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12.7 History of India: Bahāwalpūr
(1,501 words)

In Volume 1-1: Qurʾānic Literature, History, and Biography | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.

previous chapter: 12.6 Sind

§ 836. Lālah Daulat Rāy, son of Lālah ʿIzzat Rāy, whose father had been in the service of Nawwāb M. Mubārak K̲h̲ān, was deprived of his ancestral madad i maʿās̲h̲, the taʿalluq of Jalālābād, by Rukn al-Daulah Bahāwal K̲h̲ān ii (ah 1186/1772–1224/1809). He migrated to Multān and there he continued the history of Bahāwalpūr on which he had been engaged. In consequence of the periodical invasions of Ranjīt Sing’h he went to Ḥaidarābād in Sind, and served under the Amīrs Karam-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān and Murād-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān. Subsequently, however, he returned to Bahāwalpūr and was living there under Bahāwal K̲h̲ān and Ṣādiq K̲h̲ān (ah 1224–41). He died in 1246/1830.

Mirʾāt i daulat i ʿAbbāsī (a chronogram = 1224/1809, but the work was completed in 1227/1812), a history of the ʿAbbāsī Dāwud-putras, the ruling dynasty of Bahāwalpūr, down to 1224/1809:1 r.a.s. P. 90 = Morley 88 (ah 1247/1831–2), Bānkīpūr Suppt. i no. 1774 (ah 1262/1846), Rieu iii 951a (19th cent.).

Edition: Delhi 1850°* (differs materially from the b.m. ms.).

[Autobiography in Mirʾāt i daulat i ʿAbbāsī, appendix (apparently absent from the b.m. and Bānkīpūr mss.); M. Aʿẓam Iqbāl-nāmah i saʿādat-āyāt (cf. Rieu iii p. 951a22–30); Morley pp. 90–1; Rieu iii 951a.]

§ 837. wdyrh2 Jān Muḥammad K̲h̲ān Maʿrūfānī.

Tārīk̲h̲ i Bahāwal K̲h̲ān, a history of Bahāwal K̲h̲ān ii (ah 1186/1772–1224/1809): Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 4 (Aug. 1926), p. 57).

§ 838. M. Aʿẓam b. Maulawī M. Ṣāliḥ Asadī Hāshimī Fārūqī Bahāwalpūrī tells us that in Nawwāb Ṣādiq K̲h̲ān’s second year, ah 1225–6/1810–11, he was sent by the Nawwāb on a mission to the Tālpur Amīrs, who were then threatening Bahāwalpūr, and subsequently to Multān. His Iqbāl-nāmah i saʿādat-āyāt was undertaken by order of Ṣādiq K̲h̲ān, who instructed him “to embody in the same a record of the first two years of the reign left in an unfinished state by Lālah Daulat Rāi” (Rieu iii p. 952a). According to the Bahawalpur State Gazetteer, p. 62, he was appointed Tawārīk̲h̲-nawīs, or Chronicler, by Nawwāb Ṣādiq M. K̲h̲ān ii in 1809. In the b.m. ms. Or. 1740, foll. 98–9 (Rieu iii p. 1013a iii), are the beginnings of a Tad̲h̲kirat al-k̲h̲awāqīn, written in 1251/1835–6, and a Tārīk̲h̲ i Kas̲h̲mīr,3 both by Ḥājjī M. Aʿẓam Pas̲h̲āwarī, who, according to Rieu (iii p. 1097a), is called at the end M. Aʿẓam Asadī Hās̲h̲imī, and who is evidently therefore identical with the historian of Bahāwalpūr.

Iqbāl-nāmah i saʿādat-āyāt (beginning: Zīb i fihrist i nusk̲h̲ah i mafāk̲h̲ir), a history of Ṣādiq K̲h̲ān’s reign, detailed for the first four or five years extremely brief for the years 1230/1815–1241/1826: Rieu iii 952a. (19th cent.).
Jawāhir i ʿAbbāsīyah, “History of Bhawalpūr [sic]”:4 Lindesiana p. 192 no. 924 (“2 vols. in 1.” Circ. ad 1845).

§ 839. In the time of M. Bahāwal K̲h̲ān iii was written

K̲h̲ulāṣah i tawārīk̲h̲ i ʿAbbāsīyah, called in the colophon Tawārīk̲h̲ i Jawāhir i ʿAbbāsīyah5 (beginning: Jahān jahān sitāyis̲h̲), abridged from a work by S. Nūr Allāh and divided into a muqaddimah (on the genealogy of the K̲h̲āns) and three qisms ((1) from Sulṭān Aḥmad ii to the death of Mubārak K̲h̲ān, (2) M. Bahāwal K̲h̲ān ii, (3) M. Ṣādiq K̲h̲ān): Browne Hand-list 347 (88 foll. ah 1258/1842).

§ 840. Mubāriz al-Daulah Pīr Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān K̲h̲wēs̲h̲gī6 Qaṣūrī was born in 1794 at Qaṣūr, 34 miles S.E. of Lahore. In 1808, the year following Ranjīt Sing’h’s annexation of Qaṣūr, he migrated with his father and other relatives to Mamdōṭ. In 1817 he entered Ranjīt Sing’h’s service, but failing to win such promotion as he desired, he went to Delhi and studied medicine. In 1837 he entered the service of the East India Company, and in 1840 he was appointed British Agent at the court of Bahāwalpūr. At the time of the First Sik’h War (1845–6) he rendered valuable services, for which he was rewarded with a k̲h̲ilʿat and the title of K̲h̲ān Bahādur. In 1848 he took the Bahāwalpūr forces to support Herbert Edwardes in the operations against Multān, where Mūlrāj was besieged after the murder of Vans Agnew and Anderson. Edwardes speaks highly of him in A year on the Punjab frontier in 1848–9.

In 1851 he visited England, but a breakdown in health forced him to leave the country in January 1852. Soon after his return to Bahāwalpūr the title of Mubāriz al-Daulah was conferred upon him. He died in 1856.

A brief account of his visit to England together with a short history of his tribe was published by him in 1854°7 under the title Sairistān (see Islamic culture iii no. 3 (July 1929) pp. 454, 472). His autobiography8 published in English by E.B. Eastwick in January 1852, that is to say, just about the time when he left England on his return to India, was presumably written in Persian.9

(Tārīk̲h̲ i Bahāwalpūr),10 “an abbreviation of the family annals of Nawab Bahawal Khan” (see p. 520, n. 774, infra) written at the request of Captain J.D. Cunningham: ms. at one time in the possession of Capt. Cunningham.

Abridged translation: The History of Bahawalpur, with notices of the adjacent countries of Sindh, Afghanistan, Multan, and the West of India. [Abridged and translated11 from Pīr I. K̲h̲ān’s history] By Shahamet Ali.12 London 1848°*.

[Memoir of Peer Ibraheem Khan, Bahadur, British Agent at the Court of Bhauwalpur, London 1852* (an autobiography. The i.o. copy bears on a fly-leaf the inscription “Presented to the Library of the E.I. College by E.B. Eastwick, Author of the Memoir, Jany 1852”, which presumably means that Eastwick translated the work, probably from a manuscript); Sairistān (see above), Multān 1854; H.B. Edwardes A year on the Punjab frontier in 1848–9, London 1851, vol. ii, pp. 314, 319, 344, 377; Gazetteer of the Bahawalpur State, Lahore 1908, pp. 70, 71, 72, 74, 78, 80; Mubāriz al-Daulah Pīr Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān K̲h̲wēs̲h̲gī Qaṣūrī (an Urdu article by M. S̲h̲afīʿ in the Oriental College Magazine, vol. v, no. 3 (Lahore, May 1929) pp. 1–3. Portrait facing p. 1); Islamic culture, vol. iii, no. 3 (July 1929), p. 172 (in an article by M. S̲h̲afīʿ entitled An Afghan colony at Qasur).]

next chapter: 12.8 The Panjāb


^ Back to text1. “It is not merely a history of the Nawábs of Bháwalpúr, but comprehends that of Sind, Afghánistan, Multán, Júdhpúr and the Sikhs, during an eventful period as regards our western frontier of India” (Morley p. 92).

^ Back to text2. Vocalisation and meaning of this word not ascertained.

^ Back to text3. For a Tārīk̲h̲ i Kas̲h̲mīr written about 100 years earlier by a different M. Aʿẓam see p. 537 infra.

^ Back to text4. By M. Aʿẓam Asadī al-Hās̲h̲imī according to the Lindesiana catalogue. For a K̲h̲ulāṣah i tawārīk̲h̲ i ʿAbbāsīyah called in the colophon Tawārīk̲h̲ i Jawāhir i ʿAbbāsīyah, and therefore possibly identical with M. Aʿẓam’s work (though the latter, consisting of “2 vols. in 1”, seems likely to be a larger work than the former, which extends only to 88 foll.), see p. 520, infra.

^ Back to text5. This title suggests the possibility that the work may be identical with the Jawāhir i ʿAbbāsīyah which has just been mentioned, but the latter, consisting of “2 vols. in 1”, would seem to be a larger work than the former, which extends to only 88 leaves.

^ Back to text6. This is the name of an Afg̲h̲ān clan.

^ Back to text7. At [Bahāwalpūr] according to the British Museum catalogue, at Multān according to M. S̲h̲afīʿ. In the b.m. catalogue the work is mistakenly entered under “Mubāriz ul-Daulah, Nawab of Bahawalpur”.

^ Back to text8. See the list of authorities below.

^ Back to text9. That Pīr Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān had little, if any, knowledge of English is shown by the fact that on his visit to England he was accompanied by an interpreter (see Oriental College Magazine v, no. 3, p. 311).

^ Back to text10. Correct title unknown.

^ Back to text11. This work is not expressly said to be a translation from the Persian. According to S̲h̲ahāmat ʿAlī’s Preface “The Work, of which the following is an abstract, is an abbreviation of the family annals of Nawab Bahawal Khan. It was abridged at Bahawalpur by Peer Ibrahim Khan, the British native agent there, at the request of Captain J.D. Cunningham … who is now our political agent at Bhopal. On his appointment to the latter agency in 1846, I became aware that he had some valuable Oriental mss. in his possession, and asked him to give me some work, in which I might employ my leisure hours usefully to myself and to the public. He most liberally and readily gave me two mss.; viz. one, the present work, and the other a religious book …”

^ Back to text12. S̲h̲ahāmat ʿAlī was Persian Secretary to Sir C.M. Wade, whom he accompanied on missions to Bahāwalpūr (1833) and Peshawar (1839), and was afterwards Mīr Muns̲h̲ī to the Political Resident in Mālwah. He is the author of The Sikhs and Afghans, in connexion with India and Persia, immediately before and after the death of Ranjeet Singh: from the journal of an expedition to Kabul, through the Panjab and the Khaibar Pass (London 1847*, 2nd ed. 1849*).

Cite this page
“12.7 History of India: Bahāwalpūr”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 02 June 2023 <>
First published online: 2021

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