam), six ʿunwāns ((i) Prophets, (ii) Pre-Islāmic kings, (iii) Muḥammad, (iv) Persian kings contemp. with Muḥammad, (v) Fāṭimah, the Twelve Imāms, Umaiyads and ʿAbbāsids, (vi) dynasties contemp. with and posterior to the ʿAbbāsids) and a k̲h̲ātimah (Muḥammad S̲h̲āh Qājār): Rieu Suppt. 41 (autograph. Circ. 1260/1844).

§ 188. Muḥammad Ṣādiq “Ak̲h̲tar” met Sir Henry Elliot at ʿAlīgaṛh and at his request wrote in 1263/1847 his

Mak̲h̲zan al-jawāhir, a meagre sketch of Oriental history: Rieu iii 900a (probably ah 1263/1847).

§ 189. Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān “Hidāyat”, for whose life and works see below under Biography: Poets, died ah 1288/1871.

Rauḍat al-ṣafā i Nāṣirī, a new edition of Mīr K̲h̲wānd’s Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ (for which see p. 71 supra), with a continuation to the editor’s own time in three books: Ṭihrān 1270–4/1853–6°.

§ 190. S. Ilāhī Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ b. ʿAlī-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ Ḥusainī Angrēzābādī was born ah 1240/1824–5 at English Bāzār, or New Māldah, where he spent the whole of his life. He was a pupil of Muns̲h̲ī ʿAbd al-Karīm, who was himself a pupil of G̲h̲ulām Ḥusain Zaidpūrī. In his later years he was Persian teacher in the Māldah District School. He died on 2 March 1892. In addition to the K̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd i jahān-numā he wrote works entitled Kanz al-maṣādir and Iqlīm i balāg̲h̲at.

K̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd i jahān-numā (a chronogram = 1270/1853–4, the date of commencement, ah 1280/1863–4 being the date of completion), a history and geography of the world divided into twelve chapters called burj ((i) the Creation, (2) America, (3) Africa, (4) Europe, (5) Asia, (6) Australasia, (7) the Prophets, (8) the Philosophers, (9) Saints, poets etc., (10) history of the Ṣūfī schools, (11) important buildings, (12) account of the author and his family): Būhār 102 (autograph), Ivanow 209 (extracts relating to Bengal transcribed ad 1890–1 for H. Beveridge).

Description of the work and analysis of the part relating to Bengal: The K̲h̲ūrs̲h̲īd Jahān Numā of Sayyad Ilāhī Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ al Ḥusainī Angrēzābādī.—By H. Beveridge (in Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. lxiv (1895), pt. 1, pp. 194–236).

§ 191. M. Taqī “Sipihr” Kās̲h̲ānī, when still a young man went to Ṭihrān, where he was well received by Fatḥ-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Ṣabā” Kās̲h̲ānī Malik al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ,107 Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s poet laureate, who urged him to write a work on prosody using “Ṣabā’s” verses as examples. “Ṣabā” died in 1238/1822–3, and “Sipihr”, who had returned to Kās̲h̲ān, abandoned the idea of writing the suggested work on prosody. In 1250/1834 Sulṭān Muḥammad S̲h̲āh Qājār acceded to the throne and appointed him Royal Panegyrist (Maddāḥ i k̲h̲āṣṣah), giving him a post of secretary and accountant in the Treasury (muns̲h̲ī wa-mustaufī i dīwān). In the same year “Ṣabā’s” son M. Ḥusain K̲h̲an “ ʿAndalīb” persuaded him to resume the project of writing a work on prosody and in 1251 /1835–6108 he completed and dedicated to M. S̲h̲āh Qājār the Barāhīn al-ʿajam fī qawānīn al-muʿjam (for a ms. see Blochet ii 1046. Edition: Ṭihrān 1272/1855°). At the request of M. S̲h̲āh he undertook to write a universal history, and Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh, who acceded in 1264/1848, encouraged this undertaking and in 1272/1855–6 gave him the title of Lisān al-Mulk. He died at Ṭihrān in 1297/1880 (according to the Mas̲h̲had Catalogue iii, p. 149).

Nāsik̲h̲ al-tawārīk̲h̲, a general history of little value except for contemporary history109 (which included the beginnings of the Bābī movement) published (originally, it appears) in 14 volumes110 and extending to 1267/1851 with a later continuation to 1273/1857, the part relating to the Qājārs having the subtitle Tārīk̲h̲ i Qājārīyah.

Editions: (1) [Ṭihrān 1860 ? onwards] (vol. i pts. 1 and 2 are in the b.m. (see Edwards 527). For [a reprint of ?] vol. i pts. 1 and 2 (Ṭihrān 1285/1868–9) see Ency. Isl. under Sipihr. For vol. ii (undated ?) and [a reprint of ?] vol. iv (ah 1294/1877) see Āṣafīyah i p. 256 nos. 934 and 949). (2) Ṭihrān [?] vol. i (from the Fall of Adam to the Hijrah) 1306/1888–9, vol. ii (other events down to the Hijrah) 1310/1892–3, vol. iii (from the Hijrah to the Prophet’s death) 1310/1892–3, vol. iv (the first three Caliphs) 1306/1888–9, vol. v (the fourth Caliph) n.d. ?, vol. vi (Fāṭimah) 1308/1890–1, vol. vii (the Imām Ḥasan) n.d. ?, vol. viii (the Imām Ḥusain) 1307/1889–90, vol. ix (the Qājār dynasty) 1304/1886–7.111 (3) Bk. ii pt. 6 [sic] only (the Imām Ḥusain, evidently = vol. viii of edition (2) above), [Bombay] 1309/1892°.

Extracts: Intik̲h̲āb i Nāsik̲h̲ al-tawārīk̲h̲, Lahore 1901†, 1904°, 1906†.

Translated extracts: (1) The English translation of the revised Intermediate Persian Course of the Punjab University, translated by Sardar Chhaju Singh. Lahore 1896°. (2) Translation and explanation of the Persian Intermediate Course of the Panjab University. By T. George. Lahore [1896–7°].

[Nigāristān i Dārā (Rieu Suppt. 123) fol. 95a; Gobineau Trois ans en Asie, Paris 1859, pp. 454; 461–2, Les religions et les philosophies, Paris 1866, p. 157; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii 156–181; A traveller’s narrative written to illustrate the episode of the Báb, editedand translatedby E.G. Browne, Cambridge 1891, ii 173–184; Blochet ii 1046; Browne Lit. Hist. iv 326, 344; Ency. Isi. under Sipihr (Minorsky).]

§ 192. Muḥammad Ḥasan K̲h̲ān Marāg̲h̲ī, entitled successively Ṣanīʿ al-Daulah, Muʾtaman al-Sulṭān, and Iʿtimād al-Salṭanah, was the son of Ḥājjī ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Marāg̲h̲ī, entitled first Ḥājib al-Daulah and afterwards Iʿtimād al-Salṭanah, one of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲ah’s ministers. He was French interpreter to Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲ah and was afterwards promoted to be press minister (Yate, p. 313). He accompanied Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh on his journey to K̲h̲urāsān at the end of 1300/1882. He died at Ṭihrān on 19 S̲h̲awwāl 1313/3 April 1896. “He compiled altogether some two dozen books, almost all of them on geographical, historical, and other such subjects connected with Persia” (Yate, ibid.). Of these the Tārīk̲h̲ i muntaẓam i Nāṣirī, the Ḥujjat al-saʿādah, the Durar al-tījān, the K̲h̲airāt ḥisān, the al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār, the Maṭlaʿ al-s̲h̲ams, the Mirʾāt al-buldān i Nāṣirī and the Tārīk̲h̲ i inkis̲h̲āf i Yangī Dunyā are mentioned in their appropriate places below.

Tārīk̲h̲ i muntaẓam i Nāṣirī, a history from ah 1 to ad 1882, in 3 vols. ((1) ah 1/622–656/1258, followed by the events of the solar year beg. March 1880 in Persia and Europe, with calendar and court directory, (2) ah 657/1259–1194/1779, (3) the Qājār dynasty from 1194/1779 to 1300/1882 with calendar for 1300). Edition: [Ṭihrān,] 1298/1881°–1300/1883° (cf. Browne Lit. Hist. iv p. 455).

Description (by S. Churchill): jras. 1887 p. 318.

[C.E. Yate, Khurasan and Sistan, Edinburgh and London 1900, pp. 313–14; E.G. Browne, Press and poetry of modern Persia pp. 156 and 164–6, Lit. Hist. iv 453–6; Berthels Očerk istorii persidskoi literatury pp. 113–16; Ency. Isl. under Muḥammad Ḥasan K̲h̲ān (Minorsky), where much additional information is given.]

§ 193. Appendix

1.1 Titled Works

(1)
Āt̲h̲ār al-mulūk wa-’l-anbiyāʾ (a chronogram = 931) dar talk̲h̲īṣ i Ḥabīb al-siyar, written in 931/1524–5, possibly by K̲h̲wānd-Amīr: Majlis 619 (6).
(2)
Baḥr al-tawārīk̲h̲, a general history begun ah 1099/1687–8 by an Indian writer and continued to ah 1154/1741–2: Rieu iii 1017b (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850).

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India viii 101–2 (from a ms., apparently autograph, in library of the Nawwāb of Tonk).

(3)
Jām i Jam, a translation by Farhād Mīrzā (for whom see p. 160 infra) of William Pinnock’s Comprehensive system of modern geography and history. Edition: [Ṭihrān,] 1273/1856°.
(4)
al-Maʿārif, translation of Ibn Qutaibah’s work (for which see Brockelmann i. 121): Lindesiana p. 175 no. 418 (circ. ad 1750).
(5)
Miftāḥ al-qulūb, by S̲h̲ams al-Dīn al-Aṣīl: Browne Coll. H. 2 (11) (vol. ii (the Caliphs and numerous dynasties contemporary with the ʿAbbāsids)), Browne Suppt. 1227 (vol. iii (C̲h̲ingiz, Tīmūr, the Ottomans, Black and White Sheep, Uzbaks etc.). Christ’s).
(6)
Muk̲h̲taṣar tārīk̲h̲ i Islām. [Translated (from the Turkish?) by S. Riḍā ʿAlī-Zādah.] Edition: Lahore 1345/1926–7*.
(7)
Muk̲h̲taṣar tārīk̲h̲ i ʿumūmī. [Apparently by M. Murād. Translated (from the Turkish ?) by S. Riḍā ʿAlī-Zādah.] Edition: Lahore 1345/1926–7*.
(8)
Muk̲h̲taṣar al-tawārīk̲h̲, composed in 1161/1748 by ʿAbd al-Salām: Eton 169 (ah 1174/1760–1).
(9)
Muk̲h̲taṣar al-tawārīk̲h̲ i Sulaimānī: see Subḥat al-ak̲h̲yār below.
(10)
Murūj al-d̲h̲ahab, translation of al-Masʿūdī’s work (for which see Brockelmann i 145), by Mīrzā Ḥaidar ʿAlī Fak̲h̲r al-udabāʾ made in 1316/1898–9 by order of Sulṭān Masʿūd Mīrzā Ẓill al-Sulṭān: Majlis 246 (ah 1316/1898–9).
(11)
Subḥat al-ak̲h̲y̱ār or Subḥat al-ak̲h̲bār, genealogical tables of the Patriarchs and the principal dynasties of the East ending with the Ottomans. There exist, in Persian and Turkish, genealogical tables, some, if not all, compiled in the time of Sulṭān Sulaimān i (ah 926/1520–974/1566), about which it is perhaps impossible on the basis of the descriptions given in the catalogues to make completely accurate statements. In 952/1545 Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Laṭīf wrote in Turkish and dedicated to Sulṭān Sulaimān his Subḥat al-ak̲h̲yār [?] which he translated from, or based on, a Persian original (of the same title ?) apparently by a certain S̲h̲afīʿī. Twenty-two manuscripts of ʿAbd al-Laṭīf’s work are enumerated by Babinger (Die Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen, p. 71), while Flügel ii 839–42 (Subḥat al-ak̲h̲bār, in Turkish with Persian preface, beginning Hād̲h̲ihi silsilah i K̲h̲āqānī etc.) and 867 (Subḥat al-ak̲h̲yār, entirely in Turkish apparently, beginning Silsilah-junbānī i ḥamd u sipās) are described as copies, or translations, of S̲h̲afīʿī’s work. In 1078/1667–8 the Turkish text of Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Laṭīf’s work was brought to Erivan by merchants, and Ṣafī-Qulī, the governor of the town, translated it into Persian and dedicated his translation to S̲h̲āh Sulaimān the Ṣafawid (ah 1077/1666–1105/1694).

Ṣafī-Qulī’s translation: Rieu i 138 (19th cent.), Majlis 271 (where the work is called Muk̲h̲taṣar al-tawārīk̲h̲ i Sulaimānī).

(12)
Tanqīḥ al-ak̲h̲bār fī āt̲h̲ār al-adwār: Būhār 59 (vol. vii (History of Europe to the 19th cent.) only. 19th cent.).
(13)
Tārīk̲h̲ i tawallud u wafāt i pādis̲h̲āhān, dates of the birth and death of eminent persons (rulers, scholars, poets etc.) and the principal historical events from the birth of Tīmūr, 25 S̲h̲aʿbān 736/8 April 1336, to ah 1144/1731–2: Ethé 2731.
(14)
Tarjamah i Tamaddun i Islāmī, a translation by Mīrzā Ibrāhīm Qummī of the Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-tamaddun al-Islāmī of Jurjī Zaidān (d. 1914, see Ency. Isl. under Zaidān). Edition: Ṭihrān 1329/1911 (see Mas̲h̲had iii p. 115).
(15)
Tawārīk̲h̲ i pādis̲h̲āhān i Īrān u Tūrān u Hindūstān wa-g̲h̲airah tamām i jahān, a chronological list of the rulers of the Muḥammadan world ending, so far as India is concerned, with Muḥammad S̲h̲āh: Ethé 1.
(16)
Ṭulūʿ i tamaddun u ik̲h̲tirāʿāt i ʿaẓīm, a brief history of civilization, compiled from English works by Muns̲h̲ī M. b. Aḥmad. Edition: Bombay 1328/1911°.

1.2 Untitled Works

(1)
Critical essay on the conflicting statements of historians, written at the request of Sir H.M. Elliot by S. Ḥasan ʿAlī: Rieu iii 900a (circ. ad 1850).
(2)
General history to ah 970/1562–3, by G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn M. Jāmī, who was in the service of Humāyūn: Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 55 (Dīwān Faḍl i Rabbī, Murs̲h̲idābād).

1.3 Miscellaneous Unidentified Works

(1)
Bodleian 14 (from Ardas̲h̲īr b. Bābak to the death of al-Ḥusain. Transcribed after ah 1000/1591–2), (2) Bodleian 96 (to ah 948/1542, the date of composition), (3) Bodleian 101 (to ah 1020/1611), (4) a very detailed general history, Leningrad Pub. Lib. (see Mélanges asiatiques iii (St. Petersburg 1859) p. 728), (5) Būhār 14 (to ah 1134/1721–2), (6) i.o. 3732 (b). This is the work which Major Raverty in his translation of the Ṭabaqāt i Nāṣirī often refers to under the title of Tārīk̲h̲-i-Yāfaʾī [sic], a title which is indeed scrawled on the manuscript, (7) Ethé 120 (to ah 1001/1592–3).

next chapter: 2.1 Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ

Notes

^ Back to text1. The Arabic text of (an abridgment of) this work, edited with introduction, indices, etc. by de Goeje and others, was published in 15 volumes at Leyden in 1879–1901. An Oriental edition has been printed at Cairo. For further information concerning the work see Ency. Isl. under Ṭabarī and the bibliography there given.

^ Back to text2. The date given by Rieu (ah 386) is a mistake, as Barthold has pointed out.

^ Back to text3. These editions contain four volumes bound in one with continuous pagination. They are wrongly described in the British Museum Catalogue as containing vol. i only. They end with al-Mustaẓhir.

^ Back to text4. See M. Nāẓim’s observations on the date in his edition, p. 1.

^ Back to text5. Cf. Barthold’s statement in the Ency. Isl. under Gardīzī: “from this [Bodleian] ms. the Chapter on the Turks has twice been edited (W. Barthold Otčet o poiezdke v Srednyuyu Aziyu, St. Petersburg 1897, p. 78 et seq.; Géza Kuun, Keleti Kútfōk, 1898, p. 5 et seq. and Keleti Szemle, 1903, p. 17 et seq.) and translated (into Russian and Hungarian).”

^ Back to text6. A final article promised by M. Mohl does not seem to have appeared.

^ Back to text7. For a criticism of this translation see Barthold Turkestan down to the Mongol invasion, London 1928, pp. 60–1.

^ Back to text8. The translators were a muns̲h̲ī and J. Dowson.

^ Back to text9. A continuation to the end of Abū Saʿīd’s reign was written (probably by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū) at the command of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ and is found in some of the mss. A continuation by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū covering the years ah 706–795 (i.e. the interval between the end of the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ and the beginning of Niẓām i S̲h̲āmī’s Ẓafar-nāmah) is to be found in the Majmūʿah i Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū.

^ Back to text10. See Barthold Turkestan p. 47, n. 4, Bulletin de l’Acad., 1924, p. 247 foll.

^ Back to text11. In the author’s own list of his works (Quatremère pp. cxlvii–clxxv) a division into four volumes is substituted, the second volume being divided into two.

^ Back to text12. The subdivisions of vol. ii are given somewhat differently in the author’s preface and the different mss. do not agree exactly.

^ Back to text13. This is the ms. on which E.G. Browne’s description of the Jāmiʿ al-tawārījk̲h̲ in the j.r.a.s. for 1908 is mainly based. Ethé describes the ms. at considerable length.

^ Back to text14. “In 828 = 1424–1425 Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū by order of S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲ published a new edition of the D̲j̲āmiʿ al-Tawārīk̲h̲; the portion of the book then considered lost” [i.e. the Pre-Islāmic history] “was replaced by the first part of the Zubdat al-Tawārīk̲h̲” (Ency. Isl. under Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū).

^ Back to text15. This is presumably the copy containing the history of Ūljāytū which “was found in 1923 by Aḥmad Zaki Walidi in the Library of Meshhed” (Barthold, Turkestan, London 1928 p. 47, n. 4, where a reference is given to Bull. de l’Acad., 1924, p. 247 sq.).

^ Back to text16. Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn “translated all his Persian works into Arabic, and all his Arabic works into Persian, and took steps to ensure that copies of all his works in both languages should be made annually” (Barthold Turkestan p. 46).

^ Back to text17. Cf. D. Forbes’s description in jras. vi (1841) pp. 33–9.

^ Back to text18. A fuller description was given by Morley in jras. vi (1841) pp. 11–32.

^ Back to text19. Cf. Blochet Introduction p. 1: “l’histoire des tribus, celle des ancêtres de Tchinkkiz et celle du Conquérant du Monde ont été imprimées en partie, avec de nombreuses coupures qui enlèvent tout intérêt à ce travail, à Saint-Pétersbourg, avec une traduction annotée, par Bérézine …”

^ Back to text20. Cf. Kritische Beurtheilung der von Herrn Quatremère herausgegebenen Histoire des Mongols de la Perse von Franz von Erdmann, Kazan 1841* see (Zenker i 912). Cf. also Gotha 367 (in the Ergänzungsheft): Abhandlung über Raschîdeddîn dessen Geschichte der Mongolensultane und Quatremère’s Ausgabe, nebst Textverbesserungen und Excerpte aus Quatremère’s Ausgabe. Ein Convolut in folio. Ferner eine Sammlung der die Geographie betreffenden Stellen aus Raschîdeddîn.

^ Back to text21. This text, like the preceding, was issued for the use of students at the École des Langues Orientales Vivantes.

^ Back to text22. This is the title by which Mīr K̲h̲wānd cites the work.

^ Back to text23. See Quatremère’s remarks on this edition in his Histoire des Mongols la Perse pp. lxxxv–xcviii and 425, where a portion (description of China and the adjacent countries) is translated into French.

^ Back to text24. In the Persian translation the title of the original is given as Munyat al-fuḍalāʾ fī tawārīk̲h̲ al-k̲h̲jwlafāʾ wa-’l-wuzarāʾ.

^ Back to text25. For S̲h̲abānkārah see the Ency. Isl. sub voce.

^ Back to text26. The son and successor of the celebrated Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Faḍl Allāh (see p. 54).

^ Back to text27. He is often called Nūr al-Dīn Luṭf Allāh b. ʿAbd Allāh in consequence of an erroneous statement by ʿAbd al-Razzāq Samarqandī.

^ Back to text28. For this geographical work, which contains important historical information relating to K̲h̲urāsān, see Bodleian 33, 149, Dorn 290, Rieu i 421–4, Ency. lsl. under Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū, Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, p. 55, n. 7, where a ms. at Samarqand and another in the London School of Oriental Studies are mentioned. There is still another in the India Office.

^ Back to text29. See also F. Tauer Vorbericht über die Edition des Ẓafarnāma von Niẓām Šāmī und der wichtigsten Teile der Geschichtswerke Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū’s in Archiv Orientální iv, 2 (Prague 1932), pp. 250–6.

^ Back to text30. See also F. Tauer Vorbericht über die Edition des Ẓafarnāma von Niẓām Šāmī und der wichtigsten Teile der Geschichtswerke Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū’s in Archiv Orientální iv, 2 (Prague 1932), pp. 250–6.

^ Back to text31. See also F. Tauer Vorbericht über die Edition des Ẓafarnāma von Niẓām Šāmī und der wichtigsten Teile der Geschichtswerke Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū’s in Archiv Orientální iv, 2 (Prague 1932), pp. 250–6.

^ Back to text32. For a continuation of the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ containing the reigns of Ūljāytū and Abū Saʿīd and written at the command of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲, probably by Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū, see pp. 55vv supra.

^ Back to text33. See Barthold Turkestan down to the Mongol invasion, London 1928, p. 54, n. 3, p. 56, and his article “Istorik Musevi, kak avtor Tārīk̲h̲i k̲h̲airāt” in the Bulletin de l’Académie Imp. des Sciences Petrograd 1915, pp. 1365–70.

^ Back to text34. Browne calls the author Faṣīḥī, but in the Leningrad mss. at any rate he seems to be called Faṣīḥ, and this would be the normal abridgment of Faṣīḥ al-Dīn.

^ Back to text35. Now in the Library of the School of Oriental Studies.

^ Back to text36. “… die berühmte Weltchronik Mīrḫwānd’s Rauḍatu-ṣ-ṣafā ist stark vom Zubdatu-t-tawārīḫ [of Ḥāfiẓ i Abrū, see p. 67 supra] abhängig” (F. Tauer in Archiv Orientální, vol. iv, No. 2 (Aug. 1932) p. 254).

^ Back to text37. For the life and works of Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān see below under Biography: Poets.

^ Back to text38. Cf. No. (14) below.

^ Back to text39. Cf. Erläuterung und Ergänzung einiger Stellen der von Mirchond verfassten Geschichte des Stammes Buweih, durch F. von Erdmann, Kazan 1836.

^ Back to text40. Much of the Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ is translated or paraphrased in Major David Price’s Chronological retrospect, or Memoirs of the principal events of Mahommedan history, from the death of the Arabian Legislator, to the accession of the Emperor Akbar (3 vols. London 1811–21°*). Another work partly based on it is Relaciones de P. Teixeira d’el origen descendencia y succession de los Reyes de Persia y do Harmuz …, Amberes 1610°* (English translation: The History of Persiato which is added an abridgment of the lives of the Kings of Harmuz or Ormuzboth of them translated into Spanish by Antony [sic, for Pedro Teixeiraand now render’d into English by Captain J. Stevens, London 1715°*). According to Jourdain (Notices et extraits ix pp. 131–2) “Teixeira n’a guères pris, en général, de Mirkhond que les noms des princes, leur succession et les époques principales; et quoique son récit soit fort abrégé, il y a mêlé beaucoup de choses étrangères à cet écrivain.” For one or two other works in which Mir K̲h̲wānd is drawn upon see Elliot and Dowson History of India iv pp. 131–2.

^ Back to text41. For the titles of some other works see Bānkīpūr Cat. vi p. 26.

^ Back to text42. This of course differs from the normal division.

^ Back to text43. The author may possibly be identical with Mullā ʿAbd al-Karīm Hamadānī who wrote a life of Maḥmūd i Gāwān (summarised by Firis̲h̲tah at the end of his account of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh Bahmanī) and, according to Rieu (iii 967a), a Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Maḥmūd-S̲h̲āhī.

^ Back to text44. Firis̲h̲tah quotes the “Ṭabaqāt i Maḥmūd-S̲h̲āhī ” more than once, but he does not mention the name of the author.

^ Back to text45. The title Ṭabaqāt i Maḥmūd-S̲h̲āhī given to this work in the catalogue of the Browne Collection depends on the doubtful authority of a note written on a fly-leaf of Browne Coll. G. 12 (12). A work undoubtedly called al-Ṭabaqāt al-Maḥmūd-S̲h̲āhīyah has already been mentioned (p. 84 supra).

^ Back to text46. Apparently only the Indian history is brought down to this period.

^ Back to text47. Doubtless owing to an oversight (of the author’s ?) the beginnings of Qism i and Qism ii are not marked, it seems, in the mss. None of the recorded mss. contains a preface.

^ Back to text48. This may (or may not) be a mistake for Masʿūd, as Rieu and Barthhold supposed.

^ Back to text49. According to Barthold (Ency. Isl. article on Abū ’l-K̲h̲air) this is not the only ms. of the work preserved at Leningrad.

^ Back to text50. al-Ḥasanī according to the printed text of the Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ.

^ Back to text51. More than half of the work had been printed at Paris when Gaulmin died and Galland undertook the task of seeing the rest of the book through the press and completing the translation with the help of a manuscript brought from Asia by Thévenot [Blochet i 335 apparently] and less defective than Gaulmin’s [Blochet i 333] (see Büsching Magazin für die neue Historie, Thl. xvii, Vorrede and p. 166). A manuscript of this translation preserved at Dresden (Fleischer’s Catalogue p. 55 no. 363) and written partly, it seems, by Galland includes some printed pages (numbered 17–48) with manuscript corrections, apparently by Galland. A note (of Rostgaard’s ?) on fol. 62b (“Hic in exemplari edito sequebatur Pars quarta …”) implies (perhaps wrongly) that the translation was (not only printed but) published at Paris, but one on fol. 72b in the same hand states that Galland’s additions were never printed there (“Hic incipiunt quae Gallandius interpretatus est ex Codice Thevenotii, et quae in Gaulmini codice defuerunt, et quae nunquam impressa fuerunt”). Büsching’s text was based on a transcript made by Reiske from the Dresden ms. (so Fleischer loc. cit.), though Büsching supposed Reiske to have made his transcript from a printed edition at Dresden. A transcript made by A. J. Penzelius from Reiske’s is preserved at Berlin (Pertsch’s catalogue, no. 413).

^ Back to text52. This extract does not seem to occur in the India Office copy.

^ Back to text53. See Blochet i 336. In the preface as given in that manuscript 935/1528–9 is mentioned as the current year.

^ Back to text54. ah 952/1545 is the latest date mentioned in the account of Humāyūn with which the work ends.

^ Back to text55. al-ʿUbādī, not al-ʿIbādī, is doubtless the correct transliteration, since by calling himself al-Saʿdī al-ʿUbādī he presumably claims descent from the well-known Ṣaḥābī, Saʿd b. ʿUbādah al-Anṣārī (for whom see Ency. Isl.).

^ Back to text56. Mīr G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-Laṭīf Qazwīnī was the grandson of Mīr Yaḥyā Qazwīnī, the author of the Lubb al-tawārīk̲h̲ (for which see p. 86 supra). In consequence of S̲h̲īʿite persecution his father left Persia and the two reached the Mug̲h̲al court in 963/1555–6. Mir G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn ʿAlī became a great friend of Akbar’s and in 988/1580 received from him the title of Naqīb K̲h̲ān. He excelled in history and is said to have known the Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ by heart. He was one of those who collaborated in the Persian translation of the Mahābhārata undertaken by order of Akbar. He died at Ajmēr in the ninth year of Jahāngīr’s reign, ah 1023/1614. [Āʾīn i Akbarī tr. Blochmann pp. 447–9, where further references are given; Memoirs of Jahāngīr tr. Rogers and Beveridge, i 264–5; Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ iii 812–817; Tad̲h̲kirat al-umarāʾ; Elliot and Dowson History of India iv 295–6; Rieu i 57b etc.]

^ Back to text57. Mīr Fatḥ Allāh S̲h̲īrāzī, an eminent mathematician and scientist, and a pupil of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Manṣūr S̲h̲īrāzī, went to Bījāpūr by invitation of [ʿAlī] ʿĀdil-S̲h̲āh. In 991/1593 he was invited to Akbar’s court and became an intimate friend of the Emperor. He assisted Tōdar Mal in the financial administration and it was he who calculated the Ilāhī era (see Rieu iii 1053b). He died prematurely in Kas̲h̲mīr ah 997/1588–9. [Ṭabaqāt i Akbarī ii 408, 457; Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ ii 315–18, 369, iii 154; Āʾīn i Akbarī tr. Blochmann p. 33; Haft iqlīm no. 231; Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i 100–5; Rieu iii 1053b.]

^ Back to text58. Ḥakīm Humām b. Mīr ʿAbd al-Razzāq Gīlānī, a personal friend of Akbar’s, was Bakāwal Bēg. He died in 1004/1595. [Āʾīn i Akbarī tr. Blochmann p. 474; Sprenger p. 414.]

^ Back to text59. Ḥakīm ʿAlī Gīlānī, called Jālīnūs al-zamānī, the author of a commentary on Ibn Sīnā’s Qānūn, was sent on one occasion on an embassy to Bījāpūr (Firis̲h̲tah ii 47) and attended Akbar in his last illness. He died in 1018/1609. [Āʾīn i Akbarī tr. Blochmann pp. 466–8.]

^ Back to text60. Ibrāhīm Sirhindī was one of those who took part in the theological discussions staged by Akbar. He died at Rantanbhor in 994/1586. [Āʾīn i Akbarī tr. Blochmann pp. 105, 172, 174, 189, 547; ʿAbd al-Qādir Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ ii 187–8.]

^ Back to text61. The author of the Ṭabaqāt i Akbar-S̲h̲āhī.

^ Back to text62. The author of the Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲.

^ Back to text63. Aḥmad Tattawī, a son of the Qāḍī of Tattah, became in early life a convert to S̲h̲īʿism, left Tattah at the age of twenty-two and went to study divinity and medicine at Mas̲h̲had, Yazd and S̲h̲īrāz. He spent some time in Qazwīn at the court of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp, after whose death in 984/1576 he visited Karbalāʾ, Mecca and Jerusalem. Returning then to India he spent some years at the court of the Quṭb-S̲h̲āh of Golconda. In 989/1581 he was presented at Akbar’s court, and in 996/1588 he was murdered at Lahore. He was the author of a work entitled K̲h̲ulāṣat al-ḥayāt on ancient and modern philosophers (see Rieu iii 1034b, Āṣafīyah i p. 318 no. 33). [Majālis al-muʾminīn (the last biography in Majlis v); Ṭabaqāt i Akbarī ii 482; Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ ii 317,319, 364; Āʾīn i Akbarī tr. Blochmann pp. 106, 206; Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ iii 260–4; Elliot and Dowson History of India v pp. 150–6; Rieu i 117.]

^ Back to text64. ʿAbd al-Qādir Badāʾūnī says C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān. but see Rieu i p. 119a ult.

^ Back to text65. Mīrzā Qiwām al-Dīn Jaʿfar Bēg was the son of Mīrzā Badīʿ al-Zamān Qazwīnī, Wazīr of Kās̲h̲ān in S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp’s time. In 985/1577, having come to India, he was presented to Akbar by his uncle, Mīrzā G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn ʿAlī Āṣaf K̲h̲ān, who held the office of Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī. Jaʿfar Bēg himself subsequently received the title of Āṣaf K̲h̲ān and he held various high offices. Jahāngīr on his accession appointed him Tutor (Atālīq) to Sulṭān Parwīz. He died at Burhānpūr in 1021/1612. Not only was he one of Akbar’s most eminent generals but also a scholar and poet. In religion he was a free-thinker. and one of Akbar’s disciples. For his mat̲h̲nawī, K̲h̲usrau wa S̲h̲īrīn, see Bānkīpūr iii 274–5, Bodleian 1068–1071 etc. [Āʾīn i Akbarī, tr. Blochmann, pp. 411–13, 572–4; ʿAbd al-Qādir Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ iii 216; Memoirs of Jahāngīr, tr. Rogers and Beveridge, i 16 etc. (see index); Kalimāt al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ; Safīnah i K̲h̲wus̲h̲gū ii no. 440; Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i 107–15; K̲h̲ulāṣat al-kalām (Bānkīpūr viii p. 141); Elliot and Dowson History of India v 150; Rieu i 118; Bānkīpūr iii 274; Ency. Isl. under Āṣaf K̲h̲ān etc. etc.]

^ Back to text66. ʿAbd al-Qādir Badāʾūnī speaks of the Tārīk̲h̲ i alfī as being divided into three books (two by Aḥmad Tattawī and one by Āṣaf K̲h̲ān), but the mss. do not seem to show any recognised division into volumes.

^ Back to text67. The mss. do not show any recognised division into volumes, and vol. ii, for example, begins at different years in different copies.

^ Back to text68. Kanbō or Kambōh is the name of a mainly agricultural caste in the Panjāb and western United Provinces.

^ Back to text69. Elliot writes “al-Balikí” [sic], Rieu al-Bāliḥī. Bālak is said to be the name of a village in the neighbourhood of Harāt (see the Tāj al-ʿarūs and al-Samʿānī).

^ Back to text70. The only ms. known to Elliot was an autograph dated 1037/1627 in the possession of Nawwāb S̲h̲ams̲h̲īr-Qadr, of Lucknow.

^ Back to text71. According to Ṣādiq’s “Taḥqīq al-iʿrāb”, p. 2, Āzādān was a village near Iṣfahān.

^ Back to text72. M. b. Rustam b. Qubād describes this work as far from accurate (see Rieu iii 895a).

^ Back to text73. For K̲h̲ūzān, a village near Iṣfahān, see Nuzhat al-qulūb, tr. le Strange, p. 57.

^ Back to text74. He describes himself as al-Atakī aṣlan wa-waṭanan wa-’l-Kanʿānī maulidan.

^ Back to text75. The mss. are enumerated here in alphabetical order, largely on the authority of Babinger, and for the most part without dates. Many of the mss. are in fact undated or listed in catalogues which do not specify dates.

^ Back to text76. Babinger does not say expressly that this fragment was published as well as printed, but that is no doubt implied.

^ Back to text77. An account of the life and times of Rustam K̲h̲ān by Bījan is mentioned below in the section History: Persia: Ṣafawīs.

^ Back to text78. “The history of the reigns of Ṣafī and ʿAbbās ii in the Favāʾid Ṣafaviyyah … is avowedly abridged from the present work, and is brought down to the same year” (Rieu).

^ Back to text79. In the Majlis Catalogue the authorship of the work is ascribed to M. Ṭāhir Waḥīd.

^ Back to text80. Sulṭān Ḥusain, the son of Aṣalat K̲h̲ān (Mīr ʿAbd al-Hādī), received the title of Iftik̲h̲ār K̲h̲ān at Aurangzēb’s accession and became Mīr-Sāmān in the sixth year of his reign (see Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i 252–5).

^ Back to text81. M. S̲h̲afīʿ (see below, p. 103) claims the authorship of all these works for his uncle. In the Mirʾāt al-ʿālam, Bak̲h̲tāwar K̲h̲ān is made to say that M. Baqā helped him. Mustaʿidd K̲h̲ān, the author of the Maʾāthir i ʿĀlamgīrī says that he helped Bak̲h̲tāwar K̲h̲ān to compile the Mirʾāt al-ʿālam (see Rieu i 270). The Mirʾāt i jahān-numā is never ascribed to Bak̲h̲tāwar K̲h̲ān, and in it M. Baqā claims the Mirʾāt al-ʿālam as his own work.

^ Back to text82. Āʾīnah i bak̲h̲t is the chronogrammatic title of the Mirʾāt al-ʿālam, but the work described by Ivanow and Browne differs from the Mirʾāt al-ʿālam in the designations given to the subdivisions and in other respects.

^ Back to text83. The recension from which these extracts are taken is not specified.

^ Back to text84. Elliot and Dowson call the author Mīrzā Muḥammad Yūsufī, probably in consequence of a misreading (see Rieu iii 1081a).

^ Back to text85. Elliot and Dowson write Jinān al-firdaus.

^ Back to text86. The only copy known to Elliot was in one of the royal libraries at Lucknow.

^ Back to text87. “La charge dont était investi le père de Khodjèm Kouli Beg, celle de Koush-beïgui … était l’une des plus importantes du khanat de Boukhara; le Koush-beīgui était le premier personnage du khanat après l’émir; il tenait les sceaux de l’État, percevait les droits de douane, et gardait le palais; au-dessous de lui se trouvait immédiatement le Toptchibachi … ou grand maître de l’artillerie” (Blochet i, p. 235).

^ Back to text88. In the jras. 1898 pp. 374–5 W. Irvine argued against Rieu’s identification of this author with the Rāy K̲h̲wus̲h̲-ḥāl C̲h̲and Kāyath, of Mathurā, who, according to the Tārīk̲h̲ i Muḥammadī, died at Delhi on 6 Muḥarram 1155 over 70 years old. The Nādir al-zamānī contains dates later than this.

^ Back to text89. According to Elliot “The Nádiru-z Zamání is very rare. The late Sadru-s Sudúr of Mainpúrí had a perfect copy, which his heirs have lost; and Nawáb ’Alí Muhammad Khán of Jhajjar has a very imperfect copy, deficient in the second books of both volumes. The Nawáb of Tonk has the first book”.

^ Back to text90. Tattah is an old town 4 miles from the banks of the Indus 50 miles east of Karāc̲h̲ī.

^ Back to text91. Vol. i of this history bears the title The Chachnāmah, an ancient history of SindTranslated by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg (Karachi 1900°).

^ Back to text92. This is sometimes called the Tad̲h̲kirah i Yūsuf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān.

^ Back to text93. Parasrūr, now called Pasrūr, was in Akbar’s time the chief town of a sarkār in the ṣūbah of Lahore. It is now the headquarters of a taḥṣīl in the district of Siālkōṭ. The name is said to be derived from a certain Paras Rām Brāhman.

^ Back to text94. Born at Bagnols 1726: served under Dupleix and others: entered the service of Mīr Qāsim in Bengal and then that of S̲h̲ujāʿ al-Daulah in Oudh: died at Bagnols 1799. His collection of Persian mss. is in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

^ Back to text95. According to the Bodleian Catalogue the last date that occurs in the work is 1196.

^ Back to text96. To distinguish him from his father he is sometimes called Allāh-Yār i T̲h̲ānī.

^ Back to text97. Col. Polier, born at Lausanne in 1741, went to India in 1757 and entered the E.I.Co.’s service. In 1762 he became Chief Engineer at Calcutta. In 1776 he resigned and successively served S̲h̲ujāʿ al-Daulah and Āṣaf al-Daulah, Nawwābs of Oudh, as architect and engineer, and the Mug̲h̲al Emperor at Delhi as a military commander. In 1788 he returned to Europe and in 1795 he was murdered by robbers (see Buckland’s Dictionary of Indian Biography).

^ Back to text98. There is a ms. of this tad̲h̲kirah in the Rāmpūr State Library (see Oriental College Magazine vol. v no. 4 (Lahore, August 1929) pp. 112–13 and vol. vii no. 1 (November 1930) pp. 67–9).

^ Back to text99. The only ms. known to Elliot was in the library of Saʿīd al-Dīn Aḥmad K̲h̲ān of Murādābād.

^ Back to text100. See the chronograms composed by T. W. Beale at the request of Abū Ṭālib’s son (Miftāḥ al-tawārīk̲h̲. p. 564).

^ Back to text101. For Sinandij, the capital of the Persian province of Kurdistān, see Ency. Isl. under Senna.

^ Back to text102. This S̲h̲āh-nawāz K̲h̲ān is of course to be distinguished from the more celebrated Ṣamṣām al-Daulah S̲h̲āh-nawāz K̲h̲ān (Mīr ʿAbd al-Razzāq), the author of the Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ.

^ Back to text103. Five or six copies of this work were known to Elliot, who describes it as not uncommon.

^ Back to text104. ʿAbd al-Karīm was the continuator of Mīrzā Ṣādiq’s Tārīk̲h̲ i gītī-gus̲h̲āy or Tārīk̲h̲ i Zandīyah (for which see below in the section History: Persia: Zands).

^ Back to text105. Elliot’s copy of this work “obtained from the author direct” does not seem to be among the Elliot mss. in the British Museum.

^ Back to text106. This work is described by Elliot as of no value, though of some repute in Bundelkhand, where it was composed.

^ Back to text107. See Browne iv 309–10.

^ Back to text108. In the printed edition, however, 1268/1851–2 is given as the date of completion.

^ Back to text109. According to Minorsky (Ency. Isl. under Sipihr) it is criticised severely by the Persians of the present day, who say that it is full of inaccuracies and anachronisms.

^ Back to text110. The edition represented by the copy in the Āṣafīyah Library appears to be differently divided. It is stated in the Ency. Isl. on the authority of “the Indian catalogues” that the 14th volume stops at the period of the Imām M. al-Bāqir.

^ Back to text111. These statements concerning the dates and the contents of the volumes are given on the authority of the Āṣafīyah Catalogue (vol. i, p. 256).

Cite this page
“1 General History”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 25 July 2024 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2772-7696_SPLO_COM_10201000>
First published online: 2021



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