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12.2 History of India: Sulṭāns of Delhi
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In Volume 1-1: Qurʾānic Literature, History, and Biography | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.

previous chapter: 12.1 General

(See also § 663 nos. (5) and (6))

§ 664. In consequence of the disturbed state of K̲h̲urāsān Ḥasan Niẓāmī1 left his native place Nīs̲h̲āpūr and went first to G̲h̲aznī and then to Delhi. Encouraged by the Ṣadr S̲h̲araf al-Mulk and other friends to produce a literary work he obeyed a royal command recently issued and began in 602/1205–6 to write a record of the glorious deeds of Sulṭān Muʿizz al-Dīn M. b. Sām (assassinated at G̲h̲aznī in S̲h̲aʿbān 602).

(Tāj al-maʾāt̲h̲ir), a verbose, rhetorical and uninformative account, in prose and verse, of the Indian wars of Muʿizz al-Dīn, Quṭb al-Dīn Aibak (who reigned ah 602/1206–607/1210 and to whom the work is chiefly devoted) and Īltutmis̲h̲, extending (in most copies) from Muʿizz al-Dīn’s conquest of Ajmēr in 587/1191 to Nāṣir al-Dīn Maḥmūd’s appointment as Governor of Lahore in 614/1217:2 Ḥ. K̲h̲. ii p. 92 no. 2051, Faiḍ Allāh Efendī 1402 = Tauer 536 (ah 694/1295), Rieu i 239a (ah 711/1312), 240a (ah 818/1416), 240a (16th cent.), 240b (ah 1034/1625), iii 1014a (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), 1045a (extracts with a summary of the work), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 2847b = Tauer 537 (ah 716/1316–17), 2991 = Tauer 539 (ah 750/1349), 2847a = Tauer 540 (ah 795/1392–3), Lālā Ismāʿīl 299 = Tauer 538 (ah 740/1340), Berlin 478 (defective, about 3/5 of the work. ah 755/1354), Blochet i 554 (ah 781/1379), 555 (defective at end. Early 15th cent.), 556 (ah 870/1465), Flügel ii 951 (ah 859/1455), Fātiḥ 4204 = Tauer 541 (ah 867/1462–3), Gotha 29 (ah 915/1510), 30 (n.d.), Dorn 307 (ah 980/1572–3), Muṣṭafā Efendī 601 = Tauer 542 (10th/16th cent.), Bodleian ms. Pers. e. 29 (ah 1034/1624–5), Majlis 220 (ah 1041/1631–2), Ivanow 110 (18th cent.), Aḥmad T̲h̲ālit̲h̲ 2637 = Tauer 543, Browne Suppt. 224 (King’s 68), Ethé 209 (tolerably old), 210 (n.d.), Āṣafīyah i p. 220 no. 28mnhhgh3, Salemann-Rosen p. 12 no. 578.

Translation of extracts (“all that is of the remotest historical interest in the work”): Elliot and Dowson History of India ii pp. 204–43.

Descriptions: (1) Hammer-Purgstall Gemäldesaal der Lebens-beschreibungen grosser moslemischer Herrscher iv pp. 172–82, (2) W. Nassau Lees Materials for the history of India … (in the jras. 1868) pp. 433–38, (3) Elliot and Dowson History of India ii 204–12.

[Tāj al-maʾāt̲h̲ir, preface; Elliot and Dowson History of India ii pp. 207–8; Rieu i 239; Ency. Isl. under Niẓāmī (Berthels).]

§ 665. Amīr3 K̲h̲usrau4 Dihlawī was born in 651/12535 at Paṭiyālī,6 an old town now in the Etah District of the United Provinces. His father, whom he calls Saif i S̲h̲amsī and whom Firis̲h̲tah calls Amīr Saif al-Dīn Maḥmūd, was a Turk7 in the employ of S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Īltutmis̲h̲8 (reigned ah 607/1210–633/1235) and his successors: his mother was a daughter of ʿImād al-Mulk, a high official in Balban’s reign (see Baranī pp. 114–17, Waḥīd Mīrzā pp. 29–31).

Even at the age of eight, he tells us, he was already composing poetry (Dībāc̲h̲ah i Tuḥfat al-ṣig̲h̲ar, Waḥīd Mīrzā p. 21). He was still a mere boy when Balban came to the throne in 664/1265. In this reign he attached himself successively to three high officials, namely (1) ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kis̲h̲lū K̲h̲ān, Balban’s nephew and Bār-bak or Chamberlain (Dībāc̲h̲ah i G̲h̲urrat al-kamāl, Waḥīd Mīrzā p. 38), (2) Nāṣir al-Dīn Bug̲h̲rā K̲h̲ān, Balban’s younger son, who was Governor of Sāmānah and whom he accompanied on Balban’s expedition against Lak’hnautī in the 14th year of the reign (Waḥīd Mīrzā pp. 41–3), (3) Nuṣrat al-Dīn Sulṭān Muḥammad, Balban’s elder son, the Governor of Multān, with whom he remained9 for five years10 until 683/1284–5, when he was killed in battle against the Mongols (K̲h̲usrau himself was taken prisoner but escaped11). In 685/1286 or 686/1287 Balban was succeeded by Muʿizz al-Dīn Kai-Qubād, the son of Nāṣir al-Dīn Bug̲h̲rā K̲h̲ān. K̲h̲usrau was invited to court, but, fearing the hostility of the powerful Malik Niẓām al-Dīn, he declined and became a protégé of Ḥātim K̲h̲ān, whom he accompanied to Oudh when Kai-Qubād went to meet his father Bug̲h̲rā K̲h̲ān. Ḥātim K̲h̲ān was then appointed Governor of Oudh and K̲h̲usrau remained with him there unwillingly for a time. On his return to Delhi he wrote the Qirān al-saʿdain (completed in Ramaḍan 688/1289) at the king’s request to commemorate his meeting with his father in Oudh. K̲h̲usrau’s Asp-nāmah, a mat̲h̲nawī included in the G̲h̲urrat al-kamāl, was dedicated to Ḥātim K̲h̲ān (cf. Baranī p. 1188, Waḥīd Mīrzā p. 162).

In the reign of Jalāl al-Dīn Fīrōz S̲h̲āh K̲h̲aljī (ah 689/1290–695/1295) K̲h̲usrau was appointed Muṣḥaf-dār and was given an annual stipend of 1200 tankahs (Baranī pp. 197–8). Baranī calls him Malik al-nudamā i majlis i sulṭān (p. 2001), mentions him second in his list of nine nadīmān i majlis i sulṭān (p. 1992) and says that every day he produced new g̲h̲azals in the sulṭān’s majlis and that he received many presents (inʿām) from the sulṭān, who was enamoured (s̲h̲īftah) of his g̲h̲azals (p. 1997–8). Four victories of this king are described in the Miftāḥ al-futūḥ, which was completed in Jumādā ii 690/1291.

ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn M. S̲h̲āh K̲h̲aljī reigned from 695/1295 to 715/1315. K̲h̲usrau accompanied him on his expedition against C̲h̲ittauṛ (in 702 or 703) and narrated his victories from 695 to 711 in the prose work K̲h̲azāʾin al-futūḥ completed in the latter year. The Mat̲h̲nawī Duwal Rānī K̲h̲aḍir K̲h̲ān belongs also to this reign, since it was originally completed in 715 and ended with K̲h̲iḍr K̲h̲ān’s marriage.12 All the five poems of K̲h̲usrau’s k̲h̲amsah are dedicated to ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn. According to Baranī (p. 36617–18) K̲h̲usrau received from ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn a stipend (mawājib) of only 1000 tankahs and was not honoured at court as his merits deserved.13

The early part of the reign of Quṭb al-Dīn Mubārak S̲h̲āh K̲h̲aljī (ah 716/1316–720/1320) is the subject of the Nuh sipihr completed in Jumādā i 718/1318.

The accession of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Tug̲h̲luq (reigned 720/1320–725/1325) and the events which led to it were celebrated by K̲h̲usrau in the Tug̲h̲luq-nāmah. When the king led his expedition into Bengal (in 724/1324 according to Firis̲h̲tah) K̲h̲usrau accompanied him and so was absent from Delhi when his pir Niẓām al-Dīn Auliyāʾ died. A few months later, in 725/1325,14 K̲h̲usrau himself died and was buried in a tomb adjacent to that of Nizām al-Dīn Auliyāʾ. He had lived to see the first few months of the reign of Sultān Muḥammad Tug̲h̲luq, whose entrance into Delhi after his accession is the subject of a poem in the Nihāyat al-kamāl.

K̲h̲usrau is considered the greatest of India’s Persian poets. He is also counted as a saint. Tradition credits him with original contributions to the art of music, and it is said that even today he is recognised by Indian qawwāls as their master (see Waḥīd Mīrzā p. 239).

According to Firis̲h̲tah K̲h̲usrau wrote 92 books (nawad u dū kitāb dar silk i naẓm kas̲h̲īdah). If this is correct, a large part of his work has perished, but what remains is of considerable extent. Still preserved are

five dīwāns, viz. (a) Tuḥfat al-ṣig̲h̲ar, poems of adolescence (from the age of fifteen, or sixteen,15 to nineteen), (b) Wasaṭ al-ḥayāt, poems of middle life (from the age of nineteen, twenty, or twenty-four,1 to thirty-two, or thirty-four 1), (c) G̲h̲urrat al-kamāl, poems of maturity (from the age of thirty-four to forty-three) collected (originally) in 693 but poems of a later date are included, (d) Baqīyah i naqīyah, completed not earlier than 715, since it contains an elegy on Sulṭān ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, (e) Nihāyat al-kamāl, which includes at least one poem written in 725 (Edition: Delhi 1332/1914*).

There are in existence a number of mss. bearing the title Dīwān i K̲h̲usrau and containing several different selections, mainly g̲h̲azals, from the first four of these dīwāns (e.g. Rieu ii 610b, 614 b–615 b). One such selection, ostensibly made by the poet himself, has been published under the title Kullīyāt i ʿanāṣir16 i dawāwīn i K̲h̲usrau by Nawal Kis̲h̲ōr ([Cawnpore 1871*, 1874°, 1886°] Cawnpore 1916 ‡ (4th ed.)). It contains 21 qaṣāʾid (pp. 6–37), 923 g̲h̲azals alphabetically arranged (pp. 37–456), a few muqaṭṭaʿāt etc. (pp. 456–60) and rubāʿīyāt (pp. 460–6). These 923 g̲h̲azals may be all, or nearly all, that occur in the four dīwāns, but it is incorrect to say, as Rieu, Edwards and Arberry have done, that this volume contains the four dīwāns collected into a single dīwān. The qaṣāʾid included in this selection are, for example, fewer than those in the Tuḥfat al-ṣig̲h̲ar, which contains 35, or in the Wasaṭ al-ḥayāt, which contains 58.

a K̲h̲amsah modelled on “Niẓāmī’s” and comprising (a) Maṭlaʿ al-anwār, completed in 698 (Editions: Delhi 1293/1876°*, Lucknow 1303/1884°),17 (b) S̲h̲īrīn u K̲h̲usrau, completed in Rajab 698,18 (c) Majnūn Lailā, completed likewise in 698 (Editions: [Calcutta] 1811°*, Calcutta 1828°* (in Classic selections from some of the most esteemed Persian writers, vol. i), Lucknow 1286/1869*, 1870°, [1899°], ʿAlīgaṛh 1335/1917*), (d) Āʾīnah i Sikandarī, completed in 699 (Edition: ʿAlīgaṛh 1918† (? 1917)), (e) Has̲h̲t bihis̲h̲t, completed in 701 (Editions: Lucknow 1290/1873*, ʿAlīgaṛh 1336/1918*).
Rasāʾil al-iʿjāz, or, as it is often called, Iʿjāz i k̲h̲usrawī, a treatise on elegant prose composition in five risālahs, the first four completed in 682, the last in 719, with numerous specimen documents and letters, mainly of K̲h̲usrau’s own writing (mss. Ethé 1219 etc. Editions: Lucknow 1865° (vol. i only), 1876° (5 vols., of which i.o. has the first two only).

In addition to these may be mentioned the Afḍal al-fawāʾid, a collection of Niẓām al-Dīn Auliyā’s sayings in four parts, of which the first was presented to the saint in 719 (Edition: Delhi 1887°).

Popularly ascribed to K̲h̲usrau are (1) the Qiṣṣah i c̲h̲ahār darwīs̲h̲, best known through Mīr Amman’s Urdu translation Bāg̲h̲ u bahār (see Rieu ii 762 etc.), (2) a metrical Persian-Hindi glossary known from its opening words as K̲h̲āliq-Bārī, (3) a number of Hindi verses and conundrums. For further information concerning these see Waḥīd Mīrzā, pp. 149–50, 227–32.

Qirān al-saʿdain, written in 3 months and completed in Ramaḍān 688/1289, a mat̲h̲nawī on the meeting of Sulṭān Muʿizz al-Dīn Kai-Qubād and his father Nāṣir al-Dīn Bug̲h̲rā K̲h̲ān in 688/1289 on the banks of the Sarjū in Oudh: Ḥ. K̲h̲. iv p. 510 no. 9399, Sprenger 329, Ethé 1186 (5) (ah 866–7/1462 or thereabouts), 1208 (ah 907/1502 ?), 1188 (11) (ah 933/1526–7), 1187 (10) (ah 1008/1599), 1209 (ah 1072/1662), 1210 (ah 1096/1685), 1211 (ah 1135/1723), 1212–14 (3 undated copies), 2880, i.o. D.P. 1253 (ah 1177/1763–4), Ross & Browne 168 (18th cent.), Ḥakīm-og̲h̲lū ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā 661 (ah 903/1497. See Duda Ferhād und Schīrīn p. 186), Blochet iii 1534 (slightly defective. Late 15th cent.), 1520 (circ. ad 1560), Mas̲h̲had iii p. 188 no. 90 (ah 912/1506–7), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3912 (ah 917/1511. See Duda Ferhād und Schīrīn p. 188), Rieu ii 616b (Harāt, ah 921/1515. Pictures), 611b (ah 923/1517), 617a (ah 1000/1591), 617a (three 18th-cent. copies), Suppt. 256 (16th cent. Pictures), iii 1045b (analysis only. Circ. ad 1850), Dorn 386 (ah 923–4/1517–18), 387, 388 (ah 974/1566–7), 393 (superb copy), Lindesiana p. 180 no. 71 (circ. ad 1560), no. 89 (circ. ad 1750), no. 256 (circ. ad 1760), Yildiz Kös̲h̲kü 473 (2nd half of 16th cent. See Edhem and Stchoukine pp. 38–9), Ivanow 563 (defective. 16th–17th cent.), 564 (ah 1100/1688–9 ?), 565 (ah 1170/1756–7), 2nd Suppt. 980 (defective. Mid 19th cent.), Būhār 315 (ah 1030/1621), Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (two copies, one dated ah 1098/1686 the other undated. See Oriental College Magazine vol. iii no. 3 (May 1927) p. 73), Bodleian 773 (ah 1102/1691 ?), 774 (ah 1169/1755), 775 (n.d.), Peshawar 1789 (ah 1108/1696–7), 1833, Berlin 833 (fairly old), Browne Suppt. 921 (fairly old. Corpus 97), 920 (n.d. Corpus 14), Pers. Cat. 254 (n.d.), 340 ii (p. xxxviii. Defective at end), Bānkīpūr i 130 (ah 1246 ?), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 38, Āṣafīyah ii p. 1484 no. 177, Edinburgh 291, Eton 132, Leyden ii p. 116 no. 663, Madras, Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 3780 (n.d. See Duda Ferhād und Schīrīn p. 190), Rehatsek p. 157.

Editions: [Lucknow,] 1261/1845°* (with a marginal commentary by Qudrat Aḥmad), Cawnpore 1871†, 1302/1885†‡ (on the title-page, evidently unaltered from that of the previous edition, are the dates 1287/1870), [Ṭihrān, 1886°], ʿAlīgaṛh 1918† (ed. S. Ḥasan Barnī. Silsilah i Kullīyāt i K̲h̲usrau).

Abstracts: (1) The Kirán-us-Sa’dain of Mír Khusrau.—By E.B. Cowell (in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, n.s., vol. xxix (1860) pp. 225–39), (2) Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 524–34.

Descriptions: (1) M. Ḥabīb Hazrat Amir Khusrau pp. 46–52, (2) Waḥīd Mīrzā The life and works of Amir Khusrau pp. 174–6.

Commentaries: (1) S̲h̲arḥ i Qirān al-saʿdain or, according to Sprenger Nūr al-ʿain s̲h̲arḥ Qirān al-saʿdain, written in 1014/1605–6 and dedicated to the author’s father, S̲h̲aik̲h̲ ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq (for whom see p. 346 supra), by Nūr-Muḥammad, called (al-madʿū bi-) Nūr al-Ḥaqq Dihlawī (for whom see p. 347 supra): Sprenger 330, Rieu ii 617b (ah 1136/1723), Ivanow Curzon 220 (ah 1207/1793), i.o. D.P. 1239 (18th cent.), Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib.(2 copies. See Oriental College Magazine vol. iii no. 3(May 1927) p. 73), (2) S̲h̲arḥ i Qirān al-saʿdain (written in 1135/1722–3?19) by K̲h̲air Allāh Muhandis Dihlawī: Ivanow Curzon 221 (lacuna in middle, ah 1207/1793), 222 (same lacuna, ah 1248/1833), Ivanow 566 = Sprenger 471 (very incomplete at end. 19th cent.), (3) S̲h̲arḥ i Qirān al-saʿdain by ʿAbd al-Rasūl Qāsim of Garah (about forty miles E. of Lucknow): Sprenger p. 471 (Tōp-k̲h̲ānah).

Miftāḥ al-futūḥ, Fatḥ-nāmah, or Fatḥ al-futūḥ, a mat̲h̲nawī on four victories of Jalāl al-Dīn Fīrōz K̲h̲aljī, completed in Jumādā ii 690/1291 and forming part of the third dīwān, the G̲h̲urrat al-kamāl: Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 27 no. 12584, Ethé 1186 (11) (ah 866–7/1462 or thereabouts), 1188 (14) (ah 933/1526–7), 1187 (13) (defective, ah 1008/1599), 1190 (4), 1192, Bānkīpūr i p. 180 (15th cent.), Ḥakīm-og̲h̲lū ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā 661 (ah 903/1497. See H.W. Duda Ferhād und Schīrīn p. 187), 651 (n.d. See Duda p. 190), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3912 (ah 917/1511. See Duda op. cit. p. 188), Rieu ii 611a vi (ah 923/1517), 614a (17th cent.), iii 1012a ii (ad 1849), Dorn 386 (ah 924/1518), Bodleian 754–5, and doubtless in other mss. of the G̲h̲urrat al-kamāl, for which see the section of this work devoted to poetry.

Edition: Oriental College Magazine vol. xii no. 3 (Lahore, May 1936) pp. 58–70, no. 4 (Aug. 1936) pp. 93–108, vol. xiii no. 1 (Nov. 1936) pp. 59–70, no. 2 (Feb. 1937) pp. 73–80 (Editor Yā-Sīn K̲h̲ān Niyāzī).

Abstract: Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 536–44.

Description: Waḥid Mīrzā The life and works of Amir Khusrau pp. 176–7.

K̲h̲azāʾin al-futūḥ, as the author calls it, or Tārīk̲h̲ i ʿAlāʾī, as it is sometimes called, an ornate prose account of the victories of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲aljī completed in 711/1311–12: Āṣafīyah i p. 122 no. 178 (Aurangzēb’s 3rd year = ah 1070/1659–60), Brelvi and Dhabhar p. 76 no. 4 (1) (? Author not stated, ah 1147/1734–5), Rieu i 240b (18th cent.), iii 919a (ah 1253/1838), 1045b (abstract only. Circ. ad 1850), Browne Suppt. 427 (ah 1200/1785–6. King’s 158), Madras.

Edition: The Khazainul Futuh of Hazrat Amir Khusru [sic] of Delhi. Persian text. Edited by Syed Moinul Haq …, ʿAlīgaṛh 1927* (Publications of the Sultania Historical Society [of the ʿAlīgaṛh Muslim University]).

Translation (with omissions): The campaigns of ʿAlāʾ u d-Dīn K̲h̲iljī being the K̲h̲azāʾinul [sic] Fuṭūḥ [sic] … of Hazrat Amīr K̲h̲usrau … translated … by Muhammad Habib, Bombay (Madras printed) 1931‡ (For numerous corrections of this translation see a series of articles (in Urdu) entitled Angrēzī tarjamah i K̲h̲azāʾin al-futūḥ i Amīr K̲h̲usrau by Ḥāfiẓ M. Maḥmūd S̲h̲ērānī in the Oriental College Magazine, vol. xii no. 1 (Lahore, Nov. 1935) pp. 81–96, no. 2 (Feb. 1936) pp. 3–80, no. 3 (May 1936) pp. 3–51, no. 4 (Aug. 1936) pp. 3–15).

Description and abstract: Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 67–92.

Description: Waḥīd Mīrzā The life and works of Amir Khusrau pp. 222–5.

Duwal Rānī K̲h̲aḍir K̲h̲ān, or Mans̲h̲ūr i s̲h̲āhī, or ʿAs̲h̲īqah, or ʿIs̲h̲qīyah or K̲h̲aḍir-K̲h̲ānī, a mat̲h̲nawī completed20 in D̲h̲ū ’l-Qaʿdah 715/1316 on the love-story of K̲h̲iḍr K̲h̲ān, Sulṭān ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲aljī’s son, and the daughter of Rājah Karn of Nahrwālah, with a continuation of 319 lines written at some time subsequent to Mubārak S̲h̲āh’s death and telling of K̲h̲iḍr K̲h̲ān’s estrangement from his father, his confinement in the fortress of Gwalior, his blinding by Malik Kāfūr and his murder: Ḥ. K̲h̲. iii p. 142 no. 4723 (K̲h̲aḍir K̲h̲ān Duwal-Rānī), Sprenger 328, Ḥakīm-og̲h̲lū ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā 661 (ah 903/1497. See H.W. Duda Ferhād und Schīrīn p. 187), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3912 (ah 917/1511. See Duda op. cit. p. 187), Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (3 copies, one dated ah 917/1511. See Oriental College Magazine vol. iii no. 3 (May 1927) p. 73), Rieu ii 612a (ah 923/1517), 617b (ah 982/1574. 3 Pictures), 617b (early 16th cent. 6 Pictures), 618a (17th cent.), 817a (ah 1004/1596. Pictures), iii 1045b (analysis only. Circ. ad 1850), Dorn 386 (ah 923–4/1517–18), 387, 393 (superb copy), 398 (ah 983/1575), 397 (ah 987/1579–80), Ethé 1188 (12) (ah 933/1527–7), 1187 (11) (ah 1008/1599), 1215 (17th cent.), 1216 (ah 1220/1806), 1217 (fragment. 17th and 18th cent.), Blochet iii 1520 (circ. ad 1560), 1530 (late 16th cent.), 1531 (ah 1010/1602), 1532 (mid 17th cent.), 1533 (mid 18th cent.), 1537 (late 17th cent.), Lindesiana p. 180 no. 49 (ah 989/1581. Pictures), Yildiz Kös̲h̲kü 473 (2nd half of 16th cent. See Edhem and Stchoukine pp. 38–9), Aumer 65 (ah 995/1587), Bānkīpūr i 131 (ah 995/1587), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1488 no. 141 (not later than ah 999/1590–1), p. 1486 no. 156 (ah 1065/1654–5), 236 (Aurangzēb’s 23rd year), Bodleian 777 (ah 1012/1604), 778 (ah 1064/1654), 779 (n.d. Pictures), Būhār 315 (ah 1030/1621), Ivanow 567 (ah 1100/1688–9), 568 (early 17th cent.), Browne Suppt. 965 (n.d.), 966 (ah 1112/1700–1), 967 (transcribed from an a.s.b. ms.), 968 (n.d.), 969 (n.d. Christ’s), Madras, r.a.s. P. 282, Rehatsek p. 155 no. 101.

Edition: Dawal-Rānī [so] K̲h̲iḍr K̲h̲ān. ʿAlīgaṛh 1336/1917‡ (edited by Ras̲h̲īd Aḥmad).

Abstract: Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 544–57.

Descriptions: (1) M. Ḥabīb Hazrat Amir Khusrau pp. 53–66, (2) Waḥīd Mīrzā The life and works of Amir Khusrau pp. 177–81.

Nuh sipihr, completed on 30 Jumādā ii 718 (according to Elliot History of India iii 557), a mat̲h̲nawī describing the court of Quṭb al-Dīn Mubārak S̲h̲āh: Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 411 no. 14127, Ḥakīm-og̲h̲lū ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā 661 (ah 903/1497. See Duda Ferhād und Schīrīn p. 187), Āyā Ṣūfiyah 3912 (ah 917/1511. See Duda Ferhād und Schīrīn p. 187), Majlis 455 (? beginning differs from the usual. ah 923/1517), Rieu ii 612a (ah 923/1517), iii 1045b (analysis only. Circ. ad 1850), Dorn 386 (ah 923–4/1517–18), 387, Ethé 1188 (13) (ah 933/1526–7), 1187 (12) (ah 1008/1599), 1218 (n.d.), Blochet iii 1520 (circ. ad 1560), Yildiz Kös̲h̲kü 473 (16th cent. (2nd half). See Edhem and Stchoukine pp. 38–9), Būhār 315 (ah 1030/1620–1), Bodleian 776 (17th cent.), Ethé 1218 (n.d.).

Abstract: Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 557–66.

Description: Waḥīd Mīrzā The life and works of Amir Khusrau pp. 181–9.

Tug̲h̲luq-nāmah, a mat̲h̲nawī on the victory of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Tug̲h̲luq over K̲h̲usrau K̲h̲ān in 720/1320: Ḥ. K̲h̲ i. ii p. 321 no. 3112 (Taʿalluq-nāmah [sic]), ms. in the possession of Nawwāb Ṣadr-Yār-Jang Ḥabīb al-Raḥmān K̲h̲ān S̲h̲irwānī, of Bhīkampūr (ʿAlīgaṛh District).

Edition: Ḥaidarābād (Aurangābād printed) 1352/1933‡ (Silsilah i makhṭūṭāt i fārisīyah, 1. Edited by S. Hās̲h̲imī Farī-dābādī).

Descriptions: (1) Syed Hashimi The Tughluq-namah (in Islamic culture viii/2 (April 1934) pp. 301–12, viii/3 (July 1934) pp. 413–24), (2) Waḥīd Mīrzā The life and works of Amir Khusrau pp. 189–90, 245–53.

[Autobiographical sketch at end of dībāc̲h̲ah to G̲h̲urrat al-kamāl; autobiographical statements in dībāc̲h̲ah to Tuḥfat al-ṣig̲h̲ar and in other works: Baranī Tārīk̲h̲ i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī pp. 67 (= Elliot and Dowson iii p. 110), 1101–5 (= E. & D. iii p. 122), 1134, 1187–8, 1834 (= E. & D. iii p. 138), 19718–22 (= E. & D. iii p. 144), 1981–3 (= E. & D. ibid.), 1992,7, 8, 20001–6, 359, 36613–19; Siyar al-auliyāʾ pp. 301–5; Nafaḥāt al-uns pp. 710–11; Daulat-S̲h̲āh pp. 238–47; Majālis al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq pp. 256–60; Nafāʾis al-maʾāt̲h̲ir (Sprenger p. 49); Taqī Kāshī (Sprenger p. 18); Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār pp. 99–101; Haft iqlīm no. 391; Firis̲h̲tah, Nawal Kis̲h̲ōr [Lucknow] 1864, vol. ii pp. 402–3 (the tenth biography in Maqālah xii); But-k̲h̲ānah no. 30; Safīnat al-auliyāʾ pp. 98–100; Mirʾāt al-asrār (Bānkīpūr viii p. 61, fol. 450); Mirʾāt al-k̲h̲ayāl pp. 47–8 (Bodleian 374 no. 30); Maṭlūb al-ṭālibīn (Ethé col. 324, 1. 10 from end); D̲h̲ikr i jamīʿ i auliyāʾ i Dihlī; Sawāṭiʿ al-anwār (Ethé col. 334, 1. 32); Muntak̲h̲ab al-as̲h̲ʿār no. 189; Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ; K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah no. 39; Ātas̲h̲-kadah no. 754; K̲h̲ulāṣat al-kalām (Bānkīpūr viii p. 141 no. 22, Bodleian 390 no. 23); K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār no. 89; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 668; Aḥwāl i Amīr K̲h̲usrau (ms. Ethé 1222); Sprenger pp. 465–71; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 339–42; Haft āsmān pp. 63–75; Garcin de Tassy ii 204–9; Rieu i 240–1; S̲h̲iʿr al-ʿAjam (in Urdu), by S̲h̲iblī Nuʿmānī, vol. ii (pp. 85–156 in the Lucknow edition of 1341/1922–3); Ḥayāt i K̲h̲usrau (in Urdu), by M. Saʿīd Aḥmad Mārahrawī, Amritsar (Lahore printed) 1909*; Ency. Isl. under K̲h̲usrū [sic]; Hazrat Amir Khusrau of Delhi, by Mohammad Habib, Bombay 1927; The life and works of Amir Khusrau, by M. Waḥīd Mīrzā, Calcutta 1935 (Panjab University Oriental Publications).]

§ 666. Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn Baranī must have been born in, or about, 684/1285, since his age when he wrote a passage towards the end of the Tārīk̲h̲ i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī (p. 5737–8) was 74 and he tells us in the preface that he completed the work in 758/1357. He belonged to a distinguished family. His father, Muʾaiyid al-Mulk (T. i F. pp. 1276, 20510), was in Jalāl al-Dīn Fīrōz-S̲h̲āh K̲h̲aljī’s reign deputy (nāʾib) to Arklī21 K̲h̲ān (T. i F. p. 2098), and in the first year of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲aljī’s reign [ah 695–6] he was given the Niyābat and K̲h̲wājagī of Baran22 (T. i F. p. 2488–9). His paternal uncle, Malik ʿAlāʾ al-Mulk (T. i F. pp. 2228, 249 ult., 33615), was Kōtwāl of Delhi in ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲aljī’s reign (T. i F. pp. 24014–15, 2503, 2558–9) and was one of the king’s friends and counsellors (az muk̲h̲taṣṣān u rāy-zanān i Sulṭān ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn būd, T. i F. p. 2558–9). His maternal grandfather, Sipah-sālār Ḥusām al-Dīn (T. i F. p. 11913), Wakīl i Dar to Malik Bārbak, was appointed by Balban to the S̲h̲ahnagī of Lak’hnautī (T.i F. p. 87).

Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn Baranī found a patron in Sulṭān Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luq23 (reigned 725/1325–752/1351) and spent 17 years and 3 months (T. i F. p. 50417) at his court (mulāzim i dargāh, T. i F. p. 50417, muqarrab i dargāh, T. i F. p. 49717), basking in his favour and munificence (az inʿāmāt i wāfirah u ṣadaqāt i muta-wātirah i ū zar-hā yāftah, T. i F. p. 50418). He does not say that he held any official position, and it seems that he was a nadīm (cf. Siyar al-auliyāʾ p. 3135) rather than an official. According to the Siyar al-auliyāʾ 312 penult., he was an entertaining conversationalist and raconteur (ū majmaʿ al-laṭāʾif wa-jawāmiʿ al-ḥikāyāt būd).

In the reign of Fīrōz-S̲h̲āh (752/1351–790/1388) he suffered a change of fortune. His enemies procured his banishment from court (Dus̲h̲manān-am az ḥaḍrat u az qurb i ū marā dūr andāk̲h̲tah and, T. i F. p. 1254–5. Cf. p. 55710 seq; baʿd i naql i sulṭān i mag̲h̲fūr dar mahālik i gūnāgūn uftādam etc.), he was unable to submit his history to the king, a lover of history (T. i F. p. 1255–6), and he was in a state of misery and poverty (T. i F. pp. 6910–12, 11416–17, 125, 204 ult.-20512, 46621–22, 54818 seq). His last years were spent in devout retirement, during which he composed several literary works (Siyar al-auliyāʾ p. 3138–10). He was buried24 near to the grave of Niẓām al-Dīn Auliyāʾ (Siyar al-auliyāʾ p. 31317–18), having been a murīd and a devoted adherent of that saint.

According to the Siyar al-auliyāʾ (p. 31310–12) he was much in the society of the poets K̲h̲usrau (for whom see pp. 389–397 supra) and Ḥasan Dihlawī. From both of them he received oral information which he utilised in the Tārīk̲h̲ i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī (see, e.g., pp. 6711, 6819, 1834).

In addition to the Tārīk̲h̲ i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī five works of his are mentioned in the Siyar al-auliyāʾ, namely (1) T̲h̲anā-yi Muḥammadī ṣl‘m, (2) Ṣalāt i kabīr, (3) ʿInāyat-nāmah i ilāhī, (4) Maʾāt̲h̲ir i sādāt, (5) Ḥasrat-nāmah (dar taṣawwuf, according to Raḥmān ʿAlī). Another work, the Ak̲h̲bār i Barmakiyān, translated from an Arabic original, completed in 755/135425 and dedicated to Fīrōz-S̲h̲āh, is extant in several mss. (e.g. Rieu i 333b, Ethé 569, Bodleian 308).

Tārīk̲h̲ i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī, a history of the Sulṭāns of Delhi from Balban ah 662/1263–4 (or rather 664/1265) to Fīrōz-S̲h̲āh’s sixth year, ah 758/1357, forming a continuation of the Ṭabaqāt i Nāṣirī: Blochet i 557 (defective at both ends. Mid 15th cent.), iv 2327 (17th cent.), Rieu iii 919 (defective at end and elsewhere. 15th cent.), 1014a (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), 1021a (similar extracts), 1023a (similar extracts), 1045b (similar extracts), Būhār 61 (16th cent.), Bānkīpūr vii 546 (from G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Tug̲h̲luq to Fīrōz-S̲h̲āh. 16th cent.), Ethé 211 (ah 1007/1599), Bodleian 173 (defective. ah 1009/1600), 172 (ah 1197/1783), 174 (ah 1196/1782), Ivanow Curzon 23 (early 18th cent.), Browne Pers. Cat. 85 (defective and bad copy. Seal dated ah 1128/1716), Lindesiana p. 235 no. 823 (ah 1230/1815), Āṣafīyah i p. 228 no. 259, Berlin 477 (defective).

Edition: The Táríkh-i Feroz-sháhí of Ziaa al-Din Barni … Edited by Saíyid Ahmad Khán under the superintendence of Captain W. Nassau Lees … and Mawlavi Kabir al-Din, Calcutta 1860–2°* (Bibliotheca Indica).

Translations of extracts: (1) Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 97–268 (by J. Dowson), (2) Translations from the Táríkh i Fírúz Sháhí, by the late Major A.R. Fuller … The Reign of ’Aláuddín i Khiljí (in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. xxxviii, pt. i (1869), pp. 181–220, vol. xxxix, pt. i (1870), pp. 1–51, (3) Translations from the Táríkh i Fírúzsháhí … The Reign of Mu’izz-uddín.—By P. Whalley (in the jasb., vol. xl, pt. i (1871) pp. 185–216, (4) Translations from the Tarikh i Firuzshahi by Ziauddin of Baran … The Reign of Sultan Ghiasuddin Tughluq Shah.—Translated by Auckland Colvin (in the jasb., vol. xl, pt. i (1871) pp. 217–47).

Descriptions: (1) Materials for the history of India … By Major W. Nassau Lees (in the jras. 1868) pp. 441–5, (2) Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 93–97.

[Tārīk̲h̲ i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī pp. 6711–12 (= Elliot and Dowson iii p. 110), 6819, 6910–12, 8713 (= E. & D. iii p. 116), 1141, 15–17, 11912–13, 123 penult.-125, 1274–6 (= E. & D. iii p. 125), 16816 (= E. & D. iii p. 132), 1833–4 (=E. & D. iii p. 138), 204 ult.-20512, 2097–10, 2228, 24014–15, 2487–9 (=E. & D. iii p. 161), 249 ult.-2503 (=E. & D. iii p. 162), 2558 seq. (=E. & D. iii p. 166), 26417seq. (= E. & D. iii pp. 169–71), 34911–13, 3502–5, 350 ult.-3514, 3542–5, 35414seq., 4596seq., 46620–22, 4672–4, 49717, 50417seq. (=E. & D. iii pp. 252–3), 505 ult., 5081seq. (= E. & D. p. 253), 50916seq. (= E. & D. pp. 254–5), 51612seq. (=E. & D. pp. 259–60), 5219seq (= E. & D. iii pp. 262–3), 529 (=E. & D. iii p. 265), 54818seq. 5547–8, 5577–8, 55710seq, 5737–8, 58211–12, 602; Siyar al-auliyāʾ pp. 312–13; Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār pp. 103–5; Riyāḍ al-auliyāʾ; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 344–6; W. Nassau Lees in jras. 1868 pp. 441–5; Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 93–6; Rieu i pp. 242, 333, iii 919; Raḥmān ʿAlī 97; Ency. Isl. under Baranī.]

§ 667. Fīrōz b. Rajab, better known as Fīrōz S̲h̲āh Tug̲h̲luq, succeeded his cousin, M. b. Tug̲h̲luq, on 24 Muḥarram 752/20 March 1351. The wars of his reign were expeditions to Bengal, Orissa, Nagarkōṭ and Tattah. His passion for building expressed itself in the foundation of a new Delhi named Fīrōzābād, in the refounding of Ḥiṣār Fīrōzah [i.e. Ḥiṣār, N.W. of Delhi] and Jaunpūr [N.W. of Benares] and in the erection of towns, forts, mosques, colleges and other edifices. His rule was mild and he prided himself on the abolition of torture and various imposts. He died more than eighty years old in Ramaḍān 790/September 1388.

Futūḥāt i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī, a brief account by Fīrōz S̲h̲āh of his own edicts and ordinances, the abuses and evil practices abolished by him, the buildings erected and the works of public utility carried out in his reign:26 Rieu iii 920 (ad 1853).

Edition: Delhi 1885.

Translation: Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 374–88 (translated by J. Dowson from “a unique copy belonging to Mr. E. Thomas”).

[Baranī Tārīk̲h̲ i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī pp. 527–602 = Elliot and Dowson iii pp. 265–8; S̲h̲ams i Sirāj Tārīk̲h̲ i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī = E. & D. iii pp. 269–373; other histories of India; Ency. Isl. under Fīrūz S̲h̲āh Tag̲h̲laḳ.]

§ 668. In 772/1370–1, the twentieth year of Fīrōz-S̲h̲āh’s reign, an anonymous author completed his

Sīrat i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī, a florid and eulogistic account of Fīrōz-S̲h̲āh in four bābs (182 foll.): Bānkīpūr vii 547 (ah 1002/1593–4).

Description with a translation of the prologue and epilogue: An approach to the Sīrat-i-Fīroz S̲h̲āhī. [By] Prof. K.K. Basu … (in The Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society, vol. xxii, pt. i (March 1936) pp. 13–21).

Translation: An account of Firoz Shāh Tughluq (from Sirat-i-Firozshāhi). By Prof. K.K. Basu (in j.b.o.r.s. vol. xxii (1936) pp. 96–107, 265–74, xxiii (1937) pp. 97–112, in progress).

§ 669. S̲h̲ams i Sirāj [i.e. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn b. Sirāj al-Dīn] ʿAfīf 27 says (T. i F. p. 31014–16) that he was twelve years old when Fīrōz-S̲h̲āh after his return from Tattah (T. i F. p. 3054–5) had two ancient stone columns (manārahā-yi sangīn, i.e. Asoka pillars) removed from Tōprah and Meerut to Delhi. Rieu, placing the return from Tattah in the year 763/1361–2,1 infers that S̲h̲ams i Sirāj was born in 751/1350–1, but the words used by S̲h̲ams i Sirāj do not necessarily imply that the columns were removed immediately after the return from Tattah. His great-grandfather, Malik Saʿd al-Mulk S̲h̲ihāb ʿAfīf, was appointed ʿAmal-dār of Abōhar [in the Fīrōzpūr District] by Sulṭān [G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn] Tug̲h̲luq (T. i F. p. 377–9).

His father was in the service of Fīrōz-S̲h̲āh (cf. T. i F. pp. 130 penult.–1312, 1459–10, 19611–12), at one time as S̲h̲ab-nawīs i K̲h̲awāṣṣān (T. i F. p. 12716), at another time in the Wazīr’s office (dar maḥall i dīwān i wizārat, p. 19711–13), and he was in the Sulṭān’s suite on the expeditions to Jājnagar (pp. 16314, 172l5) and Nagarkōṭ (p. 18612).

S̲h̲ams i Sirāj thus grew up at the court of Fīrōz-S̲h̲āh and for many years used to accompany the officials of the Wazīr’s office to the audience chamber (T. i F. p. 10512–15: īn muʾarrik̲h̲ i ḍaʿīf … kih dar muddat i c̲h̲ihil sāl ān-ḥaḍrat rā dīdah u bīs̲h̲tar sanawāt pīs̲h̲ i tak̲h̲t-gāh i ahl i barakāt barābar i aṣḥāb i dīwān i wizārat dar maḥall i salām raftah. Cf. p. 2819–11: dar-ān aiyām īn muʾarrik̲h̲ i ḍaʿīfbar [ābar i] aṣḥāb i dīwān i ʿālī i wizārat ba-ḥukm i farmān i ḥaḍrat i jahān-dār dar maḥall i salām mī-raft; 28512–13: andar-ān aiyām kih īn muʾarrik̲h̲dar maḥall i salām pīs̲h̲ i tak̲h̲t mī-raft). He used to accompany the Sulṭān on his hunting expeditions (T. i F. p. 321 ult.-32228). His Tārīk̲h̲ i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī was written subsequently to Tīmūr’s invasion of 801/1398.

The Tārīk̲h̲ i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī (a title which does not seem to occur in the work itself) was not the whole of the author’s historical writing. He wrote also about the manāqib i Sulṭān (G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Tug̲h̲luq (T. i F. p. 3611–12 = E. & D. iii p. 271), the manāqib i Sulṭān Muḥammad [ibn Tug̲h̲luq] (T. i F. pp. 4211–13, 515–6 = E. & D. iii pp. 274, 279), the manāqib i Sulṭān Muḥammad [ibn Fīrōz] (T. i F. pp. 148 ult.-1491, 4284 = E. & D. iii pp. 307, 371) and about the k̲h̲arābī i Dihlī owing to Mongol incursions after Fīrōz-S̲h̲āh’s time (T. i F. p. 1856 = E. & D. iii p. 317). These do not seem to be the titles of other works by the author. It is probable that they indicate parts of a large work now lost apart from the fragment known as the Tārīk̲h̲ i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī.

(Tārīk̲h̲ i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī), a life of Fīrōz-S̲h̲āh Tug̲h̲luq (reigned ah 752/1351–790/1388) written subsequently to Tīmūr’s invasion of 801/1398 (which is mentioned on p. 314) and divided into five qisms each subdivided into eighteen muqaddimahs: Edinburgh 204 (ah 1074/1663. Analysis), Ethé 212 (defective. ah 1092/1681 ?), 213 (lacunæ. N.d.), Rieu i 2416 (breaks off in 9th muqaddimah of Qism v. 19th cent.), iii 921a (breaks off at same point, ad 1841), 1045b (extracts. Circ. ad 1850), Ivanow 111 (breaks off in 9th muqaddimah of Qism v. 19th cent.), 112 (breaks off in same muqaddimah. Late 19th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 228.

Edition: The Tarikh-i-Firoz Shahi, of Shams Siráj ’Afíf, edited by Maulavi Vilayat Husain, Calcutta 1888–91°* (Bibliotheca Indica. This edition breaks off in the 15th muqaddimah of Qism v).

Epitome: Biography of Feeroz Shah, Emperor of Dehli, translated from the Persian of Shums-i-Seraj, Ufeef by Lieut. Henry Lewis [who used a ms. belonging to Nawwāb Ḍiyā’ al-Dīn, of Lōhārū, and whose epitome ends in the 9th muqaddimah of Qism v, p. 439 in the Calcutta edition] (in the Journal of the Archæological Society of Dehli [vol. i] 1849–50* pp. 1–38).

Translation of extracts: Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 271–373 (the translator was J. Dowson).

Description: Elliot and Dowson History of India iii pp. 269–71.

[Tārīk̲h̲ i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī pp. 3611–12 (= Elliot and Dowson iii p. 271), 377–9 (= E. & D. iii p. 272), 3911–17 (= E. & D. iii p. 273), 4211–13 (= E. & D. iii p. 274), 515–6 (= E. & D. iii p. 279), 10513–15, 12716 (= E. & D. iii p. 300), 130penult.-1312 (= E. & D. iii p. 302), 13114–16 (= E. & D. iii p. 302), 1459–10 (= E. & D. iii p. 306), 148 ult.-1491 (= E. & D. iii p. 307), 16314 (= E. & D. iii p 312), 17215 (= E. & D. iii p. 315), 1856 (= E. & D. iii p. 317), 18612 (= E. & D. iii p. 318), 19611–12, 19711–13 (= E. & D. iii p. 321), 2819–11 (= E. & D. iii p. 343), 28512–13, 31014–16 (= E. & D. iii p. 351), 321 ult.-3222 (= E. & D. iii p. 353, n. 1), 378 antepenult. (= E. & D. iii p. 364), 3819–10 (= E. & D. iii p. 365), 4284 (= E. & D. iii p. 371); Elliot and Dowson History of India iii p. 269; Rieu i p. 242.]

§ 670. Yaḥyā b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh Sīhrindī29 dedicated his Tārīk̲h̲ i Mubārak-S̲h̲āhī to Muʿizz al-Dīn Abū ’l-Fatḥ Mubārak S̲h̲āh (of the Saiyid dynasty), who reigned from 824/1421 to 837/1433.

Tārīk̲h̲ i Mubārak-S̲h̲āhī, a history of the Sulṭāns of Delhi from Muʿizz al-Dīn M. b. Sām to S̲h̲aʿbān 831/1428 with a later continuation ending abruptly in Rabīʿ ii 838/1434, the first year of M. S̲h̲āh b. Farīd S̲h̲āh (who reigned ah 837/1433–847/1443): Bodleian 175 (ah 957/1550), Rieu iii 1010a (19th cent.).

Edition: Tārīk̲h̲-i-Mubārak Shāhī of Yahyāas-Sīhrindīedited byM. Hidayat Hosain …, Calcutta 1931* (Bibliotheca Indica).

English translation: The Tārīk̲h̲-i-Mubāraks̲h̲āhī by Yāḥiyā [sic] bin Aḥmad … Sirhindi translatedby K.K. Basu …, Baroda 1932* (Gaekwad’s Oriental Series).

Description and 81 pp. of translated extracts: Elliot and Dowson History of India iv pp. 6–88 (the translator was J. Dowson).

§ 671. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Rizq Allāh “Mus̲h̲tāqi” b. Saʿd Allāh Dihlawī, a paternal uncle of ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Dihlawī (for whom see p. 152 supra), was born in 897/1491–2, wandered about as a faqīr meeting innumerable s̲h̲aik̲h̲s and died on 20 Rabīʿ i ah 989/1581. He wrote poetry both in Hindi and Persian. As a Hindi poet he used the pen-name “Rājan”.

Wāqiʿāt i Mus̲h̲tāqī, a disorderly collection of narratives and anecdotes relating to the times of the Lōdīs, of Bābur, Humāyūn and Akbar, of the Sūrs, of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn K̲h̲aljī (of Mālwah), of Nāṣir al-Dīn K̲h̲aljī and of Muẓaffar S̲h̲āh of Gujrāt: Rieu ii 820b (lacking circ. 12 foll, at end. 17th cent.), iii 9216 (defective. Circ. ad 1850).

English translation: b.m. ms. Add. 20,773, foll. 128–87.

Description and 20 pp. of translated extracts: Elliot and Dowson History of India iv pp. 534–57.

[D̲h̲ikr al-mulūk; Nūr al-Ḥaqq Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲; Tārīk̲h̲ i K̲h̲ān-i-Jahānī (Rieu i p. 210) fol. 4a; Makhzan i Afghānī (Dorn History of the Afghans p. 3); Kalimāt al-ṣādiqīn no. iii (see Bānkīpūr viii p. 44); Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār p. 174; ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Dihlawī Tad̲h̲kirah i muṣannifīn i Dihlī p. 20 (translated in Elliot and Dowson vi p. 489); Ṭabaqāt i S̲h̲āh-Jahānī; Riyāḍ al-auliyāʾ; Sawāṭiʿ al-anwār (Ethé col. 331 ult.); Elliot and Dowson History of India iv 534–7; Rieu ii 821a; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary, 2nd ed. p. 333; Raḥman ʿAlī 63.]

§ 672. ʿAbbās K̲h̲ān b. Shaik̲h̲ ʿAlī Sarwānī was descended from a certain ʿAbbās K̲h̲ān, whose son, Ḥasnū K̲h̲ān, married a sister of S̲h̲ēr S̲h̲ah’s. He himself received a command of 500 horse from Akbar, but, having soon lost it through the intrigues of his enemies, he resolved to “return to the country of his fathers”. The K̲h̲ān i K̲h̲ānān, however, “procured for him a clear 200 rupees a month, which he appears to have lost soon afterwards” (Elliot and Dowson iv pp. 301–2).

Tuḥfah i Akbar-S̲h̲āhī, better known by the description Tārīk̲h̲ i S̲h̲ēr-S̲h̲āhī, written by order of Akbar probably soon after 987/1579, a valuable though prolix and tedious biography of S̲h̲ēr S̲h̲āh and his descendants extant apparently in three recensions30 (1) beginning Ḥamd i ān Qādir i bī-c̲h̲hūn and containing only the life of S̲h̲ēr S̲h̲āh, (2) beginning Har jins i ḥamd and divided into three bābs ((a) S̲h̲ēr K̲h̲ān. (b) Islam K̲h̲ān. (c) relatives of S̲h̲ēr K̲h̲ān who claimed sovereignty after Islām K̲h̲ān), (3) beginning Baʿd az ḥamd i Īzadī, an edition revised and enlarged by Ibrāhīm Batanī, who brought the history down to ah 1021/1612: Ethé 219 (shorter recension, divided into three bābs and beginning [Har?] Jins i ḥamd wāt̲h̲anīyah (!) K̲h̲āliq i barīyah rā sazad. ah 1030/1621), Browne Suppt. 240 (ah 1097/1686), Bodleian 176 (ending, “as usual,” with S̲h̲ēr S̲h̲āh’s death, ah 1191/1777), 177 (beginning Baʿd az ḥamd i Īzadī. Revised and enlarged by Ibrāhīm Batanī,31 who brought the history down to ah 1021/1612. Ends with a third daftar32 on s̲h̲aik̲h̲s and ṣūfīs), 178 (same recension, ah 1227/1812), Rieu i 2426 (ending with S̲h̲ēr S̲h̲āh’s death. 18th cent.), ii 8276 (shorter recension, beginning Har jins i ḥamd. ah 1215/1801), iii 921a (ending with S̲h̲ēr S̲h̲āh’s death, ah 1239/1824), 921a (extracts. Circ. ad 1850), 921a (shorter recension, beginning Har jins i ḥamd. Circ. ad 1850).

Description and 129 pp. of translated extracts (virtually an abridged translation of the whole work): Elliot and Dowson History of India iv pp. 301–433 (the translator was E.C. Bayley).

Urdu translation completed in 1220/1805 by Mazhar ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Wilā” (for whom see Garcin de Tassy iii pp. 297–302, Saksena p. 19): Tārīk̲h̲ i S̲h̲ēr-S̲h̲āhī, Ethé 220 = Blumhardt 41.

French translation from the Urdu: Un chapitre de l’histoire de l’Inde musulmane, ou Chronique de Scher Schah, Sultan de Dehli. Traduite … par M. [J.H.] Garcin de Tassy, Paris 1865° (offprint from the Revue de l’Orient, année 1864).

[Autobiographical statements in the Tuhfah i Akbar-S̲h̲āhī (for which see Elliot and Dowson iv pp. 301–2, Rieu i 242–3).]

§ 673. The Tārīk̲h̲ i Dāʾūdī was written in the time of Jahāngīr, who is mentioned (see Elliot and Dowson History of India iv p. 462) as the reigning sovereign, by an author whose name does not occur in the preface, but who incidentally [on fol. 17b in the b.m. ms. Or. 1701 (Rieu 922a)] calls himself ʿAbd Allāh.

Tārīk̲h̲ i Dā’ūdī, a desultory and almost dateless history of the Lōdī and Sūr dynasties (Buhlūl, Sikandar, Ibrāhīm, S̲h̲ēr S̲h̲āh, Islām S̲h̲āh, M. ʿĀdil, Dāʾūd S̲h̲āh): i.o. D.P. 611 (not later than 1079/1669), Rieu i 243a (ah 1192/1778), iii 922a (19th cent.), Bānkīpūr vii 548 (19th cent.), Blochet i 558 (ad 1870), Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 4 (August 1926), p. 45).

Description and 78 pp. of translated extracts: Elliot and Dowson History of India iv 434–513 (the translator was C.F. Mackenzie).

§ 674. Aḥmad Yādgār, who describes himself33 as an old servant of the Sūr kings and who mentions34 that his father was Wazīr to Mīrzā ʿAskarī (Bābur’s third son) in the Gujrāt campaign (i.e. in 942–3/1536–7), wrote his Tārīk̲h̲ i salāṭīn i Afāg̲h̲inah at the suggestion of Abū ’l-Muẓaffar Dāʾūd S̲h̲āh [i.e. presumably Dāʾūd S̲h̲āh b. Sulaimān, the last of the Afg̲h̲ān kings of Bengal, who reigned from 980/1572 to 984/1576]. It was not, however, until much later that the Tārīk̲h̲ i salāṭīn i Afāg̲h̲inah was completed in its present form, since the Maʿdin al-ak̲h̲bār i Aḥmadī, which was written circ. 1023/1614–15 (see p. 96 supra), is several times mentioned as one of the sources. A still later date (ah 1095/1684) seems to be indicated by another passage (“p. 89b of ms.”, where, according to Beveridge, a village in the parganah of Kait’hal is said to have remained a desert for 160 years since a punitive expedition against the Mundahars in 935), but this, if the text is not corrupt, must certainly have been added by a later writer than Aḥmad Yādgār.

Tārīk̲h̲ i salāṭīn i Afāg̲h̲inah, a history of the Lōdī and Sūr dynasties ending with the death of Hēmū and agreeing largely with the Tārīk̲h̲ i Dāʾūdī and in the reign of Humāyūn verbatim with the Ṭabaqāt i Akbarī: Būhār 62 (19th cent.), Ivanow 114 (late 19th cent.), Rieu iii 922 (extract only, Humāyūn’s reign to ah 949. Transcribed circ. ad 1850 from Ivanow 114).

Extracts translated by Ensign C.E. Mackenzie: b.m. ms. Add. 30774 foll. 1–24.

Description and 64 pp. of translated extracts: Elliot and Dowson History of India v pp. 1–66 (the translator of nearly all the passages was C.E. Mackenzie).

Note on the circumstances and date of composition: Note on the Taʾrīk̲h̲ Salāṭīn Afāghinah. By H. Beveridge … (in the jasb, n.s., vol. xii, 1916, No. 5, pp. 287–9).

§ 675. M. Kabīr b. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ismāʿīl Ḥaziyā (?) was the son of a daughter of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ K̲h̲alīl Allāh Ḥaqqānī, an Afg̲h̲ān saint of Rājgīr (Rājagriha in the Patna District) who died in the Panjāb in Akbar’s time.

Afsānah i s̲h̲āhān, 140 narratives and anecdotes concerning the Afg̲h̲an (Lōdī and Sūr) Sultāns of Delhi: Rieu i 243b (18th cent.).

next chapter: 12.3.1 General


^ Back to text1. In the Rauḍat al-ṣafaʾ i p. 7 and in Ḥ. K̲h̲. ii p. 92 he is called Ṣadr al-Dīn M. b. Ḥasan al-Niẓāmī. On the title-page of the b.m. ms. Add. 24,951 his name is written Tāj al-Dīn Ḥasan b. Niẓāmī. In the preface he calls himself Ḥasan i Niẓāmī (cf. the extract quoted in jras. 1868 p. 435).

^ Back to text2. At this point the author concludes by saying that, if his life is spared, he will continue the work in the same manner. That he actually did so seems probable from the fact that according to H.M. Elliot (History of India ii p. 210) Nawwāb Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn of Delhi possessed a ms. dated 779/1377–8, in which, though imperfect at the end, the narrative was carried down to ah 626/1228–9. The ms. was used by Elliot, whose extracts extend to that year.

^ Back to text3. According to Firis̲h̲tah (Lucknow 1865) ii p. 402 penult., it was in Jalāl al-Dīn K̲h̲aljī’s reign that K̲h̲usrau became an amīr (mānand i birādar u pidar az umarā gardīd). Daulat-S̲h̲āh implies that it was in ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn’s reign.

^ Back to text4. According to Firis̲h̲tah his original name (nām i aṣlī) was Abū ’l-Ḥasan.

^ Back to text5. This date seems to have been inferred from several statements made by K̲h̲usrau concerning his age at different times. Thus it appears from the preface to the G̲h̲urrat al-kamāl that he was 34 years old in 685 and 43 in 693. Towards the end of the Qirān al-saʿdain (Lucknow 1885, p. 174 penult.) he says that he was 36 in Ramaḍān 688.

^ Back to text6. K̲h̲usrau describes India as his maulid (in the Nuh sipihr: see Waḥīd Mīrzā p. 17 n. 3) but does not specify the actual place of his birth. Badāʾūnī, however, in one of the places where he mentions Paṭiyālī (Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ ii p. 4314–15) describes it as a qaṣabah on the bank of the Ganges and the maulid u mans̲h̲aʾ i Mīr K̲h̲usrau. (Badāʾūnī himself had a connexion with Paṭiyālī, since he was at one time in the service of Ḥusain K̲h̲ān, Jāgīrdār of that place.) Cf. Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 98.

^ Back to text7. K̲h̲usrau calls himself an Indian Turk (Turk i Hindustānī) in the Dibāc̲h̲ah i G̲h̲urrat al-kamāl (cf. Waḥīd Mīrzā p. 34).

^ Back to text8. Jahān ba-quwwat i ū mī-girift Īltutmis̲h̲ kih bar-kas̲h̲īdah K̲h̲udāyas̲h̲ zi-qabḍah i qudrat (Dībāc̲h̲ah i G̲h̲urrat al-kamāl, quoted by Waḥīd Mīrzā).

^ Back to text9. According to Firis̲h̲tah (Lucknow 1865), ii p. 40215 he held the office of Muṣḥaf-dār, his friend Amīr Ḥasan Dihlawī being Dawātdār.

^ Back to text10. Dībāc̲h̲ah i G̲h̲urrat al-kamāl, Baranī p. 67, Waḥīd Mīrzā p. 50.

^ Back to text11. Dībāc̲h̲ah i G̲h̲urrat al-kamāl, Baranī p. 110, Waḥīd Mīrzā pp. 60–2.

^ Back to text12. In G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Tug̲h̲luq’s reign K̲h̲usrau added a continuation telling of K̲h̲iḍr K̲h̲ān’s estrangement from his father ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, his confinement in the fortress of Gwalior, his blinding by Malik Kāfūr and finally his murder at the hands of his brother Mubārak S̲h̲ah.

^ Back to text13. u Sulṭān ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn īn-c̲h̲unīn nādirah i s̲h̲uʿarā u fuḍalā-yi salaf u k̲h̲alaf rā hamīn yak hazār tankah mawājib dādī u dar pīs̲h̲ i k̲h̲wud mubajjal u mukarram na-gardānīdī.

^ Back to text14. The day and month are variously given, e.g. 29 D̲h̲ū ’l-Qaʿdah (Firis̲h̲tah), 18 S̲h̲awwāl (Safīnat al-auliyāʾ), 18 Rabīʿ ii (Sprenger p. 466, from the Ādab al-ṭālibīn).

^ Back to text15. The ages mentioned in the different mss. are not always the same.

^ Back to text16. The use of this word is due to a fanciful comparison of the four dīwāns to the four elements, earth (Tuḥfat al-ṣig̲h̲ar), water (Wasaṭ al-ḥayāt), air (G̲h̲urrat al-kamāl) and fire (Baqīyah i naqīyah), in respect of a progress from coarseness to fineness, from lowness to highness etc.

^ Back to text17. The statement of Waḥīd Mīrzā (op. cit. p. 195) that an edition (date unspecified) was lithographed at ʿAlīgaṛh seems to be without foundation.

^ Back to text18. The statement of Waḥid Mīrzā (op. cit. p. 197) that “The poem has been lithographed in Aligarh” seems to be without foundation.

^ Back to text19. Ivanow Curzon 221 claims to be the transcript of an autograph dated 1135 (a date (or a statement) which Ivanow regards as “rather suspicious”).

^ Back to text20. The spelling K̲h̲iḍr does not suit the metre of this poem.

^ Back to text21. Vocalisation unconfirmed. Arklī K̲h̲an, the Sulṭān’s second son, succeeded his elder brother in 691 as his father’s vicegerent (nāʾib i g̲h̲aibat) at Kīlōk’harī (T. i F. p. 2132–3, Arabic history of Gujarāt p. 7607–8).

^ Back to text22. Baran is now absorbed in the modern town of Bulands̲h̲ahr.

^ Back to text23. Cf. T. i F. p. 4672–4: Man dar dunyā parwardah u bar-āwardah i Sulṭān Muḥammad am u ān-c̲h̲ih az ikrām u inʿām i ū yāftah būdam nah pīs̲h̲ azān dīdah būdam nah baʿd azū ba-k̲h̲wāb mī bīnam.

^ Back to text24. The date of his death is not mentioned in the Siyar al-auliyāʾ. The K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ gives the impossible date 738.

^ Back to text25. According to the Bodleian catalogue. The date is not mentioned by Rieu or in the i.o. catalogue.

^ Back to text26. This record was inscribed by Fīrūz-S̲h̲āh’s order on an octagonal cupola erected by him on the mosque of Fīrūzābād (see Ṭabaqāt i Akbarī i p. 239).

^ Back to text27. It appears that ʿAfīf was a hereditary surname in his family, since he appends it to the names of his grandfather, S̲h̲ams i S̲h̲ihāb ʿAfīf (T.i F. p. 3911), and his great-grandfather, Malik Saʿd al-Mulk S̲h̲ihāb ʿAfīf (p. 377–9).

^ Back to text28. This date does not seem to have the authority of the Tārīk̲h̲ i Fīrōz-S̲h̲āhī.

^ Back to text29. So spelt in the b.m. ms. (Sīrindī in the Bodleian ms., according to Ethé) with yāʾ after the sīn.

^ Back to text30. According to Elliot and Dowson iv p. 302 “Copies of the work vary very much, and, in some, long passages are omitted”. In some copies (apparently those beginning Har jins i ḥamd) the initial doxology is followed by the rubric Ṭabaqah i sīwum dar d̲h̲ikr i aḥwāl i salṭanat i S̲h̲ēr S̲h̲āh Sūr, which would suggest that the work is only part of a larger work.

^ Back to text31. Cf. Rieu i p. 212.

^ Back to text32. No daftars or other divisions are marked in the history which precedes.

^ Back to text33. In his preface.

^ Back to text34. “At p. 99 of the ms.” (i.e. the a.s.b. ms.) according to Beveridge, who in the article cited below quotes the passage (In ḍaʿīf az pidar i k̲h̲wud kih dar-ān waqt wazīr i Mīrzā ʿAskarī būd s̲h̲anīdah būdam).

Cite this page
“12.2 History of India: Sulṭāns of Delhi”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 31 March 2023 <>
First published online: 2021

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