In Volume 1-2: Biography, Additions, and Corrections | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.
[See also Biography: General.]
§ 1485. Abū Sulaimān M. b. Ṭāhir b. Bahrām al-Manṭiqī al-Sijzī (or al-Sijistānī), a philosopher of the 4th/10th century (see M. Qazwīnī Abû Sulaïmân Manṭiqî Sidjistânî, Publications de la Société des Etudes Iraniennes [Paris] no. 5, 1933; Brockelmann Sptbd. i pp. 377–8; etc.) wrote in Arabic a work entitled Ṣiwān al-ḥikmah (the Repository of philosophy) on the Greek (and some Islāmic ?) philosophers and their ideas. Of this work no complete copy is known to exist, but extracts from it are preserved in at least four mss. (Bas̲h̲īr Āg̲h̲ā 494 foll. 1–95, Murād 1408 (incorrectly 1431 in the daftar) foll. 1–88, Köprülü 902 foll. 1–123, Leyden ii p. 292 no. 888 foll. 1–73, and probably also Uri (Bodleian) p. 121 no. 4841).
¶ A supplement to this work was written between 553/11582 and 565/1169–703 by Ẓahīr al-Dīn Abū ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Zaid al-Baihaqī, who has already been mentioned (no. 466 supra) as the author of a Tārīk̲h̲ i Baihaq.
Tatimmat Ṣiwān al-ḥikmah,4 an Arabic work on the lives and sayings of 111 philosophers, physicians, mathematicians, etc., many of them contemporary or nearly contemporary with the author, the first being Ḥunain b. Isḥāq and the last Ismāʿīl al-Jurjānī, author of the D̲h̲ak̲h̲īrah i K̲h̲wārazms̲h̲āhī: Murad 1408 (b) (ah 639/1241–2), Bas̲h̲īr Āg̲h̲ā 494 (b) (ah 689/1290), Leyden ii p. 292 no. 888 (b) (ah 692/1293), Köprülü 902 (14th cent.), Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl 14, mss., no. 24, Ahlwardt ix no. 10052 (18th cent.), and probably Uri p. 121 no. 484.
Edition of the Arabic text: Tatimma Ṣiwān al-ḥikma of ʿAlī b. Zaid al-Baihaḳī, edited by Mohammad Shafī‘. Fasciculus I5 - Arabic text. Lahore 1351/1935‡. (For a review by M. Krause see Der Islam 24/1 (1937) pp. 90–2).
Extract: The earliest account of ʿUmar Khayyām6 By E. D. R[oss] and H. A. R. G[ibb] (in bsos. v/3 (1929) pp. 467–70, with English translation, pp. 470–3).
Translations of the same extract: (1) [German] Zu ‘Omer-i-Chajjâm. Von G. Jacob und E. Wiedemann (in Der Islam iii/1 (1912) pp. 42–7). (2) [English] see above under Extract.
Description and discussion: Abû Sulaïmân Manṭiqî Sidjistânî, savant du ive siècle de l’Hégire. Par M. Muḥammad Khan Qazvînî (Publications de la Société des études iraniennes [Paris], no. 5, 1933), pp. 1–7, etc.
Persian translation: Durrat al-ak̲h̲bār wa-lumʿat al-anwār, written probably about 730/13307 and dedicated to Sulṭān Abū Saʿīd’s Wazīr, K̲h̲wājah G̲h̲iyāth al-Dīn M. b. K̲h̲wājah Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Faḍl Allāh (d. 736/1336) by an as yet unidentified-author who appended biographies of S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn [Yaḥyā b. Ḥabas̲h̲] Qatīl al-Suhrawardī, Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn ¶ al-Rāzī, Naṣīr al-Dīn M. al-Ṭūsī and Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Faḍl Allāh: Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib.
Editions: (1) Tārīk̲h̲ al-ḥukamāʾ al-musammā bah D. al-a. w. l. al-a. (ed. M. S̲h̲afīʿ. In ocm. v/2 (Lahore Feb. 1929) ḍamīmah, pp. 1–56, v/3 (May 1929) ḍamīmah, pp. 57–80, vi/1 (Nov. 1929) ḍamīmah, pp. 81–152). (2) Tatimma Ṣiwān al-ḥikma of ʿAlī b. Zaid al-Baihaḳī, edited by Moḥammad S̲h̲afīʿ… Fasciculus II—Persian version, Lahore 1350/1935‡ (Panjab University Oriental Publications Series, no. 20. Title on Persian title-page as in ocm.). (3) Ṭihrān (see Luzac’s Oriental List 1940, no. 1, p. 15, where the date is not mentioned).
§ 1486. ʿAlī b. Yūsuf al-Qifṭī was born in 568/1072 at Qifṭ in Upper Egypt and died at Aleppo in 646/1248 [Brockelmann i p. 325, Sptbd. i p. 559; Ency. Isl. under Ibn al-Ḳifṭī (Mittwoch) and al-Ḳifṭī (Brockelmann)]
Ik̲h̲bār al-ʿulamāʾ bi-ak̲h̲bār al-ḥukamāʾ: no mss. recorded (?).8
Arabic abridgment: al-Muntak̲h̲abāt wa-’l-multaqaṭāt min kitāb Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-ḥukamāʾ, written in 647/1249–50 by M. b. ʿAlī b. M. al-K̲h̲aṭībī al-Zauzanī: Ahlwardt ix 10053–4, Cureton-Rieu p. 684, Flügel ii 1161–2, Leyden 2nd ed. ii (1) p. 130, etc. (see Brockelmann).
Edition of the Arabic abridgment: Ibn al-Qifṭī’s Ta’rīḫ al-Ḥukamā’. Auf Grund der Vorarbeiten Aug. Müller’s herausgegeben von Prof. Dr. J. Lippert. Leipzig 1903°*.
Persian translation of the abridgment: Tarjamah i Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-ḥukamāʾ, written in the time of S̲h̲āh Sulaimān Ṣafawī (ah 1077–1105/1666–94) by an anonymous translator and dedicated to Mīrzā M. Ibrāhīm, Mustaufī i Mamālik i Īrān: Majlis 536 (ah 1099/1688), 535, Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl. 14, mss., no. 10 (ah 1296/1879), Vatican Pers. 133 (Rossi p. 137).
§ 1487. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn M. b. Maḥmūd al-S̲h̲ahrazūrī al-Is̲h̲rāqī, who completed his Rasāʾil al-S̲h̲ajarat al-Ilāhīyah fī ʿulūm al-ḥaqāʾiq al-Rabbānīyah (cf. Brockelmann i p. 469, Sptbd. i p. 851) in 680/1282 (as appears from Weisweiler’s description of the Tübingen ms.9), wrote also al-Rumūz wa-’l-amt̲h̲āl al-lāhūtīyah fī ’l-anwār al-mujarradat al-malakūtīyah (fī maʿrifat al-nafs wa-’l-rūḥ. See Escurial ¶ (Derenbourg) i 696, Vatican (Levi della Vida) 299,10 etc.) as well as commentaries on two works of S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā b. Ḥabas̲h̲ al-Suhrawardī al-Maqtūl (d. 587/1191), namely, S̲h̲arḥ Ḥikmat al-is̲h̲rāq (mss. Yeñī 767, Sarāy, Aḥmad iii 3230, Lālah-lī 2525. See Ritter in Der Islam 24/3–4 (1937) p. 278) and al-Tanqīḥāt fī s̲h̲arḥ al-Talwīḥāt (mss.: Köprülü 880, ʿĀṭif 1588, Nūr i ʿUt̲h̲mānīyah 2693–4. See Ritter loc. cit. p. 273).
Nuzhat al-arwāḥ wa-rauḍat al-afrāḥ,11 an Arabic work on the lives and especially the sayings of about 34 Pre-Islāmic “philosophers” from Adam to Galen and about 77 Post-Islāmic from Ḥunain b. Isḥāq to Yaḥyā b. Ḥabas̲h̲ al-Suhrawardī, based mainly, it seems,12 on the Muk̲h̲tār al-ḥikam of Mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ir b. Fātik (Brockelmann i p. 459, Sptbd. i p. 829) and the Tatimmat Ṣiwān al-ḥikmah (see no. 1485 supra), of which latter a large part has been incorporated: Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 321, Ahlwardt 10056 (ah 782/1380), 10055 (circ. ah 1100/1688), i.o. 4613 (15th cent. See jras. 1939 p. 383), Cureton-Rieu p. 601 (ah 995/1587), p. 688 (ah 996/1658), Leyden iii p. 343 (undated, but modern), Mas̲h̲had iii, fṣl 14, mss., p. 77 (5) no. 14 (cf. no. 1486 footnote, supra), etc. (see Brockelmann i p. 469, Sptbd. i p. 851).
Persian translation: Tarjamah i Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-ḥukamāʾ, begun in 1011/1602–3 by Maqṣūd ʿAlī Tabrīzī13 at the request of Sulṭān Salīm S̲h̲āh [who succeeded to the throne in 1014/1605 as the Emperor Jahāngīr]: Ethé ¶ 614 (pt. 1 dated Āgrah ah 1019/1610, pt. 2, in a different hand, undated), 615 (ah 1039/1630, collated with an autograph at Āgrah), 616 (ah 1041/1631–2), 617, Ivanow 274 (ah 1033 (?)/1623–4), Rieu Suppt. 100 (ah 1088/1677), Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (ah 1120/1708. See ocm. iii/1 p. 68), Lindesiana p. 191 no. 435 (?)14 (circ. ad 1770), Browne Suppt. 232 (King’s 97), Būhār 94 (defective. 19th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 224 no. 247, Tashkent Univ. 68 (1).
Abridgment: Intik̲h̲āb i Tārīk̲h̲, al-ḥukamāʾ (beg.: Sipās u sitāyis̲h̲ Ḥakīmī rā, kih awwal i bī-awwal-ast), written in 1054/1644 (intik̲h̲āb is a chronogram) for presentation to ʿAbd Allāh Quṭb-S̲h̲āh by an unknown author,15 a resident of Muḥammadābād,16 who wrote also the ethico-theological Risālah i kalām (Bānkīpūr Spt. ii 2298, Calcutta Madrasah 180 (2), Būhār 210) and the ethico-political Ak̲h̲lāq i bāds̲h̲āhī (a chronogram = 1055. Bānkīpūr Spt. ii 2299, Calcutta Madrasah 180 (3), Bodleian 1469, Browne Suppt. 30 (King’s 7), Ivanow 1391, i.o. 4625 (2)): Bānkīpūr viii 651 (List of biographies. 18th cent.), Suppt. i 1778, Suppt. ii 2297 (18th cent.), Calcutta Madrasah 180 (1) (late 17th cent.), probably also Ivanow 275 (ah 1100 (?)/1688–9), Ethé 618 (not later than ad 1788), Berlin 71 (1) (“recd Juny [Jany ?] 1797 from Moonshy Sudder ul Deen”), Rieu ii p. 834 no. xix (foll. 166–70: evidently only a fragment or a drastic abridgment. Late 17th cent.).
§ 1488. Ḥā[jjī ?] Ḥmd [= Aḥmad or Muḥammad ?] b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥājj Jamāl al-Dīn Ḥusain al-Anṣārī, a son of Zain al-Dīn ʿAlī al-‘Aṭṭār, the author of the Ik̲h̲tiyārāt i Badī‘ī, a well-known work on materia medica, was born at S̲h̲īrāz in 760/1359. He had spent forty years in attendance upon his father, who died in 806/1403–4, and he had written works entitled Miftāḥ al-kunūz, on medicaments, Dastūr al-mutaʾākilīn,17 on sweetmeats, Tuḥfat al-mulūk, on intoxicating drinks, Dastūr al-zirāʿah, on agriculture, Dastūr al-suʿadāʾ, on the sayings of sages, and some shorter treatises. [Autobiographical statements in the notice of his father at the end of the ms. described below.]
- ¶ Unidentified work, of which the first qism is divided into two ḥarfs ((1) on the value of learning. Notices of Pre-Islāmic philosophers, (2) meagre accounts of the lives and sayings of Muslim philosophers, beginning with Muḥammad and ʿAlī and ending (according to the preface)18 with ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Manṣūr, a physician whose brother ‘Izz al-Dīn Masʿūd is stated to have died in 813/1410–11 and one of his nephews in 817/1414–15, the latest date mentioned): Rieu ii 873a (a fragment containing Qism i and possibly a part of Qism ii. Beg. Qism i awwal dar faḍīlat i ʿilm u ḥikmat u tawārīk̲h̲ i ḥukamā,… 18th cent.).
§ 1489. Mullā Aḥmad b. Naṣr Allāh Tattawī, who was murdered at Lahore in 996/1588, has already been mentioned no. 135 supra) as the chief author of the Tārīk̲h̲ i alfī.
- K̲h̲ulāṣat al-ḥayāt, on the lives19 and sayings of philosophers, written at the request of [Ḥakīm] Abū “lFatḥ b. ʿAbd al-Razzāq [Gīlānī, one of Akbar’s physicians20] and divided, according to the preface, into a fātiḥah (5 introductory discourses), two maqṣads (on Pre-Islāmic and Islāmic philosophers respectively), and a k̲h̲ātimah (dar bayān i mad̲h̲āhib i millatain), but probably left unfinished, since no ms. hitherto described extends beyond Socrates in Maqṣad i: Upsala Zetterstéen 390 (“Theil i”. ah 1037/1628), Bānkīpūr Suppt. i 1779 (ah 1078/1668), i.o. d.p. 639 (Fātiḥah and Maqṣad i. 17th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 318 no. 33, Ivanow Curzon 497 (Fātiḥah and Maqṣad i, defective and much damaged. Early 19th cent.), Majlis 541 (ends with Socrates), Rieu iii 1034b (description and some extracts only. ad 1851).
§ 1490. ʿAbd al-Sattār b. Qāsim Lāhaurī has already been mentioned (no. 205) as collaborator with Jerome Xavier (d. 1617) in the translation of the latter’s biographies of Christ and the Twelve Apostles into Persian and (no. 356 (1), Abridgments (3)) as epitomator of S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī’s Ẓafar-nāmah.
- T̲h̲amarat al-falāsifah (presumably identical with the “Aḥwāl i Farangistān”, Rieu iii p. 1077a), an account of Greece and Rome and of the lives (doubtless more especially the sayings) of the Greek and ¶ Roman philosophers (cf. Sir E. Maclagan The Jesuits and the Great Mogul, London 1932, p. 218): Mas̲h̲had iii p. 78 (“Tad̲h̲kirat al-ḥukamāʾ”. Not later than ah 1145/1732–3), Lindesiana p. 177 no. 445 (ah 1185/1771), Browne Suppt. 770 (“Samar al-falāsifah”, ah 1197/1783, King’s 222), b.m. Or. 5893 (see Maclagan op. cit. p. 218), Āṣafīyah i p. 346 nos. 118 (ah 1236/1820–1), 169, Patiala Victoria Library (see Maclagan op. cit. p. 218).
§ 1491. Hakīm al-Mamālik Mīrzā ʿAlī-Naqī b. Ismāʿīl, physician to Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh Qājār, had a knowledge of French and had studied medicine and other subjects abroad (doubtless in France). He was also a poet.
- Rūz-nāmah i Ḥakīm al-Mamālik: Ṭihrān 1286/1869–70 (see Āṣafīyah iii p. 350. Apparently identical with the Ruz-nāmah describing Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh’s visit to K̲h̲urāsān in 1867. See no. 439 supra and Additions and Corrections infra).
[al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār p. 194.]
§ 1492. Appendix.
- Aḥwāl i ḥukamāʾ, “biographical notices and sayings of ancient philosophers,” the first Idrīs, the last two Ibn Sabʿīn and Abū Naṣr M. b. M. al-Turk: Bānkīpūr Suppt. i 1986 foll. 83a–98b.
- Tad̲h̲kirat al-ḥukamāʾ: Rehatsek p. 77 no. 16 (ah 1211/1796–7. “The book is not scarce, and may be had in the bazar.” Probably therefore it is one of the works mentioned above.)
^ Back to text7. The period of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn’s vizierate is referred to near the end (1935 ed. p. 1339) as īn muddat i dū sih sāl, which may not be meant quite literally. The precise date of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn’s appointment does not seem to be recorded, but it followed the killing of Dimas̲h̲q K̲h̲wājah on 5 S̲h̲awwāl 727/24 Aug. 1327 (Guzīdah, trans. p. 150).
^ Back to text8. As mss. of the “Grundwerk” Brockelmann gives “Halet 619 (622h), Mešh, xiv, 5”. The first words of Mas̲h̲had iii, faṣl 14 p. 5 no. 14 [Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-ḥukamāʾ, beginning al-Ḥ. l. al-Qadīm al-Azal (sic)] suggest that it is a copy of S̲h̲ahrazūrī’s Nuzhat al-arwāḥ.
^ Back to text10. “La sottoscrizione a f.77v in data 611 è certamente falsa.” This date, which is quoted in the Leyden catalogue (iii p. 345) and was inadvertently taken by Sachau for the date of the Leyden ms. of the Nuzhat al-arwāḥ, was one of the bases for his conclusion that that work was written after 586 [the date of Yaḥyā Suhrawardī’s death: Alhwardt read the same date as 587] and before 611.
^ Back to text11. This title, not mentioned in the work itself, is inscribed on some of the mss. and is that by which the work was known to the Persian translator and to Ḥājjī K̲h̲alīfah. A variant, which transposes the two halves (R. al-af. wa-n. al-ar.), seems to be based on the sole authority of the Leyden ms.
^ Back to text12. For al-S̲h̲ahrazūrī’s unacknowledged debt to the Muk̲h̲tār al-ḥikam see Leyden iii p. 344. The extent to which he has reproduced the Tatimmat Ṣiwān al-ḥikmah can be judged from M. S̲h̲afīʿ’s textual notes to his edition of that work.
^ Back to text13. M. ʿA. T., of whom a biography containing no mention of the Tarjamah i Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-ḥukamāʾ is given on pp. 59–60 of the first qism (aḥwāl i ʿulamā u fuḍalā) of the k̲h̲ātimah to the Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Raḥīmī (completed in 1025/1616: cf. no. 711 supra), is described there as an incomparable Ṣūfī, a scholar and a man of austere piety. In spite of his unworldly character he was prevailed upon by ʿAbd al-Raḥīm K̲h̲ān (Governor of Gujarat: cf. no. 698, Persian translations (3) supra) to accept the life of a courtier and official and served him for many years (muddat-hā dar silsilah i ʿAlīyah i īn sipahsālār mulāzim u jāgīrdār būd). He became Ṣadr of the province of Gujarāt, but eventually through the intrigues of an enemy was dismissed and imprisoned in the fortress of Gwalior.
^ Back to text15. Ethé 618 is described as an abridgment or extract from Maqṣūd ʿAlī’s translation “made by Munshî Mîr Sayyid Ṣadr-aldîn bin Mîr Muḥammad Ṣādiḳ bin Mîr Muḥammad Amîn” On the … first page Mr. Richard Johnson states that he has received this little book from Munshî Ṣadr aldîn (that is, from the compiler himself), being an extract from his common-place book, ad 1778.” A note at the end of Berlin 71(1) describes the work as jamʿ kardah i Saiyid Ṣadr al-Dīn az kutub i muʿtabar. It may be doubted whether S. Ṣadr al-Dīn’s contribution to the work extended beyond copying it into his commonplace book. All the manuscripts begin with the words given above.
^ Back to text19. The contents of Maqṣad i give this work little claim to be regarded as biographical but, as in the earlier works of this kind, the biographical element would doubtless have been greater in the portion dealing with Islāmic times.