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12.8 History of India: The Panjāb
(4,988 words)

In Volume 1-1: Qurʾānic Literature, History, and Biography | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.

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§ 841. The Janam-sāk’hī, written in Panjābī, is a life of Gurū Nānak, the founder of the Sik’h religion. For information concerning it see Rieu i 293b and the works on the Sik’h religion cited by him.

Janam-sāk’hī: for the numerous editions of the Panjābī original see the catalogues of Panjābī books in the British Museum and the India Office.

Persian translation: Janam-sāk’hī, a condensed translation completed in 1806 by K̲h̲wājah ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm K̲h̲ān1 at the request of Col. (afterwards Sir) John Malcolm and with the assistance of Agī Rām, a Nānakpant’hī darwīs̲h̲: Rieu i 293a (19th cent.).

Another Sik’h work translated presumably from the Panjābī and presumably by the same K̲h̲wājah ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm K̲h̲ān is

Tarjamah i Mulāqāt i Nānak, an account of Gurū Nānak’s interviews with a number of holy personages of various times and countries: Rieu i 293b (19th cent.).

§ 842. A certain G̲h̲ulām-Muḥyī ’l-Dīn2 wrote

Futūḥāt-nāmah i Ṣamadī (a chronogram = 1135/1722–3), a florid biography of Saif al-Daulah ʿAbd al-Ṣamad K̲h̲ān Bahādur Dilēr-Jang,3 who in Farruk̲h̲-siyar’s reign (ah 1124/1713–1131/1719) became Governor of Lahore, crushed the Sik’hs and captured their leader Bandah in 1127/1715, became Governor of Multān in Muḥammad S̲h̲āh’s seventh or eighth regnal year (ah 1137–9/1724–6) and died ah 1150/1737–8 (see Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ ii 514–17, Beveridge’s translation pp. 71–3): Rieu iii 970b (circ. ad 1850).

§ 843. The Aḥwāl i Dīnā Bēg K̲h̲ān was written by “an old Gooru at Khurturpore, who has also written a Punjabie dictionary, in which he has introduced no end of Hindu [? Hindee] words”.4

Aḥwāl i Dīnā Bēg K̲h̲ān, a life of Ādīnah Bēg, who served under Muʿīn al-Mulk, Governor of Lahore, against Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī in 1162/1749, was Governor of the ṣūbah for twelve years in the reign of ʿĀlamgīr ii and died in 1172/1758: Rieu iii 1044a (ad 1847?).

Edition: Oriental College Magazine vol. xiv, no. 2 (Feb. 1938), ḍamīmah pp. 3–21 (edited, with notes, by M. Bāqir Malik).

English translation: b.m. ms. Add. 30,780 foll. 215–92.

Summary: Elliot and Dowson History of India viii p. 167 n.5

§ 844. Major James Browne was sent from Calcutta to Delhi in 1784 as “English Minister at the Court of his Majesty Shah Alum”. “Having met,” he says, “with two Hindoos of considerable knowledge, who were natives of Lahore, where they had resided the greater part of their lives, and who had in their possession, accounts of the rise and progress of the Sicks, written in the Nuggary (or common Hindoo) character, I persuaded them to let me have a translation of one of them in the Persian language, abridging it as much as they could do, without injuring the essential purpose of information…. This Persian sketch of an history, I have translated into English.” The Persian sketch referred to was the Risālah i Nānak S̲h̲āh of Bud’h Sing’h K’hatrī, commonly called (ʿurf) Arōrah (or Arōrā), who describes himself as a servant of the Delhi court and an inhabitant of Lahore. He says that he was attached to the service of Major James Browne (Nawwāb Muʿīn al-Daulah Naṣīr al-Mulk Major James Browne Ṣāḥib Angrēz Bahādur Ṣalābat-Jang) and that he was helped in the composition of his work by Lālah ʿAjāʾib Sing’h Sūraj.

Risālah i Nānak S̲h̲āh, an account of the Sik’hs to ah 1178/1764–5: Bodleian 281 (ah 1198/1784), i.o. 3959b (ah 1209/1794), Blochet iv 2331 pp. 272–3 (late 18th cent.), Rieu ii 860a (early 19th cent.), Mehren 65, Browne Coll. H. 23 (11) (3) (defective at end).

English translation: History of the origin and progress of the Sicks (the second of James Browne’s India tracts, London 1788*).

§ 845. M. Afḍal “Afḍal” b. M. Ḥafīẓ was born at Sōd’hrah in the Siyālkōṭ District and died in 1210/1795–6 at Talwandī Mūsā K̲h̲ān, in the Gūjrānwāla District, to which his father, “a man of great piety and learning,” had been invited by Mūsā K̲h̲ān, a local chief. A collection of his Persian and Urdu poems is in the possession of his descendants.

Tārīk̲h̲ i Jān Muḥammad, a poem giving an account of a battle fought in 1204/1790 near Gūjrānwāla between K̲h̲ān i Jahān entitled Sardār K̲h̲ān and the infidels (i.e. probably the Sik’hs), in which Jān Muḥammad b. Mūsā K̲h̲ān was killed: Ethé 2901 (circ. 1270/1853–4).

[M. Nāẓim in the jras. 1927 pp. 846–7.]

§ 846. Lālah or Pandit Bak̲h̲t-Mal was the grandfather of Dīwān Amar Nāt’h “Akbarī” (for whom see pp. 526–527 infra). His father had migrated from Kas̲h̲mīr to Lahore, where he had attained high position, but on the Governor’s dismissal he had gone to Delhi. It was there probably that Bak̲h̲t-Mal was born. It was at any rate from there that he went for a time to Oudh. Declining offers of employment from Āṣaf al-Daulah, he returned to Delhi. At the end of 1805, when Lord Lake drove Jaswant Rāō Hōlkar to the Bias and sent John Malcolm on a mission to Ranjīt Sing’h, Bak̲h̲t-Mal accompanied Malcolm and wrote for his information a work on the Sik’hs. This work is referred to by him in the preface to his K̲h̲ālṣah-nāmah, where he says that “during the days of leisure he had enjoyed in the companionship of Bhāi La‘l Singh” he had written a detailed history of the Sik’hs, which was stolen by thieves when only half finished, and a short history, which was taken away by John Malcolm,6 and that he had now written a third work of moderate size on the same subject. His grandson, Dīwān Amar Nāt’h, says7 that he wrote works entitled (1) Tilasm i s̲h̲akar-rīz, (2) Bāg̲h̲ i bā-bahār, (3) Lūʾī-nāmah (sic?), and (4) Sing’h-nāmah (? Sik’h-nāmah).

A short history of the Sik’hs from the time of Nānak to ad 1806, written for John Malcolm: r.a.s. P. 74 (2) = Morley 85.
K̲h̲āl[i] ṣah-nāmah, a history of the Sik’hs to ah 1222/1807–87: Rieu i 294a (ah 1229/1814).

[Autobiographical statements in the K̲h̲ālṣah-nāmah (see Rieu i 294a; Amar Nāt’h Ẓafar-nāmah i Ranjīt Sing’h pp. 3614–37, 93, editor’s introduction pp. iii–iv.]

§ 847. K̲h̲wus̲h̲-waqt Rāy was, according to H.T. Prinsep (Origin of the Sikh power in the Punjab, Calcutta 1834, preface, p. x), “for many years the Agent and Intelligencer of the British Government at Umritsur.” He himself says that he was in the service of the East India Company, and that he had been appointed official News-writer, Waqāʾiʿ-nigār, for the Panjāb. According to the b.m. manuscript his history of the Sik’hs was written at the request of Colonel (afterwards General Sir) David Ochterlony. In the i.o. manuscript a space left for the name of the person at whose suggestion the work was written has been filled with the name and Persian titles of Charles Theophilus Metcalfe8 (afterwards Lord Metcalfe).

(Aḥwāl i firqah i Sik’hān),9 a history of the Sik’hs from their origin to ad 1811, the date of composition:10 Rieu i 294b (ad 1835), i.o. 3897 (early 19th cent.).

§ 848. Dayā-Rām Pandit, originally resident in Kas̲h̲mīr, migrated with his father to Delhi and thence after a time to Lahore. In 1228/1813 when Dīwān Gangā-Rām marched against the fortress of Pūnc̲h̲h Dayā-Rām accompanied him and it was there that he wrote his S̲h̲īr u s̲h̲akkar. A Persian dīwān of his is preserved in the Panjāb University Library.

S̲h̲īr u s̲h̲akkar, a history of Ranjīt Sing’h to ah 1228/1813: Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926), p. 57).

§ 849. Lālah Mōhan was in the service of Ranjīt Sing’h, who in the year v.s. 1881/1824–5 ordered him to go to Multān and bring Mīr G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī to court.

Rūz-nāmc̲h̲ah i Ranjīt Sing’h, a history of Ranjīt Sing’h to the year v.s.1886/1829–30: Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2020 (19th cent.).

§ 850. Dīwān Amar Nāt’h “Akbarī” was the son of Dīwān Dīnā Nāt’h, Ranjīt Sing’h’s Finance Minister. His grandfather, Bak̲h̲t-Mal, has already been mentioned (pp. 522–523 supra) as the author of two historical works. Amar Nāt’h was born in Vikramī Sambat 1879/1822–3 (Ẓafar-nāmah p. 15516–19). In v.s. 1885/1828–9, at the age of six, he went to a maktab where he was taught by Maulawī Aḥmad-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ “Yak-dil” c̲h̲is̲h̲tī Lāhaurī11 (Ẓ.-n. pp. 185–6). At an early age he had acquired considerable skill in Persian composition. He was only in his eleventh year (dar ʿahd i yāzdah-sālagī, Ẓ.-n. p. 213), when, in v.s. 1889/1832–3,12 he wrote a series of bombastic laudations of gardens in Lahore to which he gave the title Rauḍat al-azhār and which, or part of which, he included in the last (forty-first) chapter of the Ẓafar-nāmah. In v.s. 1891/1834–5, at the age of sixteen, he wrote a fatḥ-nāmah on the conquest of Peshawar which was published throughout Ranjīt Sing’h’s dominions (ba-tamām mulk i maḥrūsah s̲h̲araf i iṣdār yāftah, Ẓ.-n. p. 2319) and which is incorporated in the Ẓafar-nāmah (pp. 231–6). According to Sītā Rām Kōhlī he was one of the Bak̲h̲s̲h̲īs, or Paymasters, of the irregular cavalry of the K̲h̲ālṣah Government and is mentioned several times in the pay-rolls. From “family traditions and a few other indirect sources” Sītā Rām Kōhlī has learnt that Dīwān Dīnā Nāt’h had his son removed from his office in 1845 “for reasons which are rather obscure”, and that he spent the rest of his life in intellectual pursuits until his death from cholera on 1 August 1867, at the age of forty-five. A collection of his Persian poems was published by his son Dīwān Rām Nāt’h in 1873 under the title of Dīwān i Akbarī.

(Ẓafar-nāmah i Ranjīt Sing’h), a history of Ranjīt Sing’h to the year v.s. 1892/1835–6: Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (defective at end, breaking off in the year v.s. 1884/1827–8. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 4 (August 1926), p. 57, and Sītā Rām Kōhlī’s introduction, p. xiii). This ms. and two others, one belonging to the author’s family and the other to Rāy Ṣāḥib Pandiṭ Wazīr c̲h̲and, were used in the preparation of the edition mentioned below.

Edition: Zafarnama-i-Ranjit Singh of Diwan Amar Nath. Edited with notes and introduction by Sita Ram Kohli. Lahore 1928/?/‡ (Panjab University).

Description and translated extracts: The Calcutta Review, December 1858, pp. 247–302.

[Ẓafar-nāmah pp. 3614, 11516, 15516–19, 1747 14–15, 176 ult., 177, 18519–23, 186, 19510–17, 21318–23, 214, 221 penult. (for taʾkīd read taʾlīf), 2318–9, 2481; Sītā Rām Kōhlī’s introduction pp. iii–ix.]

§ 851. It may perhaps be worth mentioning here that a beautifully illuminated manuscript at Bānkīpūr (Catalogue, vol. vii no. 622) contains the financial accounts of Ranjīt Sing’h’s army.

§ 852. G̲h̲ulām-Muḥyī ’l-Dīn surnamed (mulaqqab) Būṭī S̲h̲āh Lūd’hiyānī ʿAlawī Qādirī wrote his Tārīk̲h̲ i Panjāb in 1258/184213 at the request of Captain Murray, Resident at Lūd’hiyānah, in whose office he was a Muns̲h̲ī.14

Tārīk̲h̲ i Panjāb, in a muqaddimah (geographical), five daftars ((i) Hindu Rājahs, (ii) Muslim Sulṭāns to ah 1183/1769–70, (iii) Sik’h Gurūs, (iv) Sik’h Sardārs and Rājahs, (v) Ranjīt Sing’h), and a k̲h̲ātimah (British conquests in India): Rieu iii 953a (ad 1848. Corrected by the author), Ethé 503, i.o. 3893 (ah 1264/1848), Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (one copy lacking part of Daftar ii and a second of Daftar v only. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926) p. 58).

§ 853. The Ranjīt-Sing’h-nāmah mentioned below was written not later than 1846, since, according to Ethé, the ms. contains “Two entries, dated 1846, Lahore, on the last fly-leaf”.

Ranjīt-Sing’h-nāmah, a short modern mat̲h̲nawī in honour of Ranjīt Sing’h and his sons, giving the principal events of their lives: Bodleian ii 2365 (Pictures).

§ 854. M. Naqī Pas̲h̲āwarī b. Mullā K̲h̲wājah-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ went to Lahore, the city of his forefathers, and was an eye-witness of the events which followed the death of Ranjīt Sing’h. At the request of Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī Bhagat-Rām he composed a record of those events.

(S̲h̲ēr-Sing’h-nāmah),15 a diffuse and stilted account of events at Lahore from 1255/1839 (death of Ranjīt Sing’h) to 1259/1843 (assassination of S̲h̲ēr Singh and accession of Dalīp Sing’h after the restoration of order by Rājah Hīrā Sing’h, to whom the work is dedicated and in whose service the author probably was): Rieu iii 952b (19th cent. 9 pictures), Ethé 505 (12 Pictures), 2991 (ah 1270/1853–4), Bodleian ms. Pers. e. 30 (n.d.).

Description and translated extracts: Sher Singh Nama … By … J.F. Bruce (in the Journal of Indian history, vol. xvii, pt. 1 (April 1938) pp. 83–93).

§ 855. Mīr Ṭaiyib Allāh Ruhtāsī.

Jawāhir-nāmah, an epic poem on the reign of S̲h̲ēr Sing’h: Ethé ii 3041 (autograph?).

§ 856. Lālah Sōhan La‘l Sūrī, son of Lālah Ganpat Rāy, son of Lālah Ḥukūmat Rāy, was Wakīl16 at the court of Ranjīt Sing’h for twenty-seven years, and he held the same position during the reigns of his successors until the deposition of Dalīp Sing’h in 1849. Ranjīt Sing’h more than once rewarded him for his historical writings. In 1851 the Panjāb Government granted him a jāgīr for life with an annual value of Rs. 1000.17 According to Sir R. Temple he died in 1852.

Sir Richard Temple says “His habit of noting down what passed seems to have been hereditary, for his father, Lálá Ganpat Ráí, who before him had been vakīl not only to Mahárájá Ranjít Singh, but also to his father and grandfather Mahan Singh and Chhart Singh, had kept similar records of all he saw for some 40 years previously. He died in very advanced life in ad 1828, and has left many mss. behind him, but they are not of any special value, as his son used them all in his great compilation”.

ʿUmdat al-tawārīk̲h̲, a large and important history of the Sik’hs, divided (in its final form?) into five daftars and extending from the time of Nānak to the author’s own time (to 1831 in the r.a.s. ms., to 1849 in the published edition): r.a.s. P. 89 = Morley 87 (“Táríkh-i Mahárájah Ranjít Singh.”18 Presented by Ranjīt Sing’h to Sir Claude Wade in 1831), Ross and Browne 137 (Daftars ii and iii only. ah 1260/1844).

Edition: Lahore 1885–9°*.19

ʿIbrat-nāmah, a poem on the events following the assassination of S̲h̲ēr Sing’h until the accession of Dalīp Sing’h.

Edition: Lahore [1885*. Supplied gratis to purchasers of the ʿUmdat al-tawārīk̲h̲].

[Autobiographical statements in the ʿUmdat al-tawārīk̲h̲ (which has not been examined for biographical purposes); a note by Sir R.C. Temple printed on the inside of the cover of vol. i of the Lahore edition.]

§ 857. Ganēs̲h̲ Dās, called (ʿurf) Bad’hrah,20 was Qānūngō of the c̲h̲aklah of Gujrāt in the Panjāb, when Mahārājah Gulāb Sing’h took him to Jamūn and appointed him to the daftar of that province (probably not long before 1847, when the Rāj-dars̲h̲anī was completed). On a sheet of paper attached to fol. 1a of Ethé ii 3020 (C̲h̲ār bāg̲h̲ i Panjāb) just before this ms. was sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1855 by the Panjāb Committee at Lahore he is described as “an Official in the service of the British [Indian] Government”.

C̲h̲irāg̲h̲ i Panjāb (a chronogram = 1262), a history of the Panjāb from the earliest times to ah 1262/1846 written in a very short time at Lahore and presented to the Nāẓim of the Panjāb:21 Rieu iii 952b (ad 1851),22 Ethé ii 3019 (ah 1270/1854).
C̲h̲ār bāg̲h̲ i Panjāb (a chronogram = 1265/1849), or Risālah i Ṣāḥib-numā, a greatly expanded recension of the preceding work extending to ad 1849 (Lord Dalhousie): Ethé ii 3020 (ad 1854).23

§ 858. Muns̲h̲ī ʿAbd-al-Karīm ʿAlawī has already been mentioned (pp. 316–317 supra) as the author of the Muḥārabah i Kābul u Qandahār and of the Tārīk̲h̲ i Aḥmad.

Tārīk̲h̲ i Panjāb tuḥfatan24 li-l-aḥbāb, an account of the British conquest of the Panjāb in the First (1845–6) and Second (1848–9) Sik’h Wars.25

Edition: Muḥammadī Press (Ḥājjī M. Ḥusain), [Lucknow?] 1265/1849*.

§ 859. Muftī ʿAlī al-Dīn b. Muftī K̲h̲air al-Dīn Lāhaurī left his native place Lahore in 1239/1823 on account of the oppression of the Sik’hs and settled at Ludhiana. He was serving under Charles Raikes,26 Commissioner of Lahore, in 1854, when he compiled his ʿIbrat-nāmah.

ʿIbrat-nāmah u ʿUmdat al-tawārīk̲h̲, a large and important27 work on the geography, statistics and history of the Panjāb, especially the Sik’hs, to ad 1849: Ethé 504 (ah 1270/1854. Autograph).

§ 860. ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq “Ḥād̲h̲iq”, who mentions his name on p. 1111 and his tak̲h̲alluṣ on p. 113 of the Ḥālāt i jang i Malkah u Sit’hānah, tells us on p. 12 that Hindūstān was his home but that, owing apparently to the successive encroachments of the British, he had migrated first to Sind and then to the mountainous [frontier] region where he wrote his poem.

(Ḥālāt i jang i Malkah u Sit’hānah), a versified account of hostilities between the fanatical Hindūstānī emigrants settled at Sit’hānah and Malkah28 and the British-Indian army from Sir Sydney Cotton’s expedition in 1858 to the “Umbeyla [Anbēlah] campaign” of 1863.

Edition: Paṭnah 1901°*.

§ 861. Rāy Bahādur Kanhaiyā Lāl “Hindī” was Executive Engineer at Lahore, to which he had migrated early in life from Jalēsar, his birthplace in the Āgrah District.

Among his Persian works were (1) Bandagi-nāmah, religious poems, Lahore 1870*, 1295/1878*, Cawnpore 1873°*,29 (2) Gulzār iHindī” (English title: Poetical Essays, in Persian, on Moral Subjects, entitled Goolzar-i-Hindee), Lahore 1283/1867°*, 1286/1869*, 1870°, 1873°*, (3) Yādgār iHindī” (English title: Poems in Persian entitled Yadgar-i-Hindee, containing a brief account of the great Prophets, Kings, Rulers, and Philosophers of the world), Lahore 1290/1873°*.

For his Urdu works, much more numerous than his Persian, see Garcin de Tassy, ii pp. 159–61, and Blumhardt’s catalogues of Hindustani printed books in the British Museum (under Kanhaiyā Lāl, called Alakhadhārī) and the India Office Library (under Kanhaiyā Lāl, Executive Engineer, Kanhaiyā Lāl, Pandit, Kanhaiyā Lāl (Alakhadhārī) and Kanhaiyā Lāl (Hindī)). One or two of these works are probably not by Kanhaiyā Lāl “Hindī”.

Ranjīt-nāmah, or Ẓafar-nāmah i Ranjīt Sing’h, a mat̲h̲nawī on the history of Ranjīt Sing’h written, or begun, in 1874.

Edition: Ẓafar-nāmah i Ranjīt Sing’h al-maʿrūf Ranjīt-nāmah, Lahore 1876°*.

[Ranjīt-nāmah pp. 28–32, 603; Garcin de Tassy ii pp. 159–61.]

§ 862. M. Aḥsan Allāh K̲h̲ān “T̲h̲āqib” wrote

Ātas̲h̲ i bī-dūd, a history of the British conquest of the Panjāb.

Edition: Āgrah 1297/1880°.

§ 863. Dūnī-c̲h̲and Bālī wrote when Dilāwar K̲h̲ān was head of the Gak’har tribe30 (i.e. 1117/1705–6–1139/1726–7)

Kai-Gauhar-nāmah, composed ah 1137/1724–5, a history of the Gak’hars (G’hak’hars or Gāk’hars), a Muḥammadan and mainly S̲h̲īʿite tribe, who (or some of whom) believe themselves to be descended from Kai-Gauhar, a Kayānian prince, and who live now in N.W. India (Rāwal Pindī, Aṭak, Jihlam and Hazārah Districts and in Jammū), from their origin to the date of composition with special reference to their saints: Rieu iii 1012b (circ. ad 1850), Ivanow 188 (mid-19th cent.),31 Ethé ii 3021 (“Ghakkar-nāmah”).

§ 864. Raḥīm ʿAlī K̲h̲ān son of Ḥafīz al-Dīn K̲h̲ān known as نو کبال, a Kayānī Gak’har resident in the village of Dōmeliyān (Parganah Rohtās), wrote in 1256/1840–1 his

Raḥīm-nāmah, a history of the fortress of Rohtās and of the tribe of the Gak’hars: Rieu iii 954b (circ. ad 1850).

§ 865. Ganēs̲h̲ Dās, the author of the Risālah i Ṣāḥib-numā (see p. 528 supra) and the Rāj-dars̲h̲anī (see p. 541), sent to Sir H.M. Elliot

A notice of Rājah Jaipāl and the Gak’har tribe: Rieu iii 1037a vii foll. 41–3 (circ. ad 1850).

§ 866. Tad̲h̲kirah i Gak’harān, an account of the chiefs of the Gak’hars: Rieu iii 1054b foll. 180–5 (extracts only).

§ 867. Mahtāb Sing’h, a Kāyast’ha, was a native of Mīrlīpūr, a village in the Bhōgnīpūr-Mūsānagar parganah of the Cawnpore District. Having gone to Lahore in search of employment he entered the service of Prince K’harak Sing’h, Ranjīt Sing’h’s eldest son. For five years he worked in the secretariat (daftar) of the parganah of Sāhīwāl i Balōc̲h̲ān. In the Vikramī year 1881 (ad 1824–5) he was put in charge of the secretariat (daftar) of Hazārah.

Tawārīk̲h̲ i mulk i Hazārah or Tārīk̲h̲ i Hazārah, a history of Hazārah and the neighbouring districts especially in the thirty years v.s. 1876/ad 1819–v.s. 1906/ad 1849: Ethé 506 (ad 1854), Ivanow 187 (not later than ad 1852).

§ 868. Nūr Muḥammad, commonly called C̲h̲ēlā, of the Sayāl tribe, was a highly respected landowner in the Jhang district and an Arabic and Persian scholar. He died in January 1862.

Tārīk̲h̲ i Jhang Sayāl, written for Major G.W. Hamilton and completed in Sept. 1862 by the author’s son, a history of the Jhang District (between Lahore and Multān) and of its chief inhabitants the Sayāls, a Rājpūt clan who migrated in the 13th century from Jaunpūr to the Panjāb, where their chief Rāy Sayāl became a convert to Islām: Rieu i 295a (ad 1862), 295b (same hand).

Editions: (1) The history of Jhung Siyal. By Noor Mahomed Chela of Wasoo Ustana [with an English preface by Col. G.W. Hamilton], Meerut 1863°, (2) Tārīk̲h̲ i Jhang Sayāl, Mag’hiānah [1912*] (reprinted from the 1863 edition with omission of the English translation).

[Tārīk̲h̲ i Jhang Sayāl, k̲h̲ātimah; Hamilton’s preface to the Meerut edition.]

§ 869. Miscellaneous works relating to the Panjāb:

Account of the origin of some towns in the Panjāb: Rieu iii 954a (ad 1848).
Account of the Sardārs of Ballabhgaṛh (Farīdābād) from the death of Sūraj-Mal Jāt to the departure of Mr. Metcalfe, a musawwadah by Muns̲h̲ī K̲h̲alīl Allāh K̲h̲ān: Rieu iii 1038b (circ. ad 1850).
Account of Ballabgaṛh, a musawwadah by Muns̲h̲ī K̲h̲alīl Allāh K̲h̲ān: Rieu iii 1041a (perhaps identical with no. (2). Circ. ad 1850).
Aḥwāl i Bābā Nānak: Rehatsek p. 72 no. 9 (2).
Brief history and topography of Ḥiṣār Fīrōzah, a musawwadah by Muns̲h̲ī K̲h̲alīl Allāh K̲h̲ān: Rieu 1038b (circ. ad 1850), 1041a (perhaps different. Circ. ad 1850).
Ḥaqīqat i binā u ʿurūj i firqah i Sik’hān, a short history of the Sik’hs (circ. 20 foll.) from the time of Nānak to Tīmūr S̲h̲āh Abdālī’s conquest of Multān: r.a.s. P. 69 (7) = Morley 83, P. 69 (8) = Morley 84.
Kaifīyat i Sirmūr, a short account (15 foll.) of the Rājahs of Sirmūr: Rieu iii 957b (19th cent.).
Legendary history of Parasrūr and Siyālkōṭ, by M. Muqīm b. S̲h̲. Raḥmat Allāh: Rieu iii 954a (18th cent.).
Notice of Rājah Jagat Sing’h, son of Rājah Basū and zamīndār of Mau and Pat’hān, Panjāb, relating chiefly to the expedition sent against him under the command of K̲h̲ān i Jahān S. Muẓaffar K̲h̲ān in the 15th year of S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s reign: Rieu ii 837b (ad 1690).
Personal statement addressed by the Rājah of Rēwārī to the Indian government with the object of proving his loyalty during the Mutiny: Rieu Suppt. 134 (circ. ad 1860).
Reports of the waqāʾiʿ-nawīsān of Ḍērah Ismāʿīl K̲h̲ān and Peshawar for the years v.s. 1896/1839, 1898/1841 and 1902/1845: Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926), p. 58).
Tad̲h̲kirat al-umarāʾ, historical notices of some princely families of Rājpūtānah and the Panjāb, completed in 1830 by Lt.-Col. J. Skinner: see p. 541 infra.
Tawārīk̲h̲ i Rājagān i Hinḍūr, a short history of the state of Hinḍūr or Nālāgaṛh in the Simla district followed by a number of farmāns and sanads received by the Rājahs from the time of Humāyūn to ad 1862: Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (see Oriental College Magazine, vol. ii, no. 4 (Lahore, August 1926) p. 60).
Tuḥfah i Akbarī, a concise history of the Niẓāms of Haidarābād, of the Tīmūrids from Aḥmad S̲h̲āh to S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam, and of the Panjāb from the rise of the Sik’hs written apparently in 1219/1804–5 by K̲h̲wājah ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm: see p. 592 infra.

next chapter: 12.9 Kas̲h̲mīr


^ Back to text1. Possibly identical with the author of the Tuḥfah i Akbarī (see pp. 592–593 infra).

^ Back to text2. Possibly identical with G̲h̲ulām-Muḥyī ’l-Dīn K̲h̲ān who wrote a Ẓafar-nāmah on Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī’s [first?] invasion of India (see p. 310 supra).

^ Back to text3. For a fragment of a chronicle written in Farruk̲h̲-siyar’s reign and containing an account of that Emperor’s accession in Delhi and of the expedition of ʿAbd al-Ṣamad K̲h̲ān against the Sik’hs, by an author who was serving at that time as Nāʾib under ʿĀrif Bēg K̲h̲ān, Governor of Lahore, see p. 475 supra and Rieu ii 860b.

^ Back to text4. According to a letter from J.C. Blagrave to Sir H.M. Elliot preserved with the ms.

^ Back to text5. The summary is short enough to quote. “This Adina or Dína Beg Khán, whose name will frequently recur in these pages, was by caste an Aráin, and son of a man named Channú, an inhabitant of the village of Sarakpúr, near Lahore. He was brought up in a Mughal family, and in early life spent a good deal of his time at Allahabad, Cawnpore and Bajwára. He became a soldier, but seems to have thrown aside that profession for revenue work. He was an able man and a good accountant, and he began as collector of the village of Kanak near Lúdhiyána, from which humble position he advanced till he was made Governor of Sultanpur, an office which he held at the time of Nádir Sháh’s invasion. He died without heirs at Khánpúr near Hoshiyárpur, where a fine tomb was erected over his remains. These particulars are extracted from a little work called Ahwál Adína Beg Khan….”

^ Back to text6. Malcolm’s Sketch of the Sikhs (London, 1812*) is based partly on this work. Amar Nāt’h calls it the Sing’h-nāmah (? Sik’h-nāmah) and says that “Mālkam Ṣāḥib Bahādur ān kitāb rā ba-nām i k̲h̲wud bastah manqūs̲h̲ i alwāḥ numūdah ba-sawād i Hind firistādand”.

^ Back to text7. Ẓafar-nāmah p. 37.

^ Back to text8. Cf. Prinsep’s statement in the preface to his work mentioned above: “A Persian account of the affairs of the Sikhs in the Punjab was obligingly communicated to the compiler by Sir Charles Metcalfe. The manuscript had been delivered to Sir Charles by its author, Khooshwuqt Raee, who was for many years the Agent …”

^ Back to text9. No formal title is given to the work by its author either in his preface or at the end, but he describes it in his preface as a gud̲h̲āris̲h̲ i aḥwāl i bidʿat i firqah i Sik’hān u paig̲h̲ambarān i īs̲h̲ān ba-ṭarīq i intik̲h̲āb u mujmal (so in the i.o. ms., where bidʿat i seems to be an addition not found in the b.m. ms.).

^ Back to text10. According to G.L. Chopra The Panjab as a sovereign state, Lahore 1928, pp. i, iii, the work was written in August 1834, but in the i.o. ms. the year 1811 is mentioned at least twice (in the preface and in the last sentence) as the date of composition.

^ Back to text11. b. Lahore 1212/1795, d. 1284/1867, the author of a diary in 20 volumes which contains valuable information concerning the history of the Panjāb from 1236 to 1277 (1819 to 1860) and which is now in the possession of his grandson Maulawī Ḥāmid ʿAlī C̲h̲is̲h̲tī (see Sir Abdul Qadir’s article An unpublished diary of Sikh times in the Journal of the Panjab Historical Society vol. vi, no. 2 (1917), pp. 82–7, Sita Ram Kohli’s introduction to the Ẓafar-nāmah p. v., and his note on p. 123 of that work).

^ Back to text12. The chronogram Bāg̲h̲ i Iram (Ẓ.-n. p. 287) indicates the date 1244/1828–9, an unexplained discrepancy.

^ Back to text13. The chronogram in the preface is C̲h̲u justam sāl i tālīfas̲h̲ k̲h̲irad guft * kih tārīk̲h̲as̲h̲ ham az nāmas̲h̲ birūn ār. Wa-lī g̲h̲air az miʾāt ai dānis̲h̲-āgīn * zi-aʿdād i nuk̲h̲ustīn juzw ma-s̲h̲mār. This seems to indicate 1258, not 1264, as Rieu supposed.

^ Back to text14. This statement concerning Captain Murray comes from the author’s colophon in the i.o. ms. 3893.

^ Back to text15. This title does not occur in the text, but in an English note in Ethé 505.

^ Back to text16. In an English notice prefixed to the fifth daftar in the published edition of the ʿUmdat al-tawārīk̲h̲ he is described as “official diarist to the Court of the Sikh Maharajas”.

^ Back to text17. ʿUmdat al-tawārīk̲h̲ i p. 171.

^ Back to text18. According to G.L. Chopra The Panjab as a sovereign state, Lahore 1928, pp. i, ii, “the author called it Umdat-ut-Tawarikh (f. 199), the title which he applied to his enlarged work, written subsequently, and published by his son in 1884…. Both the language and the facts differ, though only to a slight extent, from the author’s published work, called Umdat-ut-Tawarikh.”

^ Back to text19. The b.m. catalogue describes the work as “including the diary of Maharaja Raṇjīt Singh”, but that is misleading, since the “diary” (rūz-nāmc̲h̲ah) is Sōhan La‘l’s account of Ranjīt Sing’h’s doings.

^ Back to text20. This surname (vocalisation uncertain?) came to Ganēs̲h̲ Dās by inheritance from an ancestor, Kākā Mal Bad’hrah, a descendant of the Rājahs of Ajmēr, who was Governor of Siyālkōt and Bahlōlpūr circ. ah 894/1489 (see Rieu iii 955).

^ Back to text21. Ṣāḥib i Nāẓim i Panjāb, presumably Henry Lawrence, who was appointed President of the Board of Administration in 1849.

^ Back to text22. Rieu gives the title of this ms. as Risālah i Ṣāḥib-numā, but is reproved by Ethé for doing so on the ground that that title properly belongs to the C̲h̲ār bāg̲h̲ i Panjāb.

^ Back to text23. In the preface to this copy the dedicatee is Mr. Richard Temple, the words Ṣāḥib i Nāẓim i Panjāb not being used.

^ Back to text24. So in the preface to the lithographed edition, which has Tārīk̲h̲ i Panjāb tuḥfah [i] aḥbāb on the title-page.

^ Back to text25. It does not appear that ʿAbd al-Karīm was an eye-witness of events in these wars or even resident in the Panjāb. His account is derived mainly from English and Urdu newspapers but partly from oral information.

^ Back to text26. See Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography p. 347.

^ Back to text27. See G.L. Chopra The Punjab as a sovereign state, Lahore 1928, pp. ii–iii.

^ Back to text28. Two villages situated respectively at the foot and on the north side of Mt. Mahāban. See Sir Sydney Cotton’s Nine years on the North-West Frontier of India, from 1854 to 1863 (London 1868), Col. J. Adye’s Sitana: a mountain campaign on the borders of Afghanistan in 1863 (London 1867), and other works.

^ Back to text29. This Cawnpore edition is included, presumably by mistake, in the i.o. catalogue of Hindustani books.

^ Back to text30. On the Gakhars see Ency. Isl. ii 128b–129a, Delmerick History of the Gakkhars (in j.a.s.b. xl, pt. 1 (1871) pp. 67–101), Griffin Panjab Chiefs pp. 574–581.

^ Back to text31. The opening words given by Rieu and Ivanow do not agree.

Cite this page
“12.8 History of India: The Panjāb”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 05 June 2023 <>
First published online: 2021

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