In Volume 1-2: Biography, Additions, and Corrections | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.
§ 1153. Fatḥ-ʿAlī, commonly called (al-madʿū bi-) ʿAlī, Ḥusainī Gardēzī or, as he is called in the Majmūʿah i nag̲h̲z, S. (Mīr) Fatḥ-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Ḥusainī, was, according to that work (ii p. 2014), the elder brother of S. G̲h̲ālib ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “ʿIyān”, one of the Saiyids of Gardēz.1 His father, therefore, was S. ʿIwaḍ K̲h̲ān, who in the reign of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh was Deputy-Governor of the province of Lahore. S. Fatḥ-ʿAlī adopted the life of a ṣūfī and became an influential s̲h̲aik̲h̲. In the Majmūʿah i nag̲h̲z, which was completed in 1221/1806–7, his name is mentioned incidentally several times (vol. ii pp. 20, 184, 355, 369) and is followed by formulæ (sallamahu Rabbuhu and the like) showing that he was still alive at the time of writing (possibly long before 1221).
Tad̲h̲kirah i ʿAlī i Ḥusainī i Gardēzī, an alphabetically arranged tad̲h̲kirah of about 100 Urdu poets written at Delhi six years after the death of “Anjām” (and therefore in 1165/1751–2,2 if the authorities cited by Sprenger, p. 203, are correct in saying that “Anjām” died in 1159): Sprenger no. 43, Ethé 698 (ah 1180/1766–7), 699 (ah 1216/1802), 700 (B.S. 1213/1805), Ivanow 233 (defective. Late 18th cent.), 1st Suppt. 767 (late 18th cent.), Madras 437 (l) (ah 1230/1815), Bānkīpūr Suppt. i 1787 (19th cent.), Rieu iii 1071a (19th cent.).
Edition: Tad̲h̲kirah i Rēk̲h̲tah-gōyān, Aurangābād date ? (Anjuman i Taraqqī i Urdu. With introduction by ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq. See a review in ocm. x/3 (May 1934) p. 134).
¶ [ʿIyār al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ under Yūsuf (cf. Sprenger p. 178); Majmūʿah i nag̲h̲z ii p. 2014; Garcin de Tassy i pp. 523–4; ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq’s introduction to his edition (not utilised above).]
§ 1154. S̲h̲. M. Qiyām al-Dīn “Qāʾim” C̲h̲āndpūrī belonged to C̲h̲āndpūr (presumably the place of that name 19 miles S. of Bijnaur), but he went early in life to Delhi and obtained employment under the Emperor. According to Saksena he was Dārōg̲h̲ah of the Royal Armoury. When he wrote his Mak̲h̲zan i nikāt (in 1168/1754–5), he had left Delhi owing to the decay of the empire. The date of his death is variously given (1202/1787–8, 1207/1792–3, 1208/1793–4, 1210/1795–6). He was himself an Urdu poet and the author of a dīwān (for which see Blumhardt’s i.o. catalogue of Hindustani mss., no. 143, and Sprenger p. 631). According to T. Grahame Bailey his poems were published in 1927.
Mak̲h̲zan i nikāt (a chronogram = 1168/1754–5), a tad̲h̲kirah of Rēk̲h̲tah (i.e. Urdu) poets: Sprenger no. 44 (Mōtī Maḥall, autograph), Ethé 701.
Edition: Aurangābād 1929 (ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq. See bsos. v/4 (1930) p. 928).
[Autobiography at end of Mak̲h̲zan i nikāt (summarised in Sprenger p. 179); Sprenger p. 179; Garcin de Tassy i pp. 360–71; Blumhardt Catalogue of the Hindustani manuscripts in the Library of the India Office pp. 74–5; Saksēna A history of Urdu literature p. 97; ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq’s introduction to his edition of the Mak̲h̲zan i nikāt (not utilised above): T. Grahame Bailey A history of Urdu literature p. 50.]
§ 1155. Sirāj al-Dīn “Sirāj” Ḥusainī Aurangābādī, a Ṣūfī poet in Persian and Urdu, died in 1177/1763–4.
Majmūʿah i s̲h̲uʿarāʾ or Dīwān i muntak̲h̲ab, an anthology completed in 1169/1755–6 from the works of about 680 poets without biographical details apart from dates of death: Sprenger no. 29 (F. Hall) = Ethé 691 (ah 1191/1777).
List of the poets: Sprenger pp. 149–51.
[Majmūʿah i nag̲h̲z i p. 293; Sprenger pp. 148–9, 292; Garcin de Tassy iii pp. 145–7; Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an p. 200; etc.]
§ 1156. Nawwāb Ṣamṣām al-Daulah S̲h̲ah-nawāz K̲h̲ān Mīr ʿAbd al-Razzāq b. Ḥasan ʿAlī Ḥusainī K̲h̲wāfī Aurangābādī was born at Lahore on 28 Ramaḍān 1111/20 March 1700 and murdered at Aurangābād on 3 Ramaḍān 1171/11 May 1758. An account of his life will be given later in this fasciculus; when the time comes to deal with the Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ, his best-known work. At this point it will be sufficient to note that G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī “Āzād” describes him as s̲h̲iʿr-fahm i bī-naẓīr ¶ (K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah p. 563. Cf. Maʾāthir al-umarāʾ i p. 35 12: u dar s̲h̲iʿr-fahmī dam i yaktāʾī mī-zad).
- Bahāristān i suk̲h̲un, a tad̲h̲kirah of ancient and modern poets left incomplete at the author’s death in 1171/1758 and completed in 1194/1780 by his son, Mīr ʿAbd al-Ḥaiy (according to the Sawāniḥ i Dakan cited by Rieu iii p. 1025a): Āṣafīyah i p. 316 no. 17, iii p. 162 no. 121 (ah 1194/1780), no. 193 (ah 1204/1789–90) Madras p. 542 no. 528 (ah 1259/1843).
§ 1157. S. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb “Iftik̲h̲ār” Buk̲h̲ārī Daulatābādī, a descendant of S. Jalāl Buk̲h̲ārī called Mak̲h̲dūm i Jahāniyān,3 was born at Aḥmadnagar but settled at Daulatābād on his marriage to the daughter of S. Murtaḍā K̲h̲ān, commandant of the fort.4 His instructor in the art of poetry was Mīr G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī “Āzād” Bilgrāmī (for whom see no. 1162 infra). M. Mīranjān, who did not know the precise date of his death, says that he died towards the end of the eighth decade of the twelfth century (tā awāk̲h̲ir i ʿas̲h̲arah i thāminah i miʾah i ithnā-ʿas̲h̲ar).
Bī-naẓīr (a chronogram = 1172/1758–9), notices of 136 poets of the 12th/18th century.
Edition: Tazkira-e-Benazir, Allahabad 1940 (ed. S. Manẓūr ʿAlī. Allahabad Univ. Arabic-Persian Series, 1. See jras. 1941 p. 198).
[Sarw i āzād; K̲h̲āzin al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ fol. 38a]
- Maqālāt al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (a chronogram = 1174/1760–1, the date of completion), alphabetically arranged notices of the poets of Sind: Rieu ii 848a (ah 1246/1830), i.o. 4397 (ah 1271/1855).
§ 1159. S̲h̲. Qiyām al-Dīn “Ḥairat” b. S̲h̲. Amān Allāh Akbarābādī.
Maqālāt al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (a chronogram = 1174/1760–1), short notices of 150 poets who flourished from the time of Aurangzēb to that of ʿĀlamgīr ii (d. 1173/1759): Sprenger no. 31 (Mōtī Maḥall), Rāmpūr (ah 1228/1813. See ocm. vi/2 (Feb. 1930) pp. ’114–16).
List and epitome of the biographies: Sprenger pp. 153–60.
§ 1160. Naqs̲h̲ ʿAlī wrote in India.
- Bag̲h̲ i maʿānī (probably a chronogram = 1174/1760–1, but there are later additions), an extensive but concise dictionary of Persian poets: Sprenger ¶ p. 152 (Ch̲amans iii (Kings), iv (Wazīrs and Amīrs) and v (322 poets from time of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd to ah 800/1397–8). Mōtī Maḥall), Bānkīpūr viii 698 (Ch̲amans vi and vii (?). Poets, mainly Indian or connected with India, from the 9th/15th century to the author’s time, defective, ending with “Ẓarīf”. Probably autograph), Rieu iii 1022b (extracts from Ch̲amans iii and iv. Circ. ad 1850).
§ 1161. Durgā Dās.
- Safīnah i ʿis̲h̲rat (a chronogram = 1175/1761–2), alphabetically arranged notices of ancient and modern poets: Bānkīpūr viii 699 (breaks off in sīn. 19th cent.).
§ 1162. Ḥassān al-Hind5 Mīr G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī “Āzād” b. S. M. Nūḥ Ḥusainī Wāsiṭī6 Bilgrāmī Ḥanafī Chis̲h̲tī7 was born at Bilgrām8 on 25 Ṣafar 1116/29 June 1704. It was there that he received instruction in the kutub i darsīyah from Mīr Ṭufail Muḥammad Utraulawī Bilgrāmī (for whom see Subḥat al-marjān pp. 90–4, Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 98, etc.). In 1134/1721–2 he went to Delhi and remained there for two years studying Arabic lexicology (lug̲h̲at), the Traditions and the life of the Prophet and belles lettres (ḥadīt̲h̲ u siyar i Nabawī u funūn i adab) with his maternal grandfather, Mīr ʿAbd al-Jalīl Bilgrāmī (for whom see no. 952 1st par. supra, footnote, and Islamic culture ii/1 (Jan. 1928) p. 133). Possibly it was in these same two years that his maternal uncle, Mīr M. b. ʿAbd al-Jalīl Bilgrāmī (for whom see no. 952 supra) taught him prosody and certain branches of adab. At the end of 1142/1730 he left Bilgrām for Sīwistān (i.e. Sehwan, in Sind) at the request of his uncle,9 the aforesaid Mīr M. b. ʿAbd al-Jalīl Bilgrāmī, who was Mīr Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī and Waqāʾiʿ-nigār at that town. Having appointed him, or caused him to be ¶ appointed,10 his nāʾib, Mīr Muḥammad went back to Bilgrām for four years. It was in 1147/1734 that “Āzād” on his return-journey from Sīwistān met “Ḥazīn” at Bhakkar, as has already been mentioned (no. 1150, 2nd par., 1st footnote supra). In Rajab 1150/Nov. 1737 he left Bilgrām on a pilgrimage to the Ḥijāz, sailed from Sūrat on 24 D̲h̲ū’l-Qaʿdah, reached Jiddah on 18 Muḥarram 1151/8 May 1738, Mecca on 23 Muḥarram and al-Madīnah on 25 Ṣafar. Here he studied the Ṣaḥīḥ of al-Buk̲h̲ārī under M. Ḥayāt Sindī Madanī (for whom see Subḥat al-marjān pp. 95–7, Raḥmān ʿAlī pp. 186–7, Brockelmann Supptbd. ii p. 522). At the end of this year he performed the ḥajj and on 3 Jumādā i 1152/8 Aug. 1739 he sailed from Jiddah, reaching “Swally” on the 29th of that month and Sūrat on the 2nd of Jumādā ii. After a stay of five months at Sūrat he settled at Aurangābād, where he spent the next seven years in seclusion at the takyah of S̲h̲āh Musāfir G̲h̲ujduwānī. Towards the end of 1159/1746 he became the friend and constant companion of Nawwāb Niẓām al-Daulah Nāṣir-Jang, Āṣaf-Jāh’s second son,11 who in 1161/1748 succeeded his father as Ṣūbah-dār of the Deccan (i.e. as Niẓām of Ḥaidarābād), and who was murdered in Muḥarram 1164/December 1750. According to S̲h̲ams Allāh Qādirī “Āzād” received a stipend from Nāṣir-Jang, and this is not unlikely, but he resisted suggestions that he should seek office12 and doubtless maintained this attitude to the end of his life. At any rate he describes himself in the K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah (p. 12512) as living at Aurangābād in retirement at the age of sixty-one (chand bār ba-tamās̲h̲ā-yi aṭrāf i mulk i Dakan bar-k̲h̲āstam aknūn dar dār al-amn i Aurangābād gūs̲h̲ah-gīr-am …). Shortly before this, in 1170/1757, when his great friend, the Prime Minister Ṣamṣām al-Daulah S̲h̲āh-nawāz K̲h̲ān, was dismissed from office, “Āzād”—one of the few who remained faithful to the fallen minister—exerted himself on his behalf and took a prominent part in the negotiations which ended in his restoration to favour (Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i pp. 28–9, Beveridge’s trans. p. 22). In the following year, when S̲h̲āh-nawāz K̲h̲ān’s house was looted after his murder (3 Ramaḍān 1171/11 May 1758) and the unfinished manuscript of his great work, the Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ, disappeared, “Āzād” instituted a search, recovered eventually [most of] the dispersed fragments (see vol. i pp. 3, 11–12, trans. ¶ pp. 3, 10), wrote a preface (k̲h̲uṭbah u tamhīd = vol. i pp. 10–13) and a biography of S̲h̲āh-nawāz K̲h̲ān (pp. 14–41) and inserted a few additional biographies.13
One of the last of the contemporary accounts of “Āzād” must be that published by William Chambers in the Asiatick Miscellany, vol. i, Calcutta 1785, pp. 496–7. It runs as follows:
The author … [of the extracts mentioned in no. 1162 (17), Extracts infra] is at this day alive at Aurungabad, in the Decan, where, after a series of years spent in literary pursuits and extensive travels, he resides, in great repute, and with some splendour, at the age of eighty-five. The present Nizam has visited him twice in person at that city; and the Translator [i.e. W. Chambers] is in possession of the copy of a letter addressed to him, in the year 1775, by the celebrated Gâzy ud Dîn Khân, wherein he pays him the highest compliments. The work in question [i.e. the K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah] was published by him there in the sixty-first year of his age; and he is the author of several others in verse and prose: among which, he tells Gâzy ud Dîn Khân, in his answer to the above-mentioned letter, that his Arabick poems amounted to 4000 couplets, and his Persian to 8000; confessing, at the same time, that he was constantly adding something to each, though he had then passed the age of seventy. But his historical writings [e.g. the biographies of Āṣaf-Jāh and his sons, the account of the Marāṭ’hās, etc., in the K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah] are, to European readers, the most curious and valuable of his productions; and they have this particular recommendation, that he was the eye-witness of most of the facts which he relates, and has himself travelled over the countries which are the scene of his narrations:—circumstances that deserve to be more especially remarked, in regard to the ensuing Extracts, which have been the more readily selected, as they have a tendency to throw light on transactions, in which both the English and the French have been concerned, and, in their accounts of which, they have in some points differed from each other.
According to Wajīh al-Dīn As̲h̲raf (Baḥr i zak̲h̲k̲h̲ār (Rieu iii p. 976b) fol. 315) he died on 21 D̲h̲ū ’l-Qaʿdah 1200/15 September 178614 (see Rieu i ¶ p. 373b). He is buried at Rauḍah (“Rauza”, “Roza”, “Raoza”) or K̲h̲uldābād,15 about seven miles from Daulatābād, and, according to T. W. Haig (Historic landmarks of the Deccan, Allahabad 1907, p. 58), “the fame of the poet’s learning is such that parents take their children to his shrine in order that they may, by picking up with their lips a piece of sugar from the tomb, obtain both a taste for knowledge and the ability to acquire it.
Lists of “Āzād’s” works are given in S. S̲h̲ams Allāh Qādirī’s Urdu Qāmūs al-aʿlām i coll. 33–5, the Bombay Univ. Cat. pp. 201–2 (based on the preceding), S. Wajāhat-Husain’s article in the jrasb. 1936, Letters, pp. 123–30, and Brockelmann Supptbd. ii p. 600 (Arabic works only). The following list omits an Urdu work mentioned by S. Wajāhat-Ḥusain.
- Ḍauʾ al-darārī, a commentary on al-Buk̲h̲ārī’s Ṣaḥīḥ to the end of the kitāb al-zakāh (Subḥat al-marjān p. 122 antepenult. No mss. recorded ?),
Subḥat al-marjān fī āt̲h̲ār Hindustān, written in 1177/1763–4 and divided into four fuṣūl, viz.:
(i, p. 4) on references to India in Qurʾānic commentaries and in the Traditions of the Prophet, originally an independent work completed at Arcot in S̲h̲aʿbān 1163/1750 and entitled S̲h̲ammāmat al-ʿanbar fī-mā warada fī ’l-Hind min Saiyid al-Bas̲h̲ar,16
(ii, p. 24) biographies of Indian scholars, originally a part of the author’s work Tasliyat al-fuʾād,17 which also supplied material for Faṣl iii,
(iii, p. 123) fī muḥassināt al-kalām, on certain rhetorical figures, viz., (a) 23 figures of Indian (i.e. Sanskrit) rhetoric, which the author exemplifies from Arabic poetry, especially his own (maqālah 1, p. 123), (b) 37 figures discovered or invented or first recognised as such by the author ¶ himself (maqālah 2, p. 162: fī ’l-muḥassināt allatī ’stak̲h̲raja-hā ’l-muʾallif. The first is al-tafāʾul, i.e. euphemism), (c) one figure invented by Amīr K̲h̲usrau, namely bū-qalamūn (maqālah 3, p. 204), (d) two figures peculiar to the Arabs, viz. ḥusn al-tak̲h̲alluṣ and istik̲h̲dām al-muḍmar (maqālah 4, p. 218), together with a qaṣīdah badīʿīyah, in which the foregoing figures are exemplified (maqālah 5, p. 220),
(iv, p. 234) fī bayān al-maʿs̲h̲ūqāt wa-’l-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq, on the types of lovers depicted by the poets, in five maqālahs, (a) fī bayān al-g̲h̲izlān, introductory matter followed by an enumeration of the types of female lovers recognized by the Hindūs (al-ṣāliḥah, al-muʿlinah, al-sūqīyah, etc. p. 234), (b) types labelled by the author (fī aqsām al-g̲h̲izlān allatī hiya min mustak̲h̲rajāt al-muʾallif, p. 255. The first is al-zāʾirah fī ’l-ruʾyā, the second al-nāfirah ʿan al-s̲h̲aib, and so on), (c) al-qaṣīdat al-g̲h̲izlānīyah, a qaṣīdah describing each of the foregoing types, p. 260, (d) fī aqsām al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq, on the types of male lovers, p. 263, (e) al-qaṣīdat al-hayamānīyah, a qaṣīdah on the types of male lovers, p. 295.
An edition of this curious work was published at [Bombay] in 1303/1886°*, and mss. of it are preserved at Manchester (Cat. Arab. mss. 292), the Calcutta Madrasah (p. 47 no. 88), and (extracts only) the British Museum (Rieu iii pp. 1022b, 1055b). A Persian translation of the third and fourth faṣl was made by the author himself and entitled G̲h̲izlān al-Hind (a chronogram = 1178/1764–5). For mss. see no. (12) below. A Persian translation of the first and second faṣl was made by S. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn b. S̲h̲āh Wārit̲h̲ ʿAlī Ḥasanī Ḥusainī Banārasī at the request of the Rājah of Benares, Mahārāj Īsarī Pars̲h̲ād, in whose service the translator was in 1286/1869 (ms.: Bānkīpūr viii 653).
- Dīwāns. In the list of his own works given on pp. 122–3 of the Subḥat al-marjān, which was written in 1177/1763–4, “Āzād” mentions two Arabic dīwāns consisting of 3000 verses18 (p. 122 penult.: wa-l-dīwānān … wa-jumlatu as̲h̲ʿārī fī ’l-dīwānain t̲h̲alāt̲h̲atu ālāf wa-arsaltuhumā ila baʿḍ al-fuḍalā’ bi-l-Madīnat al-Munawwarah). S̲h̲ams Allāh Qādirī in speaking of “Āzād’s” Arabic dīwān [so—in the singular] says that it contains more than 3000 verses and that it was published in four volumes at Ḥaidarābād in 1300. The Āṣafīyah catalogue (i p. 696) records two mss. and a printed (i.e. doubtless lithographed) edition, speaks of har sih ḥiṣṣah, but says nothing about place or date of publication. Sarkis (Dictionnaire ¶ encyclopédique de bibliographie arabe, col. 1) records editions of (1) al-dīwān al-awwal completed in 118719 and lithographed at the Kanz al-ʿulūm Press, Ḥaidarābād, (2) al-dīwān al-thānī (pp. 59) printed (or lithographed) at the Lauḥ i maḥfūẓ Press, Ḥaidarābād,20 and (3) al-dīwān al-t̲h̲ālit̲h̲ printed (or lithographed) at the Kanz al-ʿulūm Press without date. Seven dīwāns entitled al-Sabʿat al-saiyārah (beginning Lamaḥat ilaiya bi-ʿainihā ’l-kaḥlāʾu) were begun in 1179 and completed in 1194 (Autograph ms.: Nawwāb Nūr al-Ḥasan’s library, Lucknow. See Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad in jasb. 1917 p. cxxxix, no. 152. According to S. Maqbūl Aḥmad Ṣamdanī, Ḥayāt i Jalīl ii p. 175 note 139, a selection from these seven dīwāns was published under the title Muk̲h̲tār dīwān Āzād at the Āsī Press, Lucknow, in 1328). A dīwān i tāsiʿ and a dīwān i ʿās̲h̲ir are preserved at ʿAlīgaṛh (Subh. mss. p. 126). For mss. described simply as Dīwān i Āzād (i Bilgrāmī) see the ʿAlīgaṛh catalogue (Subḥ. mss. p. 126), the Āṣafīyah catalogue (i p. 696) and the Rāmpūr Arabic catalogue (i p. 586).
- Maẓhar al-barakāt, a Ṣūfī muzdawijah, or mathnawī, in seven daftars, of which the first was completed in 1194/1780 and the second, third and fourth in 1195/1781, the rest being undated (mss.: Āṣafīyah (autograph. See Qāmūs al-aʿlām col. 34), Manchester Arab. Cat. 481 (a), Princeton Arab. Cat. (1938) no. 136).
- S̲h̲ifāʾ al-ʿalīl fī iṣlāḥ21 kalam Abī ’l-Ṭaiyib al-Mutanabbī (ms.: S. ʿAlī Ḥusain Bilgrāmī’s library, Ḥaidarābād. See Nadh̲īr Aḥmad in jasb. 1917 p. cxxiii).
- Kas̲h̲kūl22 (mss.: Āṣafīyah iii p. 642 nos. 242 (mainly autograph), 261).
- Dīwān, beginning Bar-ār az madd i bi-smi’llāhi tīg̲h̲ i k̲h̲was̲h̲-maqālī rā (Subḥat al-marjān p. 1238. mss.: Sprenger 146, Bānkīpūr iii 423, Ethé 1722, Ivanow-Curzon 304–6, Madras 75 (c) (muntak̲h̲ab), and doubtless also Āṣafīyah iii p. 288 no. 830),
- ¶ Mat̲h̲nawī ba-jawāb i Mat̲h̲nawī i Mīr ʿAbd al-Jalīl i Bilgrāmī23 (ms.: Āṣafīyah iii p. 632),
- Mat̲h̲nawī i sarāpā-yi maʿs̲h̲ūq (ms.: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 43 no. 90). It seems at least possible that this may be identical with the Mirʾāt al-jamāl, which is placed among the Persian mss. in the catalogue of the Bibliotheca Lindesiana (p. 144 no. 592), though S. Wajāhat-Ḥusain, who gives references to Itḥāf al-nubalāʾ p. 331 and Ḥadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah p. 455, describes that work as “an Arabic poem containing 105 verses and describing the beauties of a beloved from head to foot”. The language is not specified in the Ḥadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah: the Itḥāf al-nubalāʾ is not at the moment accessible.
- Sanad al-saʿādāt fī ḥusn k̲h̲ātimat al-Sādāt (Subḥat al-marjān p. 1237. mss.: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1346 no. 372, iii p. 662 no. 101, Ethé 2670. According to S̲h̲ams Allāh Qādirī an edition was published at Bombay in 1282/1865–6).
- G̲h̲izlān al-Hind (a chronogram = 1178/1764–5), a translation of the third and fourth faṣl of the Subḥat al-marjān (no. 2 above) made at the request of the author’s two friends, ʿAbd al-Qādir “Mihrbān” Aurangābādī (cf. no. 1162, 1st footnote supra) and Lachhmī Narāyan “S̲h̲afīq” Aurangābādī (cf. no. 641 supra and no. 1165 infra) (mss.: Āṣafīyah i p. 168 no. 164, Berlin 1051, Ethé 2135, Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 310).
- S̲h̲ajarah i ṭaiyibah, on the pedigrees and lives of the s̲h̲aik̲h̲s of Bilgrām (Qāmūs al-ʿalām i col. 35. mss.: Āṣafīyah i p. 322 no. 35, ii p. 1778 no. 114).
- Rauḍat al-auliyāʾ, written in 1161/1748, lives of ten saints buried at Rauḍah or K̲h̲uldābād, near Daulatābād, the first being al-G̲h̲arīb al-Hānsawī and the last “Āzād” himself (Edition: Aurangābād 1310/1892–3*. mss.: Āṣafīyah i p. 320, iii p. 164, Ethé 655).
Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-kirām tārīk̲h̲ i Bilgrām, completed in 1166/1752–3 and divided into two faṣls, viz. (1) lives of about 80 fuqarāʾ, i.e. saints and mystics, connected, in some cases rather remotely, with Bilgrām and its neighbourhood, (2) lives of about 70 similar fuḍalāʾ, i.e. men of learning (Edition: Ḥaidarābād 1910 (with introduction by ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq. See ocm. iii/2 (Feb. 1927) p. 33 footnote). mss.: Āṣafīyah i p. 348 no. 105, Ethé 682 (sent by the author to Richard Johnson in 1785), Rieu iii 971a, Bānkīpūr viii 723, Berlin 603 (Faṣl 2 only. For a list of the biographies in this faṣl see Berlin pp. 567–8)).
¶ The second volume of this work is the Sarw i āzād (no. (16) below). The Sh̲arāʾif i ʿUt̲h̲mānī of G̲h̲ulām-Ḥasan Ṣiddīqī Bilgrāmī (mss.: Ivanow 277, i.o. 3913, Āṣafīyah iii p. 164) was written expressly for the purpose of correcting numerous alleged inaccuracies in the Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-kirām, and the Sarw i āzād. Another attack on the two volumes, more especially on “Āzād’s” style and his poetry, is the Taḥqīq al-sadād fī mad̲h̲allat al-Āzād written soon after 1167/1754 by M. Ṣiddīq “Suk̲h̲unwar” ʿUt̲h̲mānī Bilgrāmī (ms.: Ivanow 397). A reply to the second attack is the Taʾdīb al-zindīq fī takd̲h̲īb al-Ṣiddīq of ʿAbd al-Qādir Samarqandī Dihlawī (ms.: Ivanow 398).
- Yad i baiḍāʾ,24 alphabetically arranged lives of 532 ancient and modern poets, compiled originally at Sīwistān in 1145/1732–3 and thereupon published, later revised and enlarged at Allahabad in 1148/1735–6, and still further enlarged after the author’s return from Mecca by additional matter sent to some friends for insertion: Sprenger no. 23, Bānkīpūr viii 691 (partly autograph), i.o. 3966 (b) (ah 1178/1764), Āṣafīyah iii p. 162 no. 186 (Tad̲h̲kirah i Yad i baiḍā mausūm bah Tad̲h̲kirah i Ṣubḥ i k̲h̲andān. ah 1297/1880), no. 155 (Tad̲h̲kirah i Ṣubḥ i k̲h̲andān yaʿnī Yad i baiḍā).
Sarw i āzād, completed in 1166/1752–3 as the second volume of the work whose first volume is entitled Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-kirām (no. (14) above) and consisting likewise of two faṣls, viz. (1) notices of 143 poets who were born in India, or visited the country, after 1000/1591–2, including some learned men and poets of Bilgrām, (2) notices of 8 Rēk̲h̲tah (i.e. Urdū) poets: Sprenger no. 24, Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 86 (Ḥakīm ʿAbd al-Ḥaiy, Lucknow. Autograph), Āṣafīyah i p. 320 no. 16 (ah 1194/1780), Ivanow 1st Suppt. 765 (ah 1223/1808), Ivanow Curzon 58 (19th cent.), Lindesiana p. 144 no. 330g (ah 1237/1821–2), Ethé 683 (n.d.), 684 (lacking Faṣl 2. ah 1265/1849), Bānkīpūr viii 697 (19th cent.), Bombay Univ. 122 (fragment only, 39 poets).
Edition: Lahore 1913* (published by the Āṣafīyah Book Depot, Ḥaidarābād. Cf. ocm. iii/2 (Feb. 1927) p. 33 n. 2).
Lists of the poets: Ivanow-Curzon pp. 64–6 (132 Persian poets), Ivanow 1st Suppt. p. 7 (8 Urdu poets).
Criticisms: see under Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-kirām (no. (14) above).
K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah, written in 1176/1762–3,25 alphabetically arranged notices of about 13526 ancient and modern poets, together with valuable ¶ biographies of Āṣaf-Jāh, his sons and some other contemporary nobles as well as historical accounts of the Marāṭ’hās and of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī: Sprenger no. 25, Lindesiana p. 144 no. 319 (ah 1176/1762–3), no. 925 (ah 1196/1782), no. 320 (extracts. Circ. ad 1780), Ethé 685 (ah 1182/1768, transcribed from an autograph), 686(ah 1193/1779), 687–90 (four undated copies), 490 (historical extracts only), i.o. d.p. 644, i.o. 3991 (only the account of Āṣaf-Jāh, etc.), 4078, Rieu i 798a (first portion only, ending with the account of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī, ah 1197/1783), 373a (fragment, breaking off in the notice of “Āzād”. Late 18th cent.), 374b (extract, Āṣaf-Jāh to “Azād”. Early 19th cent.), 374b (extract, Āṣaf-Jāh, his children, etc. ah 1232/1817), Bodleian 381 (ah 1199/1785), Blochet ii 1157 (18th cent.), 1158 (extracts. Late 18th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 318 no. 26 (ah 1221/1806–7), Bānkīpūr viii 700 (19th cent.), 658 (extract, Āṣaf-Jāh, etc. ah 1203/1789), Suppt. i 1788 (19th cent.), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 60 no. 20 (ah 1266/1849–50), Ivanow 232 (19th cent.), Curzon 59 (ah 1282/1865), Browne Pers. Cat. 115, Browne Coll. H. 23 (4) (only the account of Āṣaf-Jāh, etc.), r.a.s. P. 116 (possibly also P. 164 and P. 165).
Editions: Cawnpore 1871*, 1900°.
Extracts: (1) A short history of the origin and progress of the Marratta State.—[Persian text] Extracted from the Khazanah e Aamerah [Cawnpore editions pp. 39–4713], and translated by William Chambers (in The Asiatick Miscellany, vol. ii (Calcutta 1786*) pp. 86–122), (2) Extracts from the Khazanah e Aamerah [viz. A short account of Naser Jung (= Cawnpore editions pp. 54–56) and A short account of Muzaffer Jung (= Cawnpore editions pp. 59–60)].—Translated by W. Chambers [with the Persian text] (in The Asiatick Miscellany, vol. i (Calcutta 1785*) pp. 494–511).
Translations of extracts: (1) see Extracts (1) above, (2) see Extracts (2) above, (3) History of Asof Jah, shewing by what means he acquired the Territory in the Dekhan, which is now in the Possession of his Son Nizaum-ul-Moolk; extracted from a Biographical Work, written in the Persian language [= Cawnpore editions pp. 358–382], and translated by Henry Vansittart [without the Persian text] (in The Asiatick Miscellany, vol. i (Calcutta 1785*) pp. 327–31), (4) The History of Ahmed Shah, King of the Abdallies, who are also called Duranees, from a Custom of wearing a Pearl in one of their Ears; extracted from the same Persian Book which furnished the History of Asof Jah [= Cawnpore editions pp. 97–116 with omissions], and translated by Henry Vansittart [without the Persian text] (in The Asiatick Miscellany, vol. i (Calcutta 1785*) pp. 332–42).
List and epitome of the biographies: Bodleian coll. 255–60.
¶ Descriptions: (1) On the earliest Persian Biography of Poets … By N. Bland (in the jras. ix (1848)) pp. 152–3, (2) Sprenger pp. 143–5.
Sources: (1) Sprenger pp. 144–5, (2) Rieu i pp. 373–4, (3) Blochet ii pp. 328–9.
[Autobiographies in Yad i baiḍāʾ (ah 1148. Cf. Bānkīpūr viii pp. 115–16), Rauḍat al-auliyāʾ (ah 1161), Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-kirām, (ah 1166), Sarw i āzād (ah. 1166. Passage summarised in Bombay Univ. Cat. pp. 200–1), K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah (ah 1176) no 13, pp. 123–45 (passage summarised by Bland, jras. ix (1848) pp. 150–2, Blochet, ii pp. 326–8, and much more briefly by Rieu, i p. 373, and ʿAbd al-Muqtadir, Bānkīpūr iii pp. 252–3) and Subḥat al-marjān (ah. 1177) pp. 118–23; Safīnah i K̲h̲wus̲h̲gū (passage summarised in Bānkīpūr viii p. 1081–4); Riyād al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ; Gul i raʿnā (a long biography by his pupil “S̲h̲afīq”. Cf. Rieu iii p. 978a); Asiatick Miscellany i (Calcutta 1785) pp. 496–7 (passage quoted no. 1162, 3rd par. supra and in Bodleian Cat. col. 260); Ṣuḥuf i Ibrāhīm no. 199 (cf. Bland in jras. ix (1848) p. 152); K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār no. 41 (summarised by Bland in jras. ix (1848) pp. 152–3); Ārāyis̲h̲ i maḥfil (for which see no. 622, Free Urdu translation supra. The passage is translated in Garcin de Tassy i p. 259); Natāʾij al-afkār; Bland in jras. ix (1848) pp. 150–3; Garcin de Tassy i pp. 259–60; Ḥadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah (in Urdu) pp. 454–6; Raḥmān ʿAlī pp. 154–5; Bānkīpūr iii pp. 252–3; Ency. Isl. under G̲h̲ulām ʿAlī (unsigned); Ḥayāt i Jalīl (in Urdu), by S. Maqbūl Aḥmad Ṣamdanī, Allahabad 1929, vol. ii pp. 163–77; Qāmūs al-aʿlām (in Urdu) by S. S̲h̲ams Allāh Qādīrī, pt. 1 (Ḥaidarābād 1935) coll. 32–5; Bombay Univ. Cat. pp. 200–3; Āzād Bilgrāmī. By Sayyid Wajahat Husain (in jrasb., 3rd series, Letters, vol. ii (1936) pp. 119–30); Brockelmann Supptbd. ii pp. 600–1.]
§ 1163. As yet unidentified is—
A very large tad̲h̲kirah written probably between 1170/1757 and 1180/1766 and containing alphabetically arranged notices of 2200 poets, each letter forming a ḥadīqah subdivided into three guls̲h̲ans ((1) ancient, (2) “mediaeval,” (3) modern poets), the last of which comprises two c̲h̲amans ((1) Īrān and Tūrān, (2) India): Ethé 692 (apparently a rough draft. No preface or colophon).
Here may be mentioned also—
- Safīnat al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ, a large and apparently unfinished anthology of ancient and modern poets with useful biographies, written, at least partly, in 1170/1756–7 (mentioned on fol. 264b as the current year) by an unidentified author, who was an associate of Anand Rām “Muk̲h̲liṣ” (see no. 780 supra): Ivanow Curzon 326 (some 700 poets, about one-third of the work, very defective and much disarranged. Fol. 503. Late 18th cent. List of poets).
¶ § 1164. For the Tuḥfat al-kirām, which was begun in 1180/1766–7 and completed in 1181/1767–8 by Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲ēr “Qāniʿ” Tattawī and which contains much biographical information concerning the celebrities of Sind and other places, see no. 828 (1) supra.
§ 1165. Lac̲h̲hmī Narāyan “S̲h̲afīq” Aurangābādī has already been mentioned as the author of the Ḥaqīqat-hā-yi Hindustān (no. 641 (1) supra), the Bisāṭ al-ghanāʾim (p. 762), the Tanmīq i s̲h̲igarf (p. 738), the Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Āṣafī (p. 750) and other works. For his life and other particulars see no. 641 supra.
C̲h̲amanistān i s̲h̲uʿarāʾ, notices of Rēk̲h̲tah (i.e. Urdu) poets, written in 1761 and “taken largely from Mīr’s Nikāt ush Shuʿarā, 1752, and Taẕkira e Fatḥ ʿAlī, together with considerable additions of his own from earlier taẕkiras” (T. Grahame Bailey in bsos. v/4 (1930) p. 927).
Edition: Aurangābād 1928 (ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq. See bsos. loc. cit.).
Gul i raʿnā, begun in 1181/1767–8 and completed in 1182/1768–9, alphabetically arranged notices (“extremely rich in biographical detail”) of Indian poets in two faṣls, (1) Muslims, (2) Hindus: Bānkīpūr viii 701 (1204 Faṣlī), i.o. 3692–3, Rieu iii 977b (extracts from Faṣl 1. 19th cent.), Āṣafīyah iii p. 162 no. 183 (ending with fāʾ),Rehatsek p. 161 nos. 121 (complete), 122 (defective, ending in ẓāʾ).
List and epitome of the biographies in Faṣl 2: Bānkīpūr viii pp. 129–34.
- S̲h̲ām i g̲h̲arībān, written in 1182/1768–9, a tad̲h̲kirah of poets of Persian birth who visited India (see Rieu iii 1085b): no mss. yet recorded in any published catalogue ?
§ 1166. It has already been mentioned (no. 167 supra) that Yūsuf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān b. G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān appended to his Ḥadīqat al-ṣafāʾ a k̲h̲ātimah which is sometimes called the Tad̲h̲kirah i Yūsuf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān.
(Tad̲h̲kirah i Yūsuf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān), completed at Murs̲h̲idābād in 1184/1770–1, short alphabetically arranged notices of about 300 ancient and modern poets with an appendix relating to 20 contemporary poets not included in “Ārzū’s” tad̲h̲kirah (for which see no. 1149, Majmaʿ al-nafāʾis, supra): Sprenger no. 62, Bodleian 118 (autograph), Berlin 661 (ah 1213/1799), Bānkīpūr vi 480 (appendix only. 19th cent.), Ivanow 45.
List and epitome of the 20 biographies in the appendix: Sprenger pp. 193–4.
§ 1167. For M. Aslam’s Farḥat al-nāẓirīn, which was completed in 1184/1770–1 and of which the k̲h̲ātimah contains notices of s̲h̲aik̲h̲s, ʿulamāʾ and poets ¶ contemporary with Aurangzēb (published by M. S̲h̲afīʿ in ocm.), see no. 168 supra.
§ 1168. Mīr G̲h̲ulām-Ḥasan b. Mīr G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain b. Mīr ʿAzīz Allāh Rātmanāʾī [?].
- Tad̲h̲kirah i suk̲h̲un-āfrīnān i Hindī-zabān, meagre notices of a large number of Urdu poets written apparently in 1191/1777: Ivanow Curzon 62 (ad 1861).
§ 1169. S. G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain “S̲h̲ōris̲h̲”, familiarly called Mīr Bhainā, was a native of Patna. When he compiled his tad̲h̲kirah he had already written a Persian dīwān of about 4000 verses. According to Sprenger, who does not specify his authority, he died in 1195/1781.
- Tad̲h̲kirah i S̲h̲ōris̲h̲, short notices of 314 Urdu poets compiled probably in 1193/1779, “for the latest date that occurs in it is 1192, and men who died in 1194 are mentioned as being alive” (Sprenger): Sprenger no. 46 = Bodleian 387.
[Sprenger p. 182; Garcin de Tassy iii pp. 134–5.]
§ 1170. Ḥājjī Luṭf-ʿAlī Bēg “Ād̲h̲ar” b. Āqā K̲h̲ān Bēgdilī27 S̲h̲āmlū Iṣfahānī was born at Iṣfahān on 20 Rabīʿ ii 1134/7 Feb. 1722,28 the year of Maḥmūd K̲h̲ān’s ¶ Afg̲h̲ān invasion,29 on account of which his family fled from Iṣfahān to Qum, his home for the next fourteen years. At the beginning of Nādir S̲h̲āh’s reign [ah 1147/1736–1160/1747] his father30 was appointed Governor (ḥākim) of Lār and the coast of Fārs (sawāḥil i Fārs), and Luṭf-ʿAlī Bēg moved from Qum to S̲h̲īrāz. Two years later his father died near Bandar i ʿAbbāsī, and he went with his paternal uncle, Ḥājjī M. Bēg, on a pilgrimage to Mecca and al-Madīnah and then to the sanctuaries of al-ʿIrāq. Having spent a year in Fars, he set out on a pilgrimage to Mas̲h̲had and he was there when Nādir S̲h̲āh reached the town [in S̲h̲awwāl 1153/Dec. 1740] on his return from his campaigns in India and Turkistān. When Nādir S̲h̲āh left Mas̲h̲had for the Lesghian mountains [Jibāl i Lakzīyah, to punish the Lesghians31 of Dāg̲h̲istān for the murder of his brother, Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān], Luṭf-ʿAlī Bēg went with the army through Māzandarān to Ād̲h̲arbāyjān. From there he returned to his birthplace, Iṣfahān. After Nādir S̲h̲āh’s death he was in the service of ʿAlī S̲h̲āh,32 Ibrāhīm S̲h̲āh,33 S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl34 and S̲h̲āh Sulaimān354 (baʿd az qatl i Nādir S̲h̲āh chandī dar silk i mulāzimān i rikāb i ʿAlī S̲h̲āh u Ibrāhīm S̲h̲āh u S̲h̲āh Sulaimān būdah, to quote his own words). At the time when Ibrāhīm Mīrzā [afterwards Ibrāhīm S̲h̲āh] arrived in ʿIrāq, to the Governorship of which he had been appointed by his brother, ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, Luṭf-ʿAlī Bēg was Dārūg̲h̲ah i Daftar i Dīwān i Aʿlā. After these troubled years Luṭf-ʿAlī Bēg adopted the life of a ṣūfī and cultivated the society of scholars, mystics, poets and wits. Mīr S. ʿAlī “Mus̲h̲tāq” instructed him in the art of poetry and became his intimate friend. According to the Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān and the Majmaʿ al-al-fuṣaḥāʾ he died in 1195/1781 (see Rieu Suppt.¶ p. 81a5–7). It is true that in the ʿIqd i T̲h̲uraiyā “Muṣhafī”, writing in 1199/1785, said that Luṭf-ʿAlī Bēg “was then still alive in Iṣpahān, and was considered the greatest poet of the period” (Rieu36 p. 375a), but “Muṣḥafī” lived in Delhi, and his information from Iṣfahān may not have been up to date.
mss. of “Ād̲h̲ar’s” dīwān are preserved at Bānkīpūr (Cat. iii no. 400), Rāmpūr (g̲h̲azals only ? See Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 106) and Lahore (g̲h̲azals only. See ocm. vi/4 (Aug. 1930) p. 67). Extensive extracts from his Yūsuf u Zalīk̲h̲ā, which is dated 1176/1762–3, are given in the Ātas̲h̲-kadah.
His son, Ḥusain (or Ḥasan) ʿAlī Bēg “S̲h̲arar”, is one of the poets noticed in the Zīnat al-madāʾiḥ (Rieu Suppt. 118) and the Majmaʿ al-al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii p. 262.
Ātas̲h̲-kadah,37 notices of about 845 ancient and modern poets begun by the author at the age of forty38 [and therefore about 1174/1760–1], continued or added to over a number of years (e.g. 1179, mentioned under Delhi as the current year, 1180,39 described as the current year under “Anwarī”, 1185, 1190, 1191 and 1193, dates given, with chronograms, for the deaths of “ʿUd̲h̲rī”, “Ṭūfān”, “Ṣahbā” and “Firībī”40), arranged for the most part geographically under towns or provinces and divided into two mijmarahs (Mijmarah i, ancient poets, subdivided into a s̲h̲uʿlah (kings, princes and amīrs of all countries), three ak̲h̲gars ((1) poets of Īrān, (2) poets of Tūrān, (3) poets of Hindūstān) and a furūg̲h̲ (poetesses); Mijmarah ii, about seventy contemporary poets alphabetically arranged, with a subdivision into two partaus ((1) contemporaries, preceded by a historical introduction mainly on the Afg̲h̲ān invasion and subsequent events, (2) autobiography): Sprenger no. 32, Blochet iv 2453 (Iṣfahān, ah 1180/1767, transcribed by Asad Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm al-S̲h̲irwānī), ii 1153 (ah 1213/1799), 1154 (ah 1217/1802), 1155 (ah 1231/1816), 1156 (ah 1234/1819, collated with an autograph (?)), Ethé 693 (ah 1196/1782), 694 (ah 1215/1800, transcribed possibly by the author’s son41), Lindesiana p. 182 no. 918 (ah 1202/1787–8), no. 56 (ah 1215/1800–1), ¶ Sipahsalar ii pp. 452–6 (four copies, one of 1207/1792–3), Rieu i 375b (defective. ah 1214/1800), Suppt. 114 (ah 1234/1818), i 375a (ah 1238/1823), Oxford Ind. Inst. ms. Whinfield 6 (ah 1219/1805), Bodleian ms. Pers. d. 80 (ah 1222/1807), Bodleian 384 (ah 1227/1812), 385 (ah 1228/1813), 386, Berlin 658 (ah 1223/1808), 659 (ah 1235/1820), 660, Rehatsek p. 68 no. 3 (ah 1224/1809–10), Brelvi-Dhabhar p. xiii (ah 1226/1811), Majlis 322 (ah 1225/1810), 321, Bānkīpūr viii 702 (ad 1823), Browne Suppt. 1 (ah 1273/1856–7), Asʿad 2507–9, Āṣafīyah i p. 316 no. 4, Leningrad Pub. Lib. (2 copies. See Mélanges asiatiques iii (St. Petersburg 1859) p. 728), Institut (Rosen 33. ah 1230/1814–15), Mus. Asiat. (see Mélanges asiatiques vi (1873) p. 127), Univ. 1027*, 1183* (Romaskewicz p. 3), 1230 (ah 1241/1825–6. Romaskewicz p. 19), Mas̲h̲had iii p. 157 (defective at end).
Editions: Calcutta 1249/1833*, Bombay 1277/1860° (a bad edition), 1299/1882°.
Extract (the S̲h̲uʿlah only, i.e. the kings, princes and amīrs): The Atesh Kedah, or Fire-temple, by Hajji Lutf Ali Beg, of Isfahan, now first edited … by N. Bland, London 1844°* (40 pp.).
Descriptions: (1) Account of the Atesh Kedah, a biographical work on the Persian Poets, by Hajji Lutf Ali Beg, of Ispahan, by N. Bland (in jras. vii (1843) pp. 345–92), (2) Browne Lit. Hist, iv pp. 282–4.
List and epitome of the biographies: Bodleian coll. 262–93.
Turkish translation: Istānbūl 1259/1843 (see Ency. Isl.).
Abridgment (the poems rearranged under four headings, (1) qaṣāʾid, (2) muqaṭṭaʿāt, (3) g̲h̲azalīyāt, (4) rubāʿīyāt, in the alphabetical order of the rhymes, with omission of the biographies): Tad̲h̲kirah i Isḥāq, by Isḥāq Bēg “ʿUd̲h̲rī” Bēgdilī S̲h̲āmlū, a younger brother of Luṭf-ʿAlī Bēg, who died at an early age in 1185/1771–2:42 Sipahsālār ii pp. 469–72.
[Autobiography in Ātas̲h̲-kadah, Mijmarah ii, Partau 2 (passage translated by Bland, jras. 1843, pp. 381–3, and briefly summarised in Sprenger p. 161, Browne Lit. Hist, iv pp. 283–4 and Bodleian coll. 292–3), statements concerning his tribe, his ancestors and himself in the historical narrative (some 18 pp. in the 1277 edition) with which Mijmarah ii begins (passage relating to the Bēgdilīs translated by Bland, jras. 1843, pp. 380–1); Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (passage summarised by Bland, jras. 1848 p. 161 n. 2); Tad̲h̲kirah i Muṣḥafī (for a translated extract see Bānkīpūr iii pp. 219–20); Ṣuḥuf i Ibrāhīm (passage summarised in jras. 1848 p. 161); Mak̲h̲zan al-gh̲arāʾib no. 235; Tad̲h̲kirah i Ak̲h̲tar (Berlin 664); Tajribat al-aḥrār (Rieu Suppt. 132); Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān; Majmaʿ al-al-fuṣaḥāʾ i ¶ pp. 73–5; S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman p. 65; Rieu i p. 375a; Bānkīpūr ii pp. 219–20, viii p. 135; Browne Lit. Hist, iv pp. 283–4; Ency. Isl. under Luṭf ʿAlī Beg (Kramers).]
§ 1171. Abu ’l-Ḥasan Amīr al-Dīn Aḥmad, known as (al-mus̲h̲tahir bi-) Amr Allāh Ilāhābādī, travelled to ʿAẓīmābād (i.e. Patna) in Ṣafar 1192/1778 and there decided to write a tad̲h̲kirah. He composed it during his journey to Calcutta and finished it on 3 Jumādā ii 1193/18 June 1779. On his return, as he tells us in his conclusion, he reached Lucknow in 1194/1780 and there he obtained much information about other poets but did not incorporate it in his work, since he felt obliged to confine himself to the poets of whom he had given a list in his introduction. The list referred to is dated 1197/1783. “Accordingly we have to suppose, that the preface and the work itself were composed ah 1193, but that the conclusion was added at the same time with the index of the poets, viz. ah 1197.”
- Tad̲h̲kirah i masarrat-afzā, alphabetically arranged notices of 247 Rēk̲h̲tah (i.e. Urdu) poets completed in 1193/1779:43 Bodleian 388 (possibly autograph).
§ 1172. Maulawī Guls̲h̲an ʿAlī “Guls̲h̲an” Jaunpūrī, the younger brother of the grammarian and mathematician Raus̲h̲an ʿAlī “Naẓmī” Anṣārī Jaunpurī, was born at Jaunpūr, went as a young man to Delhi, where he witnessed Nādir S̲h̲āh’s sack of the city (ah 1151/1739) and met the poets “Ḥazīn” and “Wālih”, to the latter of whom he attached himself. After “Wālih’s” death in 1169/1756 he returned home, but soon went in search of employment to S̲h̲amsābād (in the Farruk̲h̲ābād District of the United Provinces), where Saiyid Basālat Jahān (d. 1176/1762–3) became his patron. He was already over sixty years of age when he wrote his autobiography. According to the Tajallī i nūr he died in 1200/1786 and was the author of a Persian dīwān and other works including treatises on raml, jafr, prosody and muʿammā.
- Ṣūrat i ḥāl, an autobiography in mat̲h̲nawī verse: Rieu ii 715a (18th cent.).
[Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 2196; Tajallī i nūr ii pp. 20–21.]
§ 1173. For the Ḥadīqat al-aqālīm, which was written mainly in 1192/1778–1196/1782 by Murtaḍā Ḥusain Bilgrāmī and which contains biographies of poets and other celebrities, see no. 170 supra.
¶ § 1174. Mōhan Laʿl “Anīs” Kāyat’h44 was the son of Rāy Tūlā (?) Rām, Qānūngō of the parganah of Gōpāmau in Oudh. In the art of poetry he was a pupil of Mirzā M. Fāk̲h̲ir “Makīn” Dihlawī45 He had been resident at Lucknow for more than fifty years when he wrote the first edition of his Anīs al-aḥibbāʾ [in 1197/1783], and for more than ninety years when he completed the second edition [in 1235/1819–20]. The work was undertaken at the request of Mahārājah Tikēt Rāy,46 who had been delighted with the Tad̲h̲kirah of “Ḥazīn” (for which see no. 1150 (2) supra) and had asked “Anīs” to write a counterpart to it on Indian poets. For his dīwān (ms. at Rāmpūr) see ocm. vi/4 (Aug. 1930) p. 75.
Anīs al-aḥibbāʾ, notices of “Makīn” and the poets of his school completed in 1197/1783 and divided into an Iftitāḥ (on “Makīn’s” teacher, Mirzā ʿAẓīmā-yi “Iksīr” i Iṣfahānī),474 a Fatḥ al-bāb (on “Makīn”), a Faṣl (on 31 Muslim pupils of “Makīn”), a Fāṣilah (on six Hindū pupils), an Ik̲h̲titām (on five Muslim pupils of “Makīn’s” pupils) and a Ḥusn i k̲h̲ātimah (on six Hindū pupils of his pupils): Sprenger no. 33, Rieu i 376a (18th cent., apparently written or revised by the author), 377a (an enlarged recension begun in 1209/1794–5, completed in 1235/1819–20 and containing 50 notices in the Faṣl, 12 in the Fāṣilah, 11 in the Ik̲h̲titām and 18 in the Ḥusn i k̲h̲ātimah. ah 1237/1822), Berlin 662 (ah 1218/1803–4), Bānkīpūr viii 703 (19th cent.).
List of the poets in the 1st edition: Sprenger pp. 162–3.
[Autobiography in Anīs al-aḥibbāʾ at end of Fāṣilah.]
§ 1175. G̲h̲ulām-Hamadānī “Muṣhafī” b. Walī-Muḥammad belonged to a family connected with Amrōhah (20 miles N. of Moradabad), but, if not born at Lucknow,48 he lived there in early, or comparatively early, life. In, or about, ¶ 1190/1776 he went to Delhi where he spent twelve years cultivating Rēk̲h̲tah (i.e. Urdu) poetry, which he found to be in vogue there, though his early predilection had been for Persian poetry. Eminent poets of the time used to forgather at his house. On returning to Lucknow he found a patron in Prince Sulaimān-S̲h̲ukōh,49 the second son of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam ii and brother of Akbar-S̲h̲āh. He died in, or about, 1240/1824–5 at an advanced age. He was a facile writer of verse, and composed several dīwāns. In the Tad̲h̲kirah i Hindī he mentions three50 in Persian and, apparently, four in Urdu. According to Sprenger, who cites the Guls̲h̲an i bī-k̲h̲ār, he subsequently wrote three more in Urdu. A volume of selections from four of his Urdu dīwāns was published at [Lucknow] in 1296/1879°. He enjoyed a considerable reputation in his time and he had many pupils.
ʿIqd i Thuraiyā, a tadhkira written at Delhi in 1199/1784–5 at the suggestion of Mīrzā “Qatīl” and devoted to 133 Persian poets who flourished, chiefly in India, from the time of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (a.h. 1131–61/1719–48) to that of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam (a.h. 1173/1759–1221/1806): Rieu i 377b (late 18th cent.), Bānkīpūr viii 709 (a.h. 1244/1829).
Edition: Aurangābād date ? (ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq. Anjuman i Taraqqī i Urdū. See a review in ocm. xi/4 (Aug. 1935) pp. 119–20.
Tadhkirah i Hindī, notices of about 350 Rēk̲h̲tah (i.e. Urdu) poets, from the time of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh to that of the author, written at the request of Mīr Mustaḥsan “K̲h̲āliq” and completed in 1209/1794–5: Sprenger no. 47 = Ivanow 1st Suppt. 769 (a.h. 1219/1804), Rieu i 378a (late 18th cent.), Bānkīpūr viii 710 (a.h. 1238/1822).
Edition: Aurangābād date ? (ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq. Anjuman i Taraqqī i Urdū. See a review in ocm. xi/4 (Aug. 1935) pp. 131–4).
- Tadhkirah i Fārisī, written in 1236/1820–1, notices of modern Urdu and Persian poets of India, with extracts, nearly all Urdū, from their works: Bānkīpūr viii 711 (a.h. 1237/1821–2).
Riyāḍ al-fuṣaḥāʾ, brief notices of about 325 contemporary Urdu poets.
Edition: Aurangābād date ? (ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq. Pp. 378. Anjuman i Taraqqī i Urdū, no. 77. See a review in ocm. xi/4 (Aug. 1935) pp. 134–5.
[Autobiography in the Tadhkirah i Hindī (summarised by Rieu, i p. 377b, Sprenger, pp. 182–3, and Garcin de Tassy, ii pp. 284–5); Tadhkirah i ʿIshqī; Majmūʿah i naghz ii pp. 188–95; Gulshan i bī-khār; Natāʾij al-afkār p. 420; ¶ Sprenger pp. 182–3, 625; Garcin de Tassy ii pp. 283–8 (under Mashafi); Rieu i p. 377b; M. Ḥusain “Āzād” Āb i ḥayāt (in Urdu), several editions; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary p. 246 (under Mas-hafi): Bānkīpūr viii pp. 149–50; Blumhardt Catalogue of Hindustani manuscripts in the … India Office p. 125; Ency. Isl. under Maṣḥafī; Saksēna History of Urdu literature pp. 90–3; T. Grahame Bailey History of Urdu literature p. 53.]
§ 1176. Nawwāb ʿAlī Ibrāhīm Khān “Khalīl” died in 1208/1793–4 (see no. 922 supra).
Gulzār i Ibrāhīm, notices of about 300 Rēkhtah (i.e. Urdū) poets completed in 119+8/1784: Sprenger 45, Rieu i 375b (18th cent.), iii 1069a (19th cent.), Bānkīpūr viii 707 (a.h. 1220/1806), Ivanow 1st Suppt. 768 (19th cent.), Bodleian 389.
Urdu translation made at the request of J.B. Gilchrist: Browne Suppt. 1084 (Corpus 1591).
Khulāṣat al-kalām, notices of 78 writers of mathnawīs completed in 1198/1784: Lindesiana p. 177 no. 318 (circ. a.d. 1790), Bodleian 390 (a.h. 1246/1831), Bānkīpūr viii 704–5 (lacks dāl-ḍād. 19th cent.), 706 (lacks the poetical extracts. 19th cent.).
Lists and epitomes of the biographies: (1) Bodleian coll. 295–302, (2) Bānkīpūr viii pp. 138–46 (lacking dāl-ḍād).
Ṣuḥuf i Ibrāhīm, notices of about 327851 ancient and modern poets completed at Benares in 1205/1790: Berlin 663, Bānkīpūr viii 708 (defective, ending with “ʿUrfī”. 19th cent.).
Description: On the earliest Persian Biography of Poets … By N. Bland (in jras. ix (1848)) pp. 158–61, 163–4.
List of the biographies: Berlin pp. 628–67.
§ 1177. Maulawī M. Qudrat Allāh “Shauq” b. Sh. Qabūl Muḥammad has already been mentioned (no. 171 supra) as the author of the general history Jām i jahān-numā begun in 1191/1777 and completed in 1199/1785.
- Ṭabaqāt al-shuʿarāʾ: Āṣafīyah i p. 322 no. 40 (a.h. 1210/1795–6).
- Takmilat al-shuʿarāʾ Jām i Jamshīd, an alphabetically arranged tadhkirah of ancient and modern poets written after the Jām i jahān-numā: Rāmpūr (ah 1218/1803–4. See ocm. vii/1 (Nov. 1930) pp. 68–9 and Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 83).
¶ § 1178. Mirzā Abū Ṭālib K̲h̲ān Tabrīzī Iṣfahānī, the author of the Lubb al-siyar u jahān-numā (see no. 173 supra) and the Tafḍīḥ al-g̲h̲āfilīn (no. 934 supra), died at Lucknow in 1220/1805–6 or 1221/1806–7.
K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār, notices of about 494 ancient and modern poets written in 1206–7/1791–3 on the basis of material collected during 25 years, divided into a muqaddimah (on Persian poetry and the rules to be observed in compiling tad̲h̲kirahs), 28 ḥadīqahs (one for each letter, under which the poets are arranged chronologically),52 a d̲h̲ail (160 supplementary notices) and a k̲h̲ātimah (on the author himself and 23 poets personally known to him) and followed in most manuscripts by five treatises, viz. (1) Risālah dar ʿilm i ak̲h̲lāq, (2) Muṣṭalaḥāt i musīqī, (3) dar ʿilm i ʿarūḍ u qāfiyah, (4) Muk̲h̲taṣar dar funūn i k̲h̲amsah i ṭibb, (5) Lubb al-siyar u jahān-numā (see no. 173 supra):53 Sprenger no. 34 (where parts of the preface are quoted), Ethé 696 (transcribed by G. Swinton54 from an autograph and corrected by the author in 1804), 697 (lacks the first four of the appended treatises), Bodleian 391 (ah 1210/1796), Rieu i 378b (very imperfect. Early 19th cent.), iii 1003 b (poetical extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), Suppt. 116 (early 19th cent.), Bānkīpūr viii 712 (lacks the last three of the appended treatises. 19th cent.).
Description: On the earliest Persian Biography of Poets … By N. Bland (in jras. ix (1848)) pp. 153–8, where the muqaddimah is summarised.
List and epitome of the biographies: Bodleian coll. 302–15.
Masīr i Ṭālibī fī bilād i Afranjī, a narrative completed in 1219/1804–5 from rough notes of a journey to Europe from 1 Ramaḍān 1213/6 Feb. 1799, when he left Calcutta, to 15 Rabīʿ i 1218/5 July 1803, when he reached Calcutta on his return: Rieu i 384a (ah 1221/1806),55 384b (vol. iii. Early 19th cent.), Bodleian 1855 (ah 1222/1807–8), Blochet i 647 (ah 1228/1813), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 57 no. 1, Āṣafīyah ii p. 836 no. 29, Bānkīpūr vii 627, Browne Pers. Cat. 116 (less than half the work), Edinburgh 90, Ethé 2727, Madras 449, r.a.s. P. 177.
Edition: Masīrī [sic] T̤ālibī. Travels in Europe and Asia, by Mírza Abu Taleb Khán. Published and edited by his son Mírza Hasein [sic] Âli and Mír Kudrut Âli. Calcutta 1812°* (pp. 865).
¶ English translation: The Travels of Mirza Abu Taleb Khan, in Asia, Africa, and Europe, during the years 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, and 1803. Written by himself, in the Persian language. Translated by C. Stewart. London (Broxbourne printed) 1810° (2 vols.); Second edition, with additions, London (Broxbourne printed) 1814°* (3 vols.).
French translations (from the English): (1) Voyages de Mirza Abu Taleb Khan … Suivis d’une réfutation des idées qu’on a en Europe sur la liberté des femmes d’Asie; par le même auteur. Le tout traduit du persan en anglais, par C. Stewart … et traduit de l’anglais en français par M. J. C. J.56 Paris 1811°. (2) Voyages de Mirza Abou Taleb Khan … trad. de l’anglais en français par Ch. Malo.Paris 1819 (see Zenker i no. 1025).
German translation (from the French of J. C. J.): Reise des Mirza Abu Taleb Khan durch Asien, Afrika, und Europa, in den Jahren 1799,1800, 1801,1802 und 1803. Nebst einer Widerlegung der Begriffe, welche man in Europa von der Freyheit der asiatischen Weiber hat. Aus dem Französischen. Vienna 1813°.
Urdu translation by Mīrzā ʿAlī Riḍā “Maḥzūn” Murādābādī: Masīr i Ṭālibī, Murādābād 1904* (Pt. 1 only ?).
Abridgment by David Macfarlane (beg. Baʿd i ḥamd i mutakāthir): Berlin 358.
Editions of the abridgment: The Travels of Mirza Aboo Talib Khan. In the Persian language. Abridged by David Macfarlane (Masīr i Ṭālibī). Calcutta 1827°* (pp. 157), 1836* (pp. 132).
§ 1179. S̲h̲. M. Wajīh [al-Dīn]57 “ʿIs̲h̲qī” b. G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain “Mujrim” ʿAẓīmābādī was for ten years Taḥṣīldār at Kharwar58 and subsequently went to Dacca. In 1224/1809–10 he was still alive, but his sight was much impaired. For his dīwān see Sprenger 286.
- Tad̲h̲kirah i ʿIs̲h̲qī, short alphabetically arranged notices of 439 Rēk̲h̲tah (i.e. Urdū) poets, written probably in, or soon after, 1215/1800–1: Sprenger 48 = Bodleian 393 (n.d.).
[Tad̲h̲kirah i ʿIs̲h̲qī no. 272, Nis̲h̲tar i ʿis̲h̲q; Garcin de Tassy ii p. 47; Sprenger pp. 183 and 441; Nigāristān i suk̲h̲an p. 65.]
¶ § 1180. Rafīʿ al-Dīn Qandahārī died in 1241/1825–6.
- Naubahār, notices of 57 ancient and modern poets written in 1216/1801–2: ms. in the possession of Ḥakīm S. S̲h̲ams Allāh Qādirī (see ocm. v/4 (Aug. 1929) p. 113).
§ 1181. Sh̲. Aḥmad ʿAlī K̲h̲ān59 Hāsh̲imī Sandīlawī (or Sandīlī)60 b. S̲h̲. G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad b. Maulawī M. Ḥājjī must have been born about 1163/1750, since according to his own statement in the preface he was in his fifty-fifth year when he compiled the Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib, a work in which 1217/1802–3 is mentioned61 as the current year and which was completed in 1218/1803–4. Having been recommended to Nawwāb D̲h̲ū ’l-Faqār al-Daulah Mirzā Najaf K̲h̲ān Bahādur G̲h̲ālib-Jang62 by Nawwāb ʿIzzat al-Daulah Mirzā Ḥasan Suhrāb-Jang,63 he was enrolled through the former’s influence in the risālah of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam (reigned 1173/1759–1221/1806). After Nawwāb Najaf K̲h̲ān’s death [in 1196/1782], “which was followed by anarchy and a massacre of the inhabitants of Dihlî” (Bānkīpūr viii p. 154), Aḥmad ʿAlī began to cultivate the society of Persians from K̲h̲urāsān, ʿIrāq and Fārs and to collect Persian poems. Encouraged by his master, Mirzā M. Ḥasan “Qatīl”, he decided to compile a tad̲h̲kirah.
Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib, alphabetically arranged notices of 314864 ancient and modern poets completed in 1218/1803–4 at Delhi: Sprenger no. 27 (Faraḥ-bak̲h̲s̲h̲), Bodleian 395 (ah 1224/1809), Bānkīpūr viii 713–14 (ah 1224/1809), Rieu Suppt. 117 (1st half of 19th cent.), iii 1015b (34 notices only. ad 1850–1), Lahore Prof. Maḥmūd S̲h̲ērānī’s private library (see ʿAbd al-Nabī Mai-k̲h̲ānah, editor’s introduction, penultimate page), Aʿẓamgaṛh Dār al-Muṣannifīn (see ocm. iii/2 (Feb. 1927) p. 36 n.).
List of the biographies (with epitomes of some): Bodleian coll. 317–96.
[Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib, preface.]
§ 1183. Bhagwān Dās “Hindī”65 (originally “Bismil”) was the son of Dalpat Dās b. Harbans Rāy, a Kāyast’h66 who held high offices at Lucknow. He was born in 1164/1750–1 and received his early education from Maulawī S. Yūsuf Sahāranpūrī. In the art of poetry his instructor was Mirzā M. Fāk̲h̲ir “Makīn” Dihlawī, who, as has already been mentioned (no. 1174 1st par. 2nd footnote supra), migrated to Lucknow in 1173/1759–60 and died there in 1221/1806–7. “In his youth, he held the post of Mîr Baḥr” (Bānkīpūr viii p. 15628), and subsequently, in the time of Āṣaf al-Daulah [1189–1212/1775–97], became Dīwān to Rājah Nid’hī [?] Sing’h Bahādur. After the Rājah’s death he entered the service of Rājah Paṭar [?] C̲h̲and Bahādur and later that of Mahārājah Tikēt Rāy [who died in 1215/1800–1. see no. 1174 1st par. 3rd footnote supra]. He was the author of (1) Silsilat al-maḥabbat, a mat̲h̲nawī modelled on “Jāmī’s” Silsilat al-d̲h̲ahab, (2) Maẓhar al-anwār, a mat̲h̲nawī modelled on “Niẓāmī’s” Mak̲h̲zan al-asrār, (3) Mihr i ḍiyā, a mat̲h̲nawī modelled on “Jāmī’s” Yūsuf u Zalīk̲h̲ā, (4) S̲h̲auqīyah, a dīwān, (5) D̲h̲auqīyah, another dīwān, (6) Tad̲h̲kirah i Ḥadīqah i Hindī, on ancient and modern Indian poets to the year 1200/1786, (7) Sawāniḥ al-nubuwwah, an account of the Prophet and the Twelve Imams written at the request of S. K̲h̲airāt ʿAlī, and
- Safīnah i Hindī, alphabetically arranged notices of Persian poets who flourished in India from the accession of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam in 1173/1759 to 1219/1804–5, the date of completion: Bānkīpūr viii 715 (ah 1220/1805).
[Autobiography in Safīnah i Hindī; Anīs al-aḥibbāʾ.]
§ 1184. For the Zīnat al-tawārīk̲h̲, a general history to 1221/1806–7 by M. Raḍī [not Riḍā apparently] Tabrīzī and ʿAbd al-Karīm Is̲h̲tihārdī, which contains notices of poets and other celebrities at the end of Pīrāyah i, see no. 177 supra.
§ 1185. S. Abū ’l-Qāsim, commonly called (ʿurf) Mīr Qudrat Allāh Qādirī (Majmūʿah i nag̲h̲z ii p. 92 ult.), who used the tak̲h̲alluṣ “Qāsim”, studied medicine under Ḥakīm M. S̲h̲arīf K̲h̲ān and poetics under Hidāyat Allāh K̲h̲ān ¶ “Hidāyat” [of Delhi. See Sprenger p. 238], In his brief account of himself he says that he had written [doubtless in Urdū] a dīwān of about 7000 verses and two mat̲h̲nawīs, the first of 3500 verses on the story of the Miʿrāj in the metre of Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī’s Mat̲h̲nawī, and the second of about 5200 verses on the miracles of ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī in the metre of the Bustān.
Majmūʿah i nag̲h̲z67 (a chronogram = 1221/1806–7, the date of completion), or (Tad̲h̲kirah i Qāsim), alphabetically arranged notices of about 800 Urdū poets: Sprenger no. 52, Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (probably autograph. See ocm. iii/1 (Nov. 1926) pp. 77–8 and the editor’s introduction to the Lahore edition), Bānkīpūr Suppt. i 1789 (ad 1822), Berlin 669, Ethé 2849.
Edition: Majmuʿa-i-Nag̲h̲z, or Biographical notices of Urdu poets by Hakim Abu’l Qasim Mir Qudratullah Qasim. Edited by Hafiz Mahmud Shairani, Lahore 1933 (Panjāb University Oriental Publications).
[Autobiography in Majmūʿah i nag̲h̲z ii pp. 92–3 (summarised in Sprenger p. 186 and Bānkīpūr Suppt. i p. 65); Garcin de Tassy i pp. 353–6 (under Cacim); Mīr Qudrat Allāh K̲h̲ān “Qāsim” aur un kī tālīf Majmūʿah i nag̲h̲z, by Ḥāfiẓ Maḥmūd S̲h̲ērānī (in ocm. ix/1 (Nov. 1932) pp. 28–51); the editor’s Urdu introduction to the Lahore edition.]
§ 1186. Nawwāb Aʿẓam al-Daulah Mīr M. K̲h̲ān “Sarwar” b. Nawwāb Abu̲ ’l-Qāsim Muẓaffar-Jang was the author of a large Urdu dīwān. He died in 1250/1834–5.
- Tad̲h̲kirah i Sarwar, notices of about 1200 Urdu poets completed, according to a statement at the end (see Ethé 2850), on 9 Muḥarram 1222/19 March 1807, though other dates are indicated by various chronograms, including ʿUmdah i muntak̲h̲abah (1216), which Sprenger supposed to be the title: Sprenger no. 51, Blochet ii 1159 (ad 1829), Ethé 2850.
[Guls̲h̲an i bī-k̲h̲ār; Sprenger pp. 185, 285; Garcin de Tassy iii pp. 64–5.]
§ 1187. S̲h̲. G̲h̲ulām-Muḥyī ’l-Dīn “ʿIs̲h̲q” (originally “Mubtalā”) Quras̲h̲ī Mēraṭ’hī was the son of S̲h̲. Niʿmat Allāh “Niʿamī”, whose bulky Persian dīwān he helped to arrange at the age of twelve. Having thus acquired a taste for poetry, he wrote a dīwān in which he used the tak̲h̲alluṣ “Mubtalā”. Subsequently he devoted much of his time to archery, without however neglecting his studies. “When Sháh ’álam came from Patna [or rather, from Ilāhābād ?] to Dilly [in 1185/1771] he gained the friendship of one of his courtiers, whose title was Nawáb Najaf ¶ Khán, and his name Ibráhym Bég, and his takhalluç, Alam, he was induced by him to write another Dywán in which he used the takhalluç of ’ishq”68 (Sprenger p. 187), and a Persian mat̲h̲nawī, Fusun i ʿis̲h̲q, telling the story of S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ and Māh-Ruk̲h̲. He wrote also an ins̲h̲āʾ entitled C̲h̲ahār daftar i s̲h̲arq,69 as well as Nusk̲h̲ah i sarāʾir, on chronograms, Biḥār al-tas̲h̲rīḥ, composed in 1220/1805–6, and As̲h̲ʿʿāt [sic ?] al-ʿis̲h̲q, on Ṣūfism, composed in the same year.
- Bāg̲h̲ i gulhā-yi ḥusn (a chronogram = 1187/1773), or Majmūʿah i ʿis̲h̲q, or C̲h̲ārc̲h̲aman, “a Persian Tadzkirah,” which “fills about 1280 pages” (Sprenger): ʿAlīgaṛh Subh. mss. p. 53 no. 8 (ah 1187, autograph).
Ṭabaqāt i suk̲h̲un (a chronogram = 1222), biographies, which “have the advantage of being original” (Sprenger), divided into two ṭabaqahs ((1) Rēk̲h̲tah, i.e. Urdū, poets, 196 in number, (2) Persian poets of the same period): Sprenger no. 53 = Berlin 670 (lacking Ṭabaqah ii).
List of the poets in Ṭabaqah i: Berlin pp. 675–6.
[Autobiographical information in the Ṭabaqāt i suk̲h̲un under “ʿIs̲h̲q” and “Mubtalā” (summarised in Sprenger p. 187); Majmūʿah i nag̲h̲z, ii p. 401.]
§ 1188. M. Ṣādiq “Humā” Marwazī has already been mentioned (no. 427 supra) as the author of the Tārīk̲h̲ i jahānārā.
Zīnat al-madāʾiḥ, a collection of poems composed in praise of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh from the first to the seventh year of his reign (ah 1218/1803–4) with a sequel (vol. ii) compiled in 1223/1808, together with notices of their authors: Rieu Suppt. 118, 119 (vol. ii), Majlis 397, 398 (ah 1223/1808–9).
Lists of the poets: Rieu Suppt. 118–19.
§ 1189. Mirzā M. ʿAlī Kātib i Ṣafawī was first employed by S̲h̲ah-zādah Abū ’l-Naṣr Mirzā M. Sulaimān-S̲h̲ukōh, S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam’s son,70 to copy Persian and Urdū dīwāns and subsequently became Muṣāḥib and Kātib71 to Sulṭān Abū ’l-Fatḥ Muḥammad “Ṭulūʿī” Ṣafawī [the last (nominal) king of the Ṣafawī dynasty, who was proclaimed at Ṭihrān in 1200/1785 by Āqā Muḥammad, fled to Sind in 1205/1790–1 and settled at Lucknow in 1210/1795–6 (cf. no. 402 supra)].
- ¶ Tad̲h̲kirah i Kātib, alphabetically arranged notices of poets selected from the Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib (cf. no. 1181 supra) and completed in 1225/1810: Rampūr (see Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad no. 81 and a more detailed description by M. S̲h̲ajāʿat ʿAlī K̲h̲ān in ocm. vi/2 (Feb. 1930) pp. 108–11).
§ 1190. Aḥmad Bēg “Ak̲h̲tar” Gurjī is one of the poets of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s time included in Bahman Mīrzā’s Tad̲h̲kirah i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī (Rieu Suppt. 124 fol. 182b) and ʿAlī Akbar S̲h̲īrāzī’s Tad̲h̲kirah i dil-gus̲h̲ā (Berlin p. 671 no. 45).
Tad̲h̲kirah i Ak̲h̲tar, alphabetically arranged notices of contemporary poets written in 1227/1812–13: Berlin 664 (not later than 1264/1847).
List of the poets: Berlin pp. 665–7.
§ 1191. Muns̲h̲ī D̲h̲ū ’l-Faqār ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Mast” wrote in addition to the Riyāḍ al-wifāq several other works, of which the titles and subjects are mentioned by Sprenger.
Riyāḍ al-wifāq (a chronogram = 1229/1814), notices of 144 poets, mainly contemporaries of the author connected with Calcutta and Benares (at the latter of which places the work seems to have been compiled): Sprenger no. 36 = Berlin 665.
List and epitome of the biographies: Sprenger pp. 165–72.
§ 1192. For the Zubdat al-g̲h̲arāʾib, which was written in 1231/1816 by M. Riḍā “Najm” Ṭabāṭabā and of which the fifth volume contains biographies of philosophers, saints and poets, see no. 180 (1) supra.
§ 1193. Āqā Ḥusain-Qulī K̲h̲ān “ʿĀs̲h̲iqī”72 ʿAẓimābādī b. Āqā ʿAlī K̲h̲ān S̲h̲āhjahānābādī was born at Patnah in 1194/1780. In the course of several visits to Akbarābād and S̲h̲āhjahānābād he met many learned men, from whom he collected numerous poems. In 1223/1808 he was shown a copy of “Wālih’s” tad̲h̲kirah (for which see no. 1147 supra) by Mīr M. Jaʿfar “Masīḥ” Barēlawī, the Taḥṣīl-dār of Atraulī [in the ʿAlīgaṛh District] and, finding the selections contained in it uninteresting,73 he decided to write a tad̲h̲kirah himself74 and ¶ spent eight years in collecting material. According to Sprenger’s summary of his biography in the Guls̲h̲an i bī-k̲h̲ār (under “ʿĀs̲h̲iqī” if Sprenger is correct) “it is said that he now, 1252, resides at Lucnow, he is the author of the نشتر عشق in Persian, but as he does not know Arabic he fell into many errors” (Sprenger p. 205).
- Nis̲h̲tar i ʿis̲h̲q, alphabetically arranged notices of 1470 ancient and modern poets with copious extracts, mainly g̲h̲azals and rubāʿīs, begun in 1224/1809–10 and completed in Rajab 1233/1818:75 Sprenger no. 732, Rāmpūr (ah 1236/1820–1. See Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad no. 97), Bānkīpūr viii 716–17 (late 19th cent.), Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (slightly defective. See ocm. iii/l (Nov. 1926) p. 76 and Mai-k̲h̲ānah ed. M. S̲h̲afīʿ p. bā lām).
[Guls̲h̲an i bī-k̲h̲ār (see Sprenger p. 205); Garcin de Tassy i p. 235 (under ’Aschiqui); Nigāristān i suk̲h̲un p. 59 (under “ʿĀs̲h̲iqī”); Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an p. 271 (under “ʿĀs̲h̲iqī”).]
§ 1194. M. Fāḍil K̲h̲ān76 “Rāwī” Bāyandurī Garrūsī was born in the district of Garrūs in D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1198/Oct.–Nov. 1784. After his father’s death in 1214/1799–1800 he left his birthplace and pursued his studies in ʿIrāq and elsewhere, eventually reaching Ṭihrān, where he studied the art of poetry under the Malik al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ, Fatḥ-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Ṣabā” Kās̲h̲ānī (for whom see no. 425 supra). Impressed by his abilities, which included a keen intelligence and a retentive memory, “Ṣabā” presented him to Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, who appointed him Reciter of Panegyrics77 at court. Subsequently he became Chief Herald78 in constant attendance upon the S̲h̲āh. He committed “Ṣabā’s” poems to memory and acted as his rhapsodist.79 When the S̲h̲āh issued instructions that a collection of poems by the court poets should be compiled and two successive compilers, Aḥmad Bēg “Ak̲h̲tar” (see no. 1190 supra) and M. Bāqir Bēg “Nas̲h̲āṭī” Gurjī, had died before completing the task, Fāḍil K̲h̲ān was ordered to undertake it and he accordingly compiled the Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān. After Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s death [in 1250/1834] Fāḍil K̲h̲ān retired and lived in receipt of a pension from Muḥammad S̲h̲āh Qājār. He died in 1252/1836–7.80
¶ Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān, notices of the poets of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s reign in four anjumans and a k̲h̲ātimah, undertaken at the S̲h̲āh’s request in 1234/1818–19 and completed in five months: Rieu Suppt. 120 (ah 1234/1819), Sipahsālār ii p. 461 (ah 1236/1820–1), Asʿad 2075, Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (See ocm. iii/1 (Nov. 1926) p. 77), Majlis 324.
List of the poets: Rieu Suppt. p. 86.
[Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān, k̲h̲ātimah; Tad̲h̲kirah i dil-gus̲h̲ā (Berlin p. 672 no. 134); Nigāristān i Dārā fol. 92b; Tad̲h̲kirah i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī fol. 187b; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii p. 142; Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī vol. ix, 6th page from end.]
§ 1195. Maḥmūd Mīrzā b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh Qājār has already been mentioned (no. 428 supra) as the author of the Tārīk̲h̲ i Ṣāḥib-qirānī, completed in 1248/1832.81 He died at Tabrīz in 1852 or 1853. His Bayān al-Maḥmūd, an anthology of initial lines of g̲h̲azals by contemporary poets (see Rieu Suppt. 377, Bānkīpūr Suppt. i 1997), was compiled in 1240/1824–5. For other works of his, mentioned in the preface to the Safīnat al-Maḥmūd, see Rieu Suppt. p. 87.
Guls̲h̲an i Maḥmūd, notices of forty-eight sons of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh with specimens of their poetry, compiled by order of the S̲h̲āh in 1236/1820–1: Rieu Suppt. 121 (ah 1239/1823), Asʿad 2876.
List of the poets: Rieu Suppt. p. 87.
- Safīnat al-Maḥmūd, notices of the poets of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s reign preceded in the b.m. ms. by two prefaces, the first of which gives Majmaʿ i Maḥmūd as the title and 1235/1819–20 as the date of compilation,82 while the second says that in 1240/1824–5 the author was commanded by the S̲h̲āh to write an account of contemporary poets and that the title Safīnat al-Maḥmūd was given to it by the latter: d.m.g. 18 (lacks the earlier preface, ah 1256/1840), Rieu Suppt. 122 (mid 19th cent.), Asʿad 3874.
Nuql i majlis, notices of ancient and modern poetesses, composed in 1241/1825–6 at Nihāwand: ms. formerly in Vambéry’s possession.
Extracts (biographies translated or summarised in German, verses in Persian and German): Aus dem Geistesleben persischer Frauen. Von H. Vambéry (in zdmg. 45 (1891) pp. 403–28).
¶ § 1196. ʿAlī Akbar “Bismil” S̲h̲īrāzī, who has already been mentioned (no. 257 supra) as the author of the Baḥr al-laʾāliʾ, died a few years before 1283/1866–7.
Tad̲h̲kirah i dil-gus̲h̲ā, on the poets of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s reign, begun in 1237/1821–2 by order of Ḥusain ʿAlī Mīrzā and divided into a gulzār (subdivided in the Browne ms. into 3, in the Berlin ms. into 7, gulbuns, on S̲h̲īrāz, its history, buildings, gardens and celebrities, especially Saʿdī, Ḥāfiẓ and Waṣṣāf), two būstāns ((1) on Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh and 15 members of his family, (2) on 157 other poets arranged alphabetically under the final letter of the tak̲h̲alluṣ, the first being “Bī-nawā”, the second “S̲h̲aidā” and the last “Yārī”), and a k̲h̲ātimah (autobiography, ending (at least in the Browne ms.) with an account of the earthquake of 4 S̲h̲awwāl 1239/2 June 1824): Browne Coll. J. 18 = Houtum-Schindler 37 (apparently written by or for the author), Berlin 667 (ah 1252/1836).
List of the poets: Berlin pp. 669–73.
[See no. 257 supra, also Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn (Ṭihrān ahs 1316) pp. 422–4.]
§ 1197. S. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm “Munṣif” al-Mūsawī b. Mīr M. Bāqir ʿAlī-ābādī was born at Sārī in 1197/1783.
- Badīʿ al-afkār, an anthology of ancient and modern poems with biographical notices, begun at Sārī in 1237/1821–2 for M. Kāẓim Mīrzā b. Muḥammad-Qulī Mīrzā b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, completed in 1239/1824 and divided into six qisms ((1) qaṣīdahs, (2) g̲h̲azals, (3) mat̲h̲nawīs, (4) muqaṭṭaʿāt, (5) rubāʿīs, (6) tarjīʿ-bands), in which the poets are arranged alphabetically except the royal princes, who come first: Rieu Suppt. 378.
[Autobiography at end of Badīʿ al-afkār.]
§ 1198. Mīr Ḥusain al-Ḥusainī, having travelled from S̲h̲īrāz to ʿUmān and thence to Sind, was admitted to the court of Mīr Karam ʿAlī K̲h̲ān and Mīr Murād ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Tālpur, the latter of whom has already been mentioned (no. 833 supra). On his return home (presumably to S̲h̲īrāz) Mīr Ḥusain compiled a tad̲h̲kirah as an armag̲h̲ān for the two Sindī princes.
Zubdat al-muʿāṣirīn, a tad̲h̲kirah of contemporary poets compiled in 1240/1824–5: ms. in the possession of Prof. Maḥmūd S̲h̲ērānī at Lahore.
Description with some extracts (verses by poetesses): Fārisī kī baʿḍ s̲h̲āʿir ʿauratēn aur un kā kalām by M. Iqbāl (in ocm. x/l (Nov. 1933) pp. 31–42).
- Tajribat al-aḥrār wa-tasliyat al-abrār, personal memoirs with notices of his contemporaries written in 1228/1813: Rieu Suppt. 132, Majlis 534.
Nigāristān i Dārā, notices of poets contemporary with Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh written in 1241/1825–6 and divided into five nigār-k̲h̲ānahs or aiwāns ((1) Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, (2) 21 royal princes and noble amīrs, i.e. sons, grandsons and nephews of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, (3) 55 “favourites of the S̲h̲āh and of the princes, men of letters, Vazirs and other officials”, beginning with “Ṣabā” and ending with “Humā”, (4) about 120 other poets beginning with “Āzād” (M. ʿAlī Kas̲h̲mīrī) and ending with “Yag̲h̲mā”, (5) the author) and an appendix (on “ʿAndalīb”); Rieu Suppt. 123.
List of the poets in Nigār-k̲h̲ānahs i-iii: Rieu Suppt. pp. 88–9.
§ 1200. Ḥakīm ʿAlī-Riḍā (in full, G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī-Mūsā-Riḍā) “Rāʾiq”, usually known as Bāqir Ḥusain K̲h̲ān Nāʾiṭī, was the son of Rukn al-Dīn Ḥusain K̲h̲ān. He died in 1248/1832–3.
Guldastah i Karnāṭak (a chronogram = 1210/1795–6, the date of inception), alphabetically arranged notices of seventy poets who lived in the Carnatic towards the close of the eighteenth century and in the early years of the nineteenth, completed some time between 1244/1828–9 and 1248/1832–3, the date of the author’s death: Ivanow 1st Suppt. 766 (early 20th cent.).
List of the poets: Ivanow 1st Suppt. pp. 8–10.
[Autobiography in Guldastah i Karnāṭak; Natāʾij al-afkār p. 189; Ṣubḥ i waṭan pp. 81–8; Gulzār i Aʿẓam p. 202; Is̲h̲ārāt i Bīnis̲h̲ (Ivanow-Curzon p. 69 no. 49); M. Mahdī “Wāṣif” Madrāsī Ḥadīqat al-marām (in Arabic), Madras 1279/1862, pp. 23–4.]
§ 1201. Rājah Ratan Sing’h “Zak̲h̲mī” who was born at Lucknow on 23 Muḥarram 1197/29 Dec. 1782 and died in 1851, has already been mentioned (no. 946 supra) as the author of the Sulṭān al-tawārīk̲h̲.
- Anīs al-ʿās̲h̲iqīn, an alphabetically arranged tad̲h̲kirah of ancient and modern poets written at Lucknow in 1245/1829–3083 and divided into a muqaddimah (in praise of Naṣīr al-Dīn Ḥaidar)84 and 31 ḥarfs, in which are given brief biographies and selections, almost exclusively from the poets’ g̲h̲azals and rubāʿīs: Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (vol. i only, ending ¶ with “Ḍiyāʾī”. See M. S̲h̲afīʿ in ocm. iii/3 (May 1927) pp. 48–51), Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 73 (vol. ii only, beginning with “Ṭālib” Jājarmī and containing about 1176 notices. Gaurī Pars̲h̲ād, Lucknow, ah 1239/1820).85
[Autobiography in Anīs al-ʿās̲h̲iqīn under “Zak̲h̲mī” (summarised by M. S̲h̲afīʿ in ocm. iii/3 (May 1927) pp. 49–50).]
§ 1202. S. M. ʿAlī b. S. M. Ṭabāṭabāʾī Zawārī was born on 29 Ṣafar 1195/24 Feb. 1781 at Iṣfahān, to which his father had been forced by stress of circumstances to migrate from Zawārah,86 the home of his family. At the age of nineteen S. M. ʿAlī went to Zawārah and pursued his studies there for two years, but misfortunes compelled him to leave the town and to wander for a period from place to place. In Fatḥ-ʿAlī Sh̲āh’s reign (1211/1797–1250/1834) he returned and obtained an appointment as clerk (kātib) in the Madrasah of Mīrzā ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm at Ardistān. In the time of Saif al-Daulah Sulṭān-Muḥammad Mīrzā87 an accusation having been laid against him and a summons issued, he fled from Ardistān, but some time afterwards successful intercession was made on his behalf, his offence was pardoned, and he was commanded to write a history of the Kākh̲ i ʿAsh̲arah [?].
Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Bāqirīyah, notices of 52 panegyrists of S. M. Bāqir al-Mūsawī al-Ḥusainī, written in 1245/1829–30: Rāmpūr (ah 1247/1832. See a description by M. S̲h̲ajāʿat ʿAlī K̲h̲ān in ocm. vi/2 (Feb. 1930) pp. 111–13. Cf. Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad no. 89).
[Autobiography in k̲h̲ātimah to Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Bāqirīyah (summarised by Sh̲ajāʿat ʿAlī K̲h̲ān).]
§ 1203. K̲h̲ūb Ch̲and “Dhakāʾ” b. Bhawānī C̲h̲and Kāyat’h Dihlawī, a pupil of Mīr Naṣīr al-Dīn “Naṣīr”,88 lived at Sikandarābād and died in 1846. He was the author of a dīwān [in Urdu], of some Persian poetry, and of some compositions in ornate prose.
- ʿIyār al-shuʿarāʾ, an inaccurate and uncritical alphabetically arranged dictionary of nearly 1500 Rēkhtah (i.e. Urdū) poets, begun in 1208/1793–4 or 1213/1798–989 at the suggestion of “Naṣīr”, but containing a date as late as 1247/1831–2: Sprenger no. 50 = (?) Ethé 702 (n.d.).
¶ [Autobiography in ʿIyār al-shuʿarāʾ; Sprenger pp. 184–5; Garcin de Tassy iii pp. 350–1.]
§ 1204. Saif al-Daulah Sulṭān-Muḥammad “Sulṭān” b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh Qājār was born on 26 Jumādā i 1228/27 May 1813.90 In 1240/1824–5 he was appointed Governor of ʿIrāq and spent the next ten years at Iṣfahān, where learned and pious men frequented his court. After the death of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh [in 1250/1834]91 he returned to Ṭihrān and in Muḥammad S̲h̲āh’s campaigns against Gurgān and Harāt he had the rank of mīrpanjah (Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ i p. 324: az Iṣfahān ba-Ṭihrān āmadah dar safar i Gurgān u Harāt dar kamāl i ʿizzat ba-manṣab i mīr-panjagī manṣūb u mak̲h̲ṣūṣ gardīd). Some time later he visited Najaf and Karbalāʾ. In 1279/1862–3 he travelled via Gīlān and S̲h̲īrwān to Istānbūl, Alexandria, Cairo, Mecca, Damascus, Ḥimṣ, Aleppo, Diyārbakr, al-Mauṣil and Bag̲h̲dād. After a year in Ṭihrān he made a pilgrimage to Mas̲h̲had. Apparently he was still alive when the Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ, completed in 1288/1871, was written. Of his works Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān mentions (1) a dīwān of nearly twenty thousand verses, (2) Mulūk al-kalām, an anthology of passages in Arabic and Persian prose and verse on various subjects, (3) Tuḥfat al-Ḥaramain wa-saif al-rasāʾil, a mathnawī.
- Tad̲h̲kirat al-salāṭīn (as it is called in the preface of the Sipahsālār ms.), or Bazm i K̲h̲āqān (as it is called in the preface of the Majlis ms.), written at Iṣfahān in 1245/1829–30, recast perhaps in 1250/1834–5,92 and divided into a muqaddimah (consisting of the Anīs al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq of S̲h̲araf al-Dīn “Rāmī” appropriated without acknowledgment) and three bābs ((1) kings and princes with verses by them, (2) a brief account of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh and specimens of his poetry, (3) on the author’s life and poems), or, as in the Majlis ms., into a muqaddimah (= the Anīs al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq) and five anjumans ((1) dar baʿḍī az as̲h̲ʿār u ḥālāt i salāṭīn u pāds̲h̲āh-zādagān i pīs̲h̲īn, (2) dar manāqib i pāds̲h̲āh i ʿaṣr [Fatḥ-ʿAlī Sh̲ah] u as̲h̲ʿārī az ū, (3) dar as̲h̲ʿār u ḥālāt i s̲h̲āh-zādagān, (4) dar as̲h̲ʿār u aḥwāl i mīr-zādagān, (5) dar d̲h̲ikr i as̲h̲ʿār u ḥālāt i muʾallif): Sipahsālār ii p. 477 (breaking off before the end of Bāb ii), Majlis (containing in Anjuman v the author’s biography only, not his poems. For some account of this ms., not described in the Majlis catalogue, see Sipahsālār ii p. 478, footnotes).
[Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ i pp. 31–4 (summarised in Sipahsālār ii pp. 477–8).]
¶ § 1205. Bahman Mīrzā b. Nāʾib al-Salṭanah ʿAbbās Mīrzā93 comes fourth in the list of ʿAbbās Mīrzā’s twenty-six surviving sons given in the Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī (vol. ix, fol. 166a (the 30th page from the end), l. 9). His eldest brother, Muḥammad Mīrzā, who acceded to the throne in 1250/1834 and died in 1264/1848, was born on 6 D̲h̲ū ’l-Qaʿdah 1222/5 Jan. 1808. Probably therefore Bahman Mīrzā was born about 1225/1810. In the preface to the Tad̲h̲kirah i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī he “says that he was residing in Ardabīl, to the government of which he had been appointed by his father, when he was invited by his elder brother, Muḥammad Sh̲āh, to join him, and, at his request, compiled the present work” (Rieu). The date of composition, 1247/1831–2, is indicated by a chronogram and at the end of the work 1249/1833–4 is given as the date of completion. He evidently returned to Ardabīl, since according to the Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī (x, fol. 2a, l. 11) he was there in Rajab 1250/Nov. 1834, when Muḥammad S̲h̲āh came to the throne. In that year he was appointed Governor of Burūjird (op. cit. x fol. 6b, l. 25, fol. 7a, l. 6 ab infra). In 1257/1841 (apparently) he was made Governor of Ād̲h̲arbāyjān (op. cit. x fol. 26a, l. 6 ab infra), but in 1263/1847 he was superseded in favour of Nāṣir al-Dīn Mīrzā (op. cit. x fol. 42a, l. 18). He was then under suspicion of desiring to secure for himself the succession to the throne, and it was with some trepidation that he set out for Ṭihrān. Muḥammad S̲h̲āh gave him a friendly reception, but, when an inquiry into the finances of Ād̲h̲arbāyjān revealed a large deficit, Bahman Mīrzā thought it prudent to take refuge in the Russian Embassy (op. cit. x fol. 42b, l. 21). Permission to live in Russian territory was granted to him, and there the remainder of his life was spent, though his recall was suggested early in Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh’s reign.94 He seems to have gone to Georgia95 and to have died there in 1883.96
¶ Tad̲h̲kirah i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī, notices of poets completed in 1249/1833–4 and divided into three ris̲h̲tahs ((1) about 150 ancient and modern poets to the end of the 12th century of the Hijrah, (2) Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh and twelve Qājār princes, (3) 57 contemporary poets in alphabetical order): Rieu Suppt. 124 (ah 1257/1841).
List of the poets in Ris̲h̲tahs 2 and 3: Rieu Suppt. pp. 90–1.
§ 1206. Darwīs̲h̲ Ḥusain “Nawā”97 Kās̲h̲ānī is described in the Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ as a contemporary who after a period spent in travel (muddatī siyāḥat kardah) had settled in Tabrīz, where his takyah and its beautiful garden used to be visited by the children of the Walī-ʿahd and others. After his death [which must have occurred before 1288/1871] his tadhkirah, without preface or conclusion, had been seen by Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān, who mentions it in his muqaddimah (vol. i p. [8 8]) as well as in his notice of Darwīs̲h̲ “Nawā”. Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān did not regard him as a good judge of poetry (quwwah i tas̲h̲k̲h̲īṣ i s̲h̲iʿr na-dās̲h̲tah).
- Tad̲h̲kirah i Darwīs̲h̲ Nawā, short biographical notices of ancient and modern poets with extensive extracts from their works: Rieu Suppt. 115 (Silsilah i, Ṭabaqah 1 only, containing 50 ancient poets (specified by Rieu) in alphabetical order from Abū ’l-Faraj Rūnī to Niẓāmī Ganjawī.98 Before ah 1253/1837, probably written by, or for, the author), Browne Coll v. 68 (contains not only the poets given in the preceding ms. but also in “Ṭabaqa i, Silsila 2” an enormous number of minor poets, some ancient, others “at least as modern as the Ṣafawí period”, and in a third section (untitled and apparently incomplete, since it breaks off in the letter Ṣād) further poets, mostly quite modern).
[Tad̲h̲kirah i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī (Rieu Suppt. 124) fol. 221a; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii p. 527.]
¶ § 1207. Nawwāb ʿAẓīm al-Daulah Sarfarāz al-Mulk M. Muṣṭafā K̲h̲ān “S̲h̲ēftah”99 Dihlawī Muẓaffar-Jang was a son of Nawwāb ʿAẓīm al-Daulah Sarfarāz al-Mulk Murtaḍā K̲h̲ān, a Bangas̲h̲ Afg̲h̲ān, who in 1813 purchased the estate of Jahāngīrābād in the Bulands̲h̲ahr District. He was born at Delhi in 1806100 and educated by local scholars and ṣūfīs. In the art of poetry he received instruction from “Mūmin” and “G̲h̲ālib” (for the latter of whom see no. 694 supra). In D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1254/Feb. 1839 he started on a pilgrimage to Mecca and al-Madīnah and did not return to Delhi until Dh̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1256/Feb. 1841. Of this journey he published (where ? when ?) an account entitled Targ̲h̲īb al-sālik ilā aḥsan al-masālik, or Rah-āward, of which an Urdu translation, Sirāj i munīr, by S. Zain al-ʿĀbidīn, was published (where ?) in 1910. After the Mutiny of 1857 he was imprisoned for a time on a charge of seditious correspondence with the King of Delhi, but was subsequently pardoned. Thenceforward he lived mainly at Jahāngīrābād. He died in 1869 and was buried at Delhi.
He is the author of (1) the safar-nāmah mentioned above, (2) Dīwān i S̲h̲ēftah, an Urdu dīwān published at Meerut, probably two or three years before 1857, and republished in the Kullīyāt i S̲h̲ēftah u Ḥasratī (Badāyūn 1916), (3) Dīwān i Ḥasratī, a Persian dīwān published in the Kulliyāt, (4) a number of Persian ruqaʿāt published in the Kullīyāt, and
Guls̲h̲an i bī-k̲h̲ār, very short notices of about 600 Rēk̲h̲tah (i.e. Urdū) poets, “more correct than most other Tadzkirahs” (Sprenger), begun in 1248/1832–3 and completed in 1250/1834–5; Rieu iii 1069a (ah 1252/1837), Bānkīpūr viii 718 (ah 1255/1840).
Editions: Delhi 1253/1837–8 (see Sprenger p. 189 and Kullīyāt i S̲h̲ēftah u Ḥasratī, introductory biography p. 43), 1843°*, Lucknow 1874°*.
For the Gulistān i bī-k̲h̲azān, an Urdū tadhkirah written in 1265/1859 by Ḥakīm S. G̲h̲ulām-Quṭb al-Dīn “Bāṭin”, of Āgrah, as an improved version of the Guls̲h̲an i bī-k̲h̲ār. which according to “Bāṭin” contains much satirical and unjust criticism, see Sprenger no. 57 and Blumhardt’s Catalogue of the Hindustani manuscripts in … the India Office no. 61, as well as Blumhardt’s catalogues of Hindustani printed books in the b.m. and i.o., where a lithographed edition (Lucknow 1875°*) is described. According to Sprenger it may be considered a translation of the Guls̲h̲an i bī-k̲h̲ār “into unintelligible Hindústány, with some idiotical remarks”.
¶ [Garcin de Tassy iii pp. 123–4; S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman 134–6; Kullīyāt i S̲h̲ēftah u Ḥasratī, Badāyūn 1916 (published for his son, Nawwāb Ḥājjī M. Isḥāq K̲h̲ān), introductory biography by Niẓāmī Badāyūnī; Niẓāmī Badāyūnī Qāmūs al-mas̲h̲āhīr (in Urdū) ii p. 33; Rām Bābū Saksēna A history of Urdu literature, Allahabad 1927, pp. 150–1.]
§ 1208. Aḥmad, known as (al-s̲h̲ahīr bi-) Hulāgū (or Halākū, which according to Blochet is the modern pronunciation), “K̲h̲arāb” Qājār set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca and, being unaccompanied by friends who could speak his language, he sought to occupy his time by writing down such ancient and modern poetry as he could remember. Having visited Mecca and Medina, he went to Istānbūl (on an embassy, according to Blochet: ba-jihat i muhimm i umūrāt i ẓāhirī i k̲h̲wud wārid i marz i Qusṭanṭīn u idrāk i s̲h̲araf-yābī i āstānah i Aʿlā Ḥaḍrat muyassar s̲h̲ud, as “K̲h̲arāb” himself says). The business of his embassy having kept him fully occupied during the year that he spent at Istānbūl, it was only after this delay that he could re-examine his manuscript. Finding the contemporary poetry most agreeable to his taste, he rejected the rest and confined his Maṣṭabah i K̲h̲arāb to the poets of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s time. The Turkish poetry at the end of the work was collected by him during his visit to the Ottoman dominions.
- Maṣṭabah i K̲h̲arāb, brief notices of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s Persian, Indian and Turkish contemporaries who wrote Persian and Turkish poetry, compiled in 1253/1837–8: Blochet ii 1160 (ah 1271/1855).
[Autobiographical statements in the preface (summarised by Blochet, who quotes some of the original Persian).]
§ 1209. H. H. Nawwāb Wālā-Jāh Amīr al-Hind Aʿẓam al-Umarāʾ [afterwards ʿUmdat al-Umarāʾ ?]101 Muk̲h̲tār al-Mulk Sirāj al-Daulah M. G̲h̲aut̲h̲ K̲h̲ān [afterwards G̲h̲ulām-M. G̲h̲aut̲h̲ K̲h̲ ?]102 “Aʿẓam” Bahādur-Jang [afterwards S̲h̲ahāmat-Jang ?]103 was the last titular104 Nawwāb of the Carnatic. He was born on 29 D̲h̲ū ¶ ’l-Ḥijjah 1239/25 August 1824105 and succeeded his father, Nawwāb Aʿẓam-Jāh, in 1825. During his minority his uncle, H. H. Prince ʿAẓīm-Jāh Bahādur Nāʾib i Muk̲h̲tār, acted as Regent. On 25 August 1842 he was installed as Nawwāb Ṣūbah-dār of the Carnatic at Chepauk Palace. After a life “spent in rioting and profligacy” (The Times) he died without issue on 7 October 1855 at the age of thirty-one years and was buried to the north of the Great Mosque at Triplicane. He “is said to have possessed considerable natural intelligence, but he never evinced any predilection for European society, and he had long forgotten the little knowledge of English he had once acquired. He was by nature of a lavish disposition, and the only value he seems to have set on money was to have it to give to his attendants” (The [Madras] Athenaeum). For his dīwān, the Dīwān i Aʿẓam, see Ivanow 1st Suppt. no. 814. A published edition of a work of his entitled Bahāristān i Aʿẓam (probably an anthology) is mentioned without date or place of publication under the heading Dawāwīn in the Āṣafīyah catalogue (i p. 714). M. Mahdī “Wāṣif” in his Ḥadīqat al-marām (p. 7) denies that he wrote any books and says that the poet “Rāqim”106 wrote a work on prosody and a tad̲h̲kirah of poets which he ascribed to the Nawwāb.
Ṣubḥ i waṭan, notices of about 90 poets of the Carnatic with eleven g̲h̲azals by each, completed in 1257/1841 and intended to correct and supplement the Guldastah i Karnāṭak of “Rāʾiq” (see no. 1200 supra).
Edition: Madras 1258/1842* (cf. Sprenger p. 172). List of the poets common to the Guldastah i Karnāṭak and the Ṣubḥ i waṭan: Ivanow 1st Suppt. pp. 8–10.
Gulzār i Aʿẓam (a chronogram = 1269/1852–3): Āṣafīyah i p. 322 no. 38 (ah 1302/1884–5).
Edition: [Madrās ?] 1272/1855–6 (see Ḥaidarābād Coll. p. 23 and Ivanow 1st Suppt. p. 40. The former gives Ḥaidarābād as the place of publication, the latter says “[Madras ?]”).
[Ṣubḥ i wat̤an pp. 3–8; Madras almanac 1842 pp. 282, 284: 1854 p. 109: and other dates; Is̲h̲ārāt i Bīnis̲h̲ (Ivanow-Curzon p. 69 no. 10); The Athenaeum, [a ¶ Madras newspaper] 9.10.1855 p. 482, 11.10.1855 p. 486; The Times [London newspaper] 3.12.1955 p. 8 col. 3; M. Mahdī “Wāṣif” Madrāsī Ḥadīqat al-marām (in Arabic), Madras 1279/1862, p. 7; Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography p. 73. Unfortunately some of the above works have not been available for the verification of certain details in the revision of this article.]
§ 1210. Wazīr ʿAlī “ʿIbratī” ʿAẓīmābādī was born at ʿAẓīmābād (i.e. Paṭnah) and was a pupil of Rājah Piyārē Laʿl “Ulfatī” Dihlawī (d. 1254/1838).107 After a period in the service of Nawwāb Raus̲h̲an al-Mulk Mubārak al-Daulah M. Mahdī-Qulī K̲h̲ān Bahādur S̲h̲aukat-Jang he was appointed Muns̲h̲ī to Nawwāb Mubāriz al-Mulk Ḍiyāʾ al-Daulah S. M. Ḥasan K̲h̲ān Bahādur Tahawwur-Jang. Later he became the constant companion of Rājah Bhūp Sing’h.
He is the author of several works preserved at Calcutta, viz. Iʿjāz al-maḥabbat, written in 1247/1831–2, a prose version of “Faiḍī’s” Nal Daman (Ivanow Curzon no. 259), Miṣbāḥ al-ak̲h̲lāq, written in 1250/1834–5, a collection of 76 short bombastic letters (Ivanow Curzon no. 507), Miʿrāj al-us̲h̲s̲h̲āq, written in 1251/1835–6, a prose version of “Hātifī’s” Lailā u Majnūn (Ivanow Curzon no. 246) and Sirāj al-maḥabbat, written in 1252/1836, a prose version of “Minnat’s” mat̲h̲nawī on the story of Hīr and Rānjhā (Ivanow Curzon no. 314).
Miʿrāj al-k̲h̲ayāl, an alphabetically arranged dictionary of poets, chiefly Indians of the 18th and 19th centuries, completed in 1257/1841 (but later dates occur): Ivanow Curzon 60 (ah 1282/1865).
List of 23 contemporary poets: Ivanow-Curzon pp. 67–8.
Riyāḍ al-afkār, alphabetically arranged biographies of elegant prose-writers (many of them also poets), mostly of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries and mostly Indians or Persians who settled in India, completed in 1268/1852 and divided into 28 k̲h̲iyābāns: Būhār 93 (ah 1282/1866), Bānkīpūr Suppt. i no. 1784 (1272 Faṣlī).
List and epitome of the biographies: Bānkīpūr Suppt. i pp. 49–61.
[Autobiographies in Miʿrāj al-k̲h̲ayāl and Riyāḍ al-afkār (the latter summarised in Bānkīpūr Suppt. i p. 48).]
§ 1211. M. Qudrat Allāh K̲h̲ān “Qudrat” b. M. Kāmil Gōpāmawī “left his native place” (i.e. Gōpāmau108 presumably) for the Carnatic in 1227/1812 and subsequently entered the service of the Nawwāb. In 1239/1823–4 the title of K̲h̲ān was conferred upon him and he was appointed custodian of the late Nawwāb’s tomb. He was the author of two dīwāns.
¶ Natāʾij al-afkār, about 525 short notices of ancient and modern poets completed in 1258/1842 and dedicated to Nawwāb M. G̲h̲auth K̲h̲ān (for whom see no. 1209 supra): Sprenger no. 730, Rieu iii 1024b (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), i.o. 4027 (ad 1895).
Edition: Madras 1843 (see Sprenger p. 644).
[Natāʾij al-afkār, preface (summarised by Rieu); Guldastah i Karnāṭak (Ivanow 1st Suppt. p. 9 no. 51); Ṣubḥ i waṭan pp. 148–53; Is̲h̲ārāt i Bīnis̲h̲ (Ivanow-Curzon p. 69 no. 48); M. Mahdī “Waṣif” Madrāsī Ḥadīqat al-marām (in Arabic), Madras 1279/1862, pp. 47–8; S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman p. 392.]
§ 1212. M. Riḍā “Najm” b. Abī ’l-Qāsim Ṭabāṭabā has already been mentioned as the author of the general histories Zubdat al-g̲h̲arāʾib (begun in 1231/1816. See no. 180 (1) supra) and Majmaʿ al-mulūk (begun about 1260/1844. See no. 180 (2)), and of the Indian histories Ak̲h̲bārāt i Hind (completed in 1264/1848. See no. 656 supra), and Mafātīḥ al-riʾāsat (extending to 1251/1835–6. See no. 691 supra).
- Nag̲h̲mah i ʿandalīb (a chronogram == 1261/1845), or C̲h̲ahār bāg̲h̲ (?),109 a tad̲h̲kirah of 226 foll, dedicated to Wājid ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, King of Oudh, and divided into two rauḍahs, of which the first is subdivided into five bahārs ((1) on Persian grammar, fol. 7b, (2) forms of Persian poetry, fol. 11a, (3) poetical figures, fol. 13a, (4) metre and rhyme, fol. 15b, (5) short alphabetically arranged notices of ancient and modern poets, not usually very informative biographically except in the case of Indian poets, especially the more recent, foll. 19a–200b), and the second into two ḥadīqahs ((1) on Greek music, fol. 201a, (2) on Indian music, fol. 203b), Rieu iii p. 978b (circ. ad 1850. Received by H. M. Elliot from the author), 1014b (extracts only), 1018b (extracts only).
§ 1213. Mīrzā Amīr Bēg “Amīr” Banārasī was in the service of the rulers of Oudh from the time of Saʿādat-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān [1212–29/1797–1814] to that of M. Amjad ʿAlī S̲h̲āh [1258–63/1842–7].
- Ḥadāʾiq al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ, begun in 1211/1796–7 at the request of Ẓafar al-Daulah Fatḥ-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Kaptān, completed on 7 S̲h̲aʿbān 1262/31 July, 1846, and containing alphabetically arranged and biographically not very informative notices of 2609 poets (the first “Ābrū”, the last M. Yūnus K̲h̲ān “Yūnus” Abharī) in 31 ḥadīqahs (foll. 8–166b), followed by 30 s̲h̲ajarahs on the correct forms of the titles of kings and poets (foll. 166b–183), 31 dauḥahs on the correct forms of geographical names (foll. 183–217), two t̲h̲amarahs on the names, dates of accession and length of reign of kings in Pre-Islamic Persia and the Muḥammadan world (foll. 217–29), ¶ seven nak̲h̲lahs on the seven dialects of Persian (Harawī, Sagzī, etc., foll. 229b–230), and 30 natījahs forming a large anthology of poetical quotations arrayed alphabetically according to the rhymes (foll. 230–853): Ivanow Curzon 702 (probably autograph), Būhār Arabic cat. pp. 529–30 (ḥadīqahs and s̲h̲ajarahs only).
§ 1214. M. ʿAlī “Bahār” b. Āqā Abū Ṭālib mud̲h̲ahhib Iṣfahānī was, like his father, an illuminator by trade. According to al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār he lived for a time in Ṭihrān, but returned to Iṣfahān and died there. He is the author of the facetious tales entitled Yak̲h̲c̲h̲ālīyah (Editions: [Persia] 1290/1873°, 1298/1881°).
Madāʾiḥ al-Muʿtamadīyah, poems in praise of Muʿtamad al-Daulah Minūc̲h̲ihr K̲h̲ān,110 a memoir of whom by “the late” Āqā ʿAlī Ras̲h̲tī is prefixed to the work, with rhetorical and mostly uninformative notices of their authors: Rieu Suppt. 127 (ah 1259/1843, apparently the copy presented to Minūc̲h̲ihr K̲h̲ān. “whose portrait is found inside the original painted cover”), 128 (ah 1263/1847, an enlarged edition, in which the opening memoir is brought down from 1259/1843 to Minūc̲h̲ihr K̲h̲ān’s death on 5 Rabīʿ i 1263/21 Feb., 1847, and notices of 19 additional poets are given).
List of the poets (87 + 19): Rieu Suppt. pp. 93–5. [al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār p. 213.]
§ 1215. S. ʿAlī Kabīr, commonly called (al-madʿū or ʿurf) M. Mīranjān, “Saiyid,” originally “Ajmalī”, b. S. ʿAlī Jaʿfar Ḥusainī Muḥammadī Ḥanafī Naqsh̲bandī Ilāhābādī has already been mentioned (no. 299, Persian translation supra) as the author of a translation of ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Dihlawī’s Sirr al-s̲h̲ahādatain, completed at G̲h̲āzīpūr in 1251/1835 and entitled Iẓhār al-saʿādah fī tarjamat Asrār al-s̲h̲ahādah. He was born on 28 Muḥarram 1212/1797, both his father and his mother being descendants of a well-known scholar and mystic, S̲h̲āh K̲h̲ūb Allāh (properly M. Yaḥyā) Ilāhābādī111 In addition to a number of theological and other works in prose112 he wrote a dīwān and several mat̲h̲nawīs.113
- ¶ K̲h̲āzin al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (a chronogram = 1260/1844, the date of inception), or Wāqiʿāt al-nādirāt (= 1265/1848–9, the date of completion), notices of 190 modern114 poets, nearly all Indians and most of them disciples, pupils, friends, or relatives of S̲h̲āh K̲h̲ūb Allāh, his uncle M. Afḍal “Muḥaqqar” Ilāhābādī, or of someone connected with them: i.o. 3899 (ad 1908).
[K̲h̲āzin al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ, k̲h̲ātimah (foll. 180–96).]
§ 1216. Mīrzā ʿAbd Allāh “Raunaq” b. M. Āqā Kurdistānī was born at Sinandij,115 to which an ancestor of his had migrated from Hamadān. He was appointed Muns̲h̲ī Bās̲h̲ī, or Chief Secretary, by Amān Allāh K̲h̲ān ii, who was made Governor (Wālī) of Kurdistān by M. S̲h̲āh Qājār in 1262/1846, was deposed after a year’s tenure, and was reinstated by Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh in 1265/1848–9.
- Ḥadīqah i Amān-Allāhī, notices of the poets of Sinandij, completed in 1265/1848–9, and dedicated to Amān Allāh K̲h̲ān ii, the Governor: Rieu Suppt. 129 (ah 1266/1850).
[Autobiography in the k̲h̲ātimah to the Ḥadīqah i Amān-Allāhī (summarised by Rieu); Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii pp. 150–1.]
§ 1217. S. Murtaḍā “Bīnis̲h̲” b. Ṣādiq ʿAlī Riḍawī Ḥusainī Madrāsī, whose family came from Gulbargah, was born in 1226/1811 at Madrās.
Is̲h̲ārāt i Bīnis̲h̲, (a chronogram = 1265/1848–9, the date of completion), notices of 69 (66 ?) contemporary poets of the Carnatic, dedicated to Nawwāb M. G̲h̲auth K̲h̲ān S̲h̲ahāmat-Jang (for whom see no. 1209 supra): Ivanow Curzon 61 (many additions and emendations, possibly by the author).
Edition: Tad̲h̲kirah i Bīnis̲h̲, [Madras] 1268/1851–2*.
List of the poets: Ivanow-Curzon pp. 68–70.
[Autobiography in Is̲h̲ārāt i Bīnis̲h̲; Ṣubḥ i waṭan pp. 38–42; Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an p. 75.]
§ 1218. Qāḍī Nūr al-Dīn “Fāʾiq”116 b. Qāḍī S. Aḥmad Ḥusain Riḍawī.
Mak̲h̲zan i s̲h̲uʿarāʾ, (a chronogram = 1268/1851–2), a tad̲h̲kirah of the Rēk̲h̲tah (i.e. Urdu), poets of Gujrāt: Bombay Univ. (see jbbras, n.s. iv (1928), p. 142).
Edition: Aurangābād (Delhi printed) date ? (Anjuman i Taraqqī i Urdū. With introduction by ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq. See review in Oriental College Magazine x/3 (May 1934), p. 135).
- Guls̲h̲an i hamīs̲h̲ah-bahār, brief and almost dateless notices of 414 Indian, mostly Urdū, poets, written by the author at the age of thirty118 after reading “S̲h̲ēftah’s” Guls̲h̲an i bī-k̲h̲ār (cf. no. 1207 (5) supra) at Bijnaur and finding it unsatisfactory: Fatḥ al-ak̲h̲bār Press, Kōl [i.e. ʿAlīgaṛh], ah 1270/1854* (p. 173 in Arberry).
[Autobiography in G. i h.-b. pp. 92–4; see also no. 1043 supra.)
§ 1220. Mīrzā Ṭāhir “S̲h̲iʿrī” Iṣfahānī, surnamed (mulaqqab bah) Dībājah-nigār, one of the Iṣfahānī s̲h̲aik̲h̲s descended, like “Ḥazīn” (see no. 1150 supra), from S̲h̲. Zāhid Jīlānī, was born at Iṣfahān in 1224/1809. Educated at his birthplace and at Ṭihrān, he entered the service of Nawwāb Iʿtiḍād al-Salṭanah (for whom see no. 316 supra). His death must have occurred between 1272/1856, the date of the Ganj i s̲h̲āygān, and 1288/1871, the date of the completion of the Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ, in which, apparently through a misprint, he is said to have died in 1270. The same date is given in al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār.
Ganj i s̲h̲āygān, notices of 41 or 42 panegyrists of the Ṣadr i Aʿẓam, Mīrzā Āqā K̲h̲ān, written in 1272/1856119 and divided into a durj i nuk̲h̲ustīn (dar d̲h̲ikr i āt̲h̲ār u aṭwār i s̲h̲āh-zādagān), a durj i duwum (dar s̲h̲arḥ i ḥasab u nasab i Ṣadr i Aʿẓam u marātib i faḍl u adab i s̲h̲uʿarā-yi buzurgwār) and a silk (dar tarjamah i aḥwāl u s̲h̲ammaʾī az aqwāl i muʾallif i kitāb): Majlis 428.
Edition: [Ṭihrān] 1272/1856°.
Description with a list of the poets: Mélanges asiatiques iv (St. Petersburg 1863), pp. 57–60.
[Ganj i s̲h̲āygān, silk; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii, pp. 246–7; al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār p. 204.]
§ 1221. For the Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī, which was completed in 1274/1857 by Rīḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān and which contains biographies of celebrities including poets (e.g. vol. ix, foll. 173a–179a), see no. 1225 (16) infra.
¶ § 1222. For the K̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd i jahān-numā, which was begun in 1270/1853–4 and completed in 1280/1863–4 by S. Ilāhī Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ Angrēzābādī and of which the ninth burj contains biographies of saints, poets, etc., see no. 190 supra.
§ 1223. S. ʿAbd al-Laṭīf “Alṭaf” Ḥusainī is the author of an Urdu verse translation of Jāmī’s Iʿtiqād-nāmah published with the Persian text at Madrās in 1272/1855–6*.
- S̲h̲amʿ i maḥfil i suk̲h̲an, notices of Persian and Indian poets: Madrās 1279/1862*.
§ 1224. Maulawī Āg̲h̲ā Aḥmad ʿAlī “Aḥmad” b. Āg̲h̲ā Sh̲ajāʿat-ʿAlī was born at D’hākā (Dacca) in Eastern Bengal on 10 S̲h̲awwāl 1255/17 Dec. 1839. In 1862 he founded at Calcutta the Madrasah i Aḥmadīyah, over which he presided until his death. In 1864 he was appointed a Persian teacher in the Calcutta Madrasah, and on 6 Rabīʿ ii ah 1290/6 June 1873 he died of fever at Dacca. He was the author of (1) Muʾaiyid i Burhān, a defence of the Burhān i qāṭiʿ against the criticisms of “G̲h̲ālib”120 (475 pp. Maẓhar al-ʿajāʾib Press, Calcutta 1865),121 (2) S̲h̲ams̲h̲īr i tīz-tar, a reply to “G̲h̲ālib’s” rejoinder, the S̲h̲ams̲h̲īr i tīz (106 pp. Calcutta 1868),2 (3) Risālah i tarānah (A treatise on the Rubá’í entitled Risálah i Taránah by Ághá Ahmad ’Alí … with an introduction and explanatory notes by H. Blochmann, Calcutta 1867°*, pp. 11, 17), (4) Risālah i is̲h̲tiqāq, an elementary Persian grammar (1872). He was editor, or co-editor, of the Bibliotheca Indica editions of the Akbar-nāmah (see no. 709 (1), Editions supra), the Iqbāl-nāmah i Jahāngīrī (see no. 717, Editions supra), the Maʾāt̲h̲ir i ʿĀlamgīrī (see no. 717, Editions supra), the Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ (see no. 614, Editions supra), the Sikandar-nāmah i baḥrī, and the Wīs u Rāmīn.
Haft āsmān, an account of Persian mat̲h̲nawīs and their writers, begun in 1869 and intended to consist of an auj (on the nature of mat̲h̲nawī verse, the earliest writers of mat̲h̲nawīs and “Niẓāmī”, the “imām” of mat̲h̲nawī-gūyān), seven āsmāns (each devoted to mat̲h̲nawīs in one of the seven metres used in that kind of verse) and an ufuq, but never continued beyond the auj and the first āsmān (on mat̲h̲nawīs in the sarīʿ metre).
Edition: The Haft ásmán or History of the Masnawí of the Persians. By the late Maulawí Ághá Ahmad ’Alí … with a biographical notice of the author, by H. Blochmann. Calcutta 1873°* (Bibliotheca Indica).
[Blochmann’s biographical notice.]
¶ § 1225. Amīr al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān “Hidāyat” b. M. Hādī Ṭabaristānī122 as born at Ṭihrān on 15 Muḥarram 1215/8 June 1800. His father, who died in 1218/1803–4 at S̲h̲īrāz, had been Treasurer123 to Āqā Muḥammad S̲h̲āh Qājār (reigned 1193/1779–1211/1797) and after serving Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh for a short time in the same capacity had been appointed Treasurer of the province of Fārs124 under the Governor, Ḥusain ʿAlī Mīrzā. Having lost his father in early childhood, Riḍā-Qulī lived for some years with relatives of his mother at Bārfurūs̲h̲,125 and later, having returned to Fārs, he was cared for by another relative, M. Mahdī K̲h̲ān “S̲h̲iḥnah” Māzandarānī,126 who held high office in the province. On the completion of his education he entered the service of the Governor, Ḥusain ʿAlī Mīrzā,127 and held various appointments in attendance upon him and his sons.128 In 1245/1829–30, when Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh visited S̲h̲īrāz (3 Rajab/29 Dec. to 11 S̲h̲aʿbān/5 Feb.), Riḍā-Qulī was presented and was given the titles of K̲h̲ān and Amīr al-S̲h̲uʿarā.129 After Muḥammad S̲h̲āh’s accession [in 1250/1834] and the defeat and arrest of Ḥusain ʿAlī Mīrzā the province of Fārs came under ¶ the authority of Fīrūz Mīrzā130 and Muʿtamad al-Daulah Minūc̲hihr K̲h̲ān (for whom see no. 1214 2nd par. footnote supra). Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān was appointed Companion131 to the former and held this position for a year or two, but when Fīrūz Mīrzā was transferred to the Governorship of Kirmān, he remained in S̲h̲īrāz at the court of the new Governor, Farīdūn Mīrzā.132 In 1254/1838 he was sent to Ṭihrān by Farīdūn Mīrzā with presents for Muḥammad S̲h̲āh,133 who had just returned from his unsuccessful expedition against Harāt.134 Muḥammad S̲h̲āh instructed him to remain at court and in 1257/1841 appointed him guardian to his son ʿAbbās Mīrzā.135 He became the constant companion of the king, with whom he used to discuss history and poetry.136 At the end of 1263/1847 he was appointed Governor of the district of Fīrūzkūh and in accordance with a recognized custom sent his eldest son, ʿAlī-Qulī, to administer the district as his deputy.137 After the accession of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh in 1264/1848 ¶ he retired from official life for a time,138 but on 5 Jumādā ii 1267/7 April 1851 he left for K̲h̲īvah on the embassy which he has described in his Sifārat-nāmah i K̲h̲wārazm. On his return after an absence of eight months139 he was appointed Principal of the newly founded Dār al-Funūn College, or École polytechnique, at Ṭihrān.140 About the same time he was instructed to bring the Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ up to date.141 For nearly fifteen years he remained at the College and then he was appointed Lālah-bās̲h̲ī, or Tutor, to the Crown Prince, Muẓaffar al-Dīn Mīrzā, who had just been nominated Governor of Ād̲h̲arbāyjān and with whom he spent some years at Tabrīz. He died at Ṭihrān on 10 Rabīʿ ii 1288/30 June 1871. Gobineau says of him: “J’ai vu dans un diner Ryza-Kouly-Khan, ancien gouverneur du frère du roi, ambassadeur à Bokhara, historiographe, grammairien, et poëte excellent en persan littéraire et en dialecte. C’est un des hommes les plus spirituels et les plus aimables que j’aie rencontrés dans aucune partie du monde.”142
Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān’s works143 include (1) g̲h̲azalīyāt and qaṣāʾid. In the Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn, completed in 1260/1844,144 his Dīwān i g̲h̲azalīyāt is described as consisting of 8,000 verses and his qaṣāʾid as amounting to more than 10,000 verses. In the Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ, completed in 1288/1871,145 his qaṣāʾid and g̲h̲azalīyāt together are said to comprise more than 30,000 verses. A ms. dīwān transcribed in 1283/1866 and consisting mainly of g̲h̲azals is preserved ¶ in the British Museum (Rieu Suppt. 365). (2)–(8) seven mat̲h̲nawīs,146 namely (2) Anwār al-wilāyah in the metre of the Mak̲h̲zan al-asrār, (3) Gulistān i Iram or Baktās̲h̲-nāmah, on the love-story of Baktās̲h̲ and Rābiʿah (Edition: [Ṭihran147] 1270/1854°), (4) Baḥr al-ḥaqāʾiq in the metre of “Sanāʾī’s” Ḥadīqah, (5) Anīs al-ʿās̲h̲iqīn, “a religious and mystic poem, with anecdotes of saints and Sufis” (m.s.: Rieu Suppt. 364 ii, dated 1253/1837), (6) K̲h̲urram bihis̲h̲t (metre mutaqārib) completed in 1277/1860–1 (ms.: Majlis 433), (7) Hidāyat-nāmah (metre ramal), “a poem containing moral and religious precepts illustrated by apologues and anecdotes in the style of the Masnavi of Jalāl ud-Dīn Rūmi and in the same metre” (ms.: Rieu Suppt. 364 i, dated 1253/1837), (8) Manhaj al-hidāyah, (9) Madārij al-balāg̲h̲ah, “(lith. 1331) … a glossary of rhetorical and poetical terms with many examples taken from different poets” (Ency. Isl.), (10) Maẓāhir al-anwār (see no. 303 supra), (11) Miftāḥ al-kunūz, a commentary on the dīwān of K̲h̲āqānī (ms.: Rieu Suppt. 221 ii, dated 1259/1843), (12) Laṭāʾif al-maʿārif,148 (13) Fihris al-tawārīk̲h̲ a concise chronology presented to Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh just before the author’s departure on his embassy to K̲h̲īwah (Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī x, fol. 70a, l. 5 ab infra), which “appears to have been lost save that portion which was lithographed at Tabríz in ah 1280, but which has never been distributed” (S. Churchill in jras. 1887 p. 318), (14) Jāmiʿ al-asrār (see footnote 383 supra), (15) Sifārat-nāmah i K̲h̲wārazm (see no. 440 (1) supra), (16) Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī, an edition of the seven volumes of the Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ (see no. 123 supra), followed by a continuation in three149 volumes extending to 1274150/1857 (Edition: Ṭihrān 1270–4/1853–7°), (17) Niz̲h̲ād-nāmah i pāds̲h̲āhān i Īrānī-niz̲h̲ād (see no. 317 (2) supra), (18) Farhang i anjuman-ārāy i Nāṣirī, a dictionary of which the introductory remarks were written in 1286/1869–70 and which is devoted mainly to words used by the poets (Edition: Ṭihrān 1288/1871°*. For a description see jras. 1886 pp. 200–3),
Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn, notices of saints who were also poets with selections from their poems, completed in 1260/1844, dedicated to Muḥammad S̲h̲āh and divided into a ḥadīqah (on Ṣūfism, the life of the Ṣūfīs and their conventional terms), two rauḍahs ((1) dar d̲h̲ikr i ʿurafā u mas̲h̲āyikh ba-tartīb i tahajjī, notices of about 170 saints and mystics who composed poetry, (2) dar d̲h̲ikr i fuḍalā u muḥaqqiqīn i ḥukamā, alphabetically arranged ¶ notices of about 100 poets and philosophers (the first Avicenna, the last Yaḥyā Lāhijī), who at times wrote mystical poetry), a firdaus (dar s̲h̲arḥ i ḥāl i mutaʾak̲h̲k̲h̲irīn u muʿāṣirīn, alphabetically arranged notices of about 70 modern and contemporary Ṣūfī poets) and a k̲h̲uld (autobiography): Rieu Suppt. 126 (19th cent.).
Editions: Ṭihrān 1305/1888°, ahs. 1316/1937‡.
Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ, notices of 862 ancient151 and modern poets completed in 1288/1871152 and divided into four chapters153 ((1) 115 kings and princes who wrote poetry, the first being Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh, the last Yūsuf ʿĀdil-S̲h̲āh (vol. i, fol. 10b–p. 63), (2) 323 ancient poets from ah 173/789–90 to 800/1397–8,154 the first Abū Ḥafṣ Sug̲h̲dī, the last Yūsuf G̲h̲aznawī (vol. i pp. 64–657), (3) 66 “mediaeval” poets (sh̲uʿarā-yi mutawassiṭīn), the first “Āhī” Turs̲h̲īzī, the last Yaḥyā Gīlānī (vol. ii pp. 2–57), (4) 358 modern and contemporary poets, the first “Adīb” Marāg̲h̲aʾī, the last two “Yag̲h̲mā” and “Hidāyat” (vol. ii pp. 58–678): Rieu Suppt. 125 (an early recension dedicated to Muḥammad S̲h̲āh. The ms. breaks off in the notice of Niẓāmī, ¶ vol. i p. 639 in the Ṭihrān edition. Circ. ah 1250/1835, said to be partly autograph).
Edition: Ṭihrān 1295/1878°* (2 vols.).
Descriptions: 1) Relation de l’ambassade au Kharezm (see no. 440 (1), Edition supra), introduction, pp. xx–xxi; (2) jras. 1886 pp. 203–4 (by S. Churchill. With list of tad̲h̲kirahs mentioned in the preface).
In addition Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān was editor of (1) the Dīwān i Minūc̲h̲ihrī (Ṭihrān, date ? See jras. 1886 p. 200. The Ṭihrān edition of 1297/1880° was based on his edition), (2) the Qābūs-nāmah and the Tuzuk i Tīmūrī (Ṭihrān 1285/1868°), (3) the Naft̲h̲at al-maṣdūr (Ṭihrān ahs 1307–8/1928–30155).
[Autobiographies in Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn, last chapter (Ṭihrān 1316 pp. 627–52), Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī ix foll. 178b (5th page from end), Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii pp. 581–677; biography by Mānakjī (cf. no. 317 (2), footnote supra) prefixed to the Farhang i anjuman-ārāy i Nāṣirī (Ṭihrān 1288/1871°*); Relation de l’amhassade au Kharezm de Riza Qouly Khan traduite et annotée par C. Schefer (see no. 440 (1), Edition supra), introduction, pp. xv–xxiv; A modern contributor to Persian literature, Rizá Ḳulí Khan and his works. By Sidney Churchill (in jras. 1886 pp. 196–206. Cf. jras. 1887 pp. 163 and 318); al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār, p. 189; Berthels Ocherk istorii persidskoi literatury, Leningrad 1928 pp. 110–13; Ency. Isl. under Riḍā Ḳulī K̲h̲ān (Massé).
Portraits: Farhang i anjuman-ārāy i Nāṣirī, plate; Naft̲h̲at al-maṣdūr, frontispiece; Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn ahs. 1316, frontispiece; Browne Lit. Hist. iv p. 344.]
§ 1226. Nawwāb M. Siddīq Ḥasan K̲h̲ān“Nawwāb” died in 1890 (see no. 48 supra).
Shamʿ i anjuman, notices of 989 ancient and modern poets, completed in 1292/1875.
Edition: [Bhōpāl,] 1292–3/1876°*.
[See no. 48 supra as well as S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman pp. 474–86 and Brockelmann Supptbd. ii pp. 859–61.]
§ 1227. [Nawwāb] Raḍī al-Daulah Niẓām al-Mulk156 S. Abū ’l-K̲h̲air Nūr al-Ḥasan K̲h̲ān “Ṭaiyib”,157 originally “Nūr”, b. M. Ṣiddīq Ḥasan K̲h̲ān, elder son of the author of the S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman (see § 1226 supra) by his first wife, a daughter ¶ of the Prime Minister of Bhōpāl, M. Jamāl al-Dīn K̲h̲ān Dihlawī, was born at Bhōpāl on 21 Rajab 1278/22 January 1862. Among his teachers was Maulawī Ilāhī Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ Faiḍābādī, Head Teacher of the Madrasah i Sulaimānī at Bhōpāl. His publications include (1) ʿArf al-jādī min jinān hudā ’l-hādī (Edition: Bhōpāl 1296/1879. See Āṣafīyah iii p. 444, from which it would seem to be a Persian work on Ḥanafī Law, though Sarkis (Dictionnaire encyclopédique, col. 1873) treats it as an Arabic work), (2) al-Nahj al-maqbūl min s̲h̲arāʾiʿ al-Rasūl (Edition: place ? 1296/1879. See Āṣafīyah iii p. 446, where it is placed among the Persian works on Ḥanafī Law), (3) al-Jawāʾiz wa-’l-ṣilāt min jamʿ al-asāmī wa-’l-ṣifāt (an Arabic work “on Muḥammadan names, titles, and epithets.” Edition: Delhi1581297/1880°), (4) al-Raḥmat al-muhdāh ilā man yurīd ziyādat al-ilm ʿalā aḥadīt̲h̲ al-Mis̲h̲kāh, in Arabic (Edition: place ? 1301/1883–4. See Sarkis, col. 1873, and Āṣafīyah i p. 628, from the latter of which it appears that Nūr al-Ḥasan was the editor rather than the author of this Takmilah i Mis̲h̲kāt), (5) Sulṭan al-ad̲h̲kār min aḥādīt̲h̲ Saiyid al-abrār, an abridgment of the ʿAmal al-yaum wa-’l-lailah of Ibn al-Sunnī159 (Edition: Ḥaidarābād 1318/1900–1. See Sarkis, col. 1873).
In the Āṣafīyah catalogue, vol. i, published in 1332/1914, he is described as maujūd (i.e. still alive), but on p. 49 of the Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Ṣiddīqī, vol. ii, published in 1342/1924, his name is followed by the word marḥūm.
- Nigāristān i suk̲h̲an, a supplement to the S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman, devoted primarily to poets of Bengal and elsewhere whose verses sent for inclusion in that work arrived too late but containing also many other ancient and modern poets, 651 in all. Edition: [Bhōpāl], 1293/1876*°.
- Tad̲h̲kirah i Ṭūr i Kalīm. Edition: place ? 1299/1881–2 (see Āṣafīyah i p. 318).
[S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman pp. 486–7; Nigāristān i suk̲h̲an pp. 130–3; Ellis ii col. 446; Edwards col. 599; Sarkis Dictionnaire encyclopédique de bibliographie arabe, col. 1873; Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Ṣiddīqī (cf. no. 48, end supra), iv p. 216; Brockelmann Supptbd. ii p. 861. Very full information would doubtless be obtainable from the fifth volume of the Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Ṣiddīqī, if ever published, since that volume was to deal with Ṣiddīq Ḥasan K̲h̲ān’s descendants. Only vols. i–iv have been accessible to me.]
§ 1228. Nawwāb Ṣafi al-Daulah Ḥusāin al-Mulk160 S. Abū Naṣr M. ʿAlī Ḥasan K̲h̲ān “Ṭāhir”, originally “ʿĀs̲h̲iqī”, b. M. Ṣiddīq Ḥasan K̲h̲ān was the younger ¶ son of the author of the S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman (see no. 1226 supra) by his first wife, a daughter of the Prime Minister of Bhōpāl, M. Jamāl al-Dīn K̲h̲ān Dihlawī. He was at one time Honorary Director of the Department of Education in the State of Bhōpāl. Among his works were al-Bunyān al-marṣūṣ min bayān ījāz al-fiqh al-manṣūṣ, a Persian work on Ḥanafī Law (Edition: place ? 1299/1881–2. See Āṣafīyah iii p. 444), K̲h̲irman i gul, a Persian dīwān, Nālah i dil, an Urdu dīwān, Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Ṣiddīqī, a detailed Urdu biography of his father (Edition: Lucknow 1342/1924–1343/1925), and several other Urdu works (e.g. Fiṭrat al-Islām, Sīrat al-Islām, al-Madanīyah fī ’l-Islām, Intiẓām i k̲h̲ānah-dārī), of which descriptions (without dates and places of publication) are given on the back covers of the Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Ṣiddīqī.
Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an, a supplement to the S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman (see no. 1226 supra) and the Nigāristān i suk̲h̲an (see no. 1227 (1) supra), begun in 1294/1877 and completed in 1295/1878.
Edition: Bhōpāl 1295/1878° (cf. ocm iii/2 (Feb. 1927) P. 51).)
Bazm i suk̲h̲an, biographies of Urdu poets, written in 1297/1880.
Edition: place ? date ? (see Āṣafīyah iii p. 162 no. 133 and Peshawar 1482 (1)).
[Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Ṣiddīqī iv p. 216. Very full information would doubtless be obtainable from the fifth volume of the M.i.Ṣ., if ever published, since that volume was to deal with Ṣiddīq Ḥasan K̲h̲ān’s descendants. Only vols. i–iv have been accessible to me.]
§ 1229. M. Muẓaffar Ḥusain “Ṣabā” Gōpāmawī161
Rūz i raus̲h̲an, written in 1297/1880 as a supplement to the S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman (see no. 1226 supra), the Nigāristān i suk̲h̲an (see no. 1227 (1) supra), and the Ṣubḥ i guls̲h̲an (see no. 1228 (1) supra).
Edition: Bhōpāl 1297/1880° (cf. ocm. iii/2 (Feb. 1927) p. 51).)
§ 1230. Qārī Raḥmat Allāh “Wāḍiḥ” b. ʿAs̲h̲ūr Muḥammad Buk̲h̲ārī162 was a contemporary of the Mang̲h̲it Amīr Muẓaffar al-Dīn (reigned 1277/1860–1303/1885).
Tuḥfat al-aḥbāb fī tad̲h̲kirat al-aṣḥāb, usually called Tad̲h̲kirah i Qārī Raḥmat Allāh, notices of Central Asian poets of the nineteenth century: Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 38.
¶ Edition: Tuḥfat al-aḥbāb … maʿ Tārīk̲h̲ i kat̲h̲īrah u Majmūʿah i Salīmī, Tashkent 1332/1913–14 (with additions by Mīrzā Salīm Bēk. Cf. no. 506, Edition supra and Semenov Kurzer Abriss pp. 9–10).
§ 1231. Abū ’l-Qāsim Muḥtas̲h̲am was the son of M. ʿAbbās “Rifʿat” S̲h̲irwānī (for whom supra) and the grandson of Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Yamanī al-S̲h̲irwānī (for whom see no. 308 footnote supra, Brockelmann Sptbd ii pp. 850–1, Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān p. 31 and Sarkis Dictionnaire encyclopédique de bibliographie arabe coll. 1120–1).
Ak̲h̲tar i tābān, or Tad̲h̲kirat al-nisāʾ, brief notices of 82 poetesses.
Edition: Bhōpāl 1299/1881–2 (see M. S̲h̲afīʿs description in ocm. iii/3 (May 1927) p. 52).
§ 1232. Mīrzā Muḥammad b. M. Rafīʿ, entitled Malik al-kuttāb, S̲h̲irāzī has already been mentioned as the author of the Zīnat al-zamān or Tāj al-tawārīk̲h̲ (no. 662 supra, where some biographical information will be found), the Iksīr al-tawārīk̲h̲ (no. 263, Persian translations (3) supra), the Tārīk̲h̲ i Ingilistān and the Tārīk̲h̲ i qadīm i Yūnān (no. 609 supra) and the Mirʾāt al-zamān (no. 611 (2) supra).
Tad̲h̲kirat al-k̲h̲awātīn, alphabetically arranged notices of Arabian, Persian, Indian, and Turkish poetesses.
Edition: [Bombay] 1306/1889°.
§ 1233. Kunwar163 Durgā-Pars̲h̲ād “Mihr” Sandīlī has already been mentioned as the author of the Gulistān i Hind (no. 661 supra, where some biographical information will be found) and the Būstān i Awad’h (no. 951 supra).
Ḥadīqah i ʿis̲h̲rat, notices of poetesses164 written in 1893.
Edition: Sandīlah 1894°*.
§ 1234. “Afḍal” Mak̲h̲dūm i Pīrmastī is described by Semenov (Buk̲h̲ārā Catalogue p. 5) as a contemporary Bokharan poet and prose-writer.
Afḍal al-tad̲h̲kār fī d̲h̲ikr al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ wa-’l-as̲h̲ʿār, notices of Central Asian poets of the nineteenth century written in 1322/1904: Bu̲k̲h̲ārā Semenov 4.
Edition: Tashkent 1326/1908 (see Semenov Kurzer Abriss p. 10).
[Mīrzā Salīm Bēk’s additions to the Tuḥfat al-aḥbāb (see no. 1230, Edition supra), Tashkent 1332/1913–14, pp. 2, 6, 310–11.]
¶ § 1235. Dīns̲h̲āh Jījībhāʾī Īrānī, a Bombay solicitor (b.a. 1902, from St. Xavier’s College, Judge Spencer Prizeman 1904, Muncherji Nowroji Banaji Scholar 1904, ll.b. 1905 from the Government Law School), was President of the Iranian Zoroastnan Anjuman in 1928. Among his publications are (1) The Resurrection of the ancient sovereigns of Iran in the ruins of Madayen. A Persian operetta by Syed Mirzadeh Eshqi [i.e. “ʿIs̲h̲qī’s” Rastāk̲h̲īz]. Translated [and edited] by Dinshaw J. Irani, Bombay 1924*. (2) The divine songs of Zarathustra, London 1927. (3) Paik i Mazdayasnān [essays on Zoroastrianism, originally written in English or Gujarati, translated into Persian by Pūr-Dāwud. Pts. 1–8], Bombay 1927–9*. (4) Pouran-dokh̲t-nâmeh [Pūrān-duk̲h̲-nāmah]. The poems of Poure-Davoud. [Edited] with their English translation by D. J. Irani, Bombay 1928*. (5)Ak̲h̲lāq i Īran i bāstān, Bombay [1930*], Ṭihrān 1932. (6) Falsafah i Īrān i bāstān, Bombay 1933, as well as English translations of a number of Persian texts prescribed for Bombay University examinations
- Poets of the Pahlavi regime [selections from the works of contemporary poets with English translations and short biographies (in Persian with English epitomes)], Bombay 1933 (vol. i, 98 poets).
[Bombay University Calendar; list of publications facing title-page of Poets of the Pahlavi regime; portrait in group with R. Tagore and members of the Literary Society, Ṭihrān, reproduced as frontispiece to the same work.]
§ 1236. Saʿīd Nafisī, the son of Dr. Mīrzā ʿAlī Akbar K̲h̲ān Nafīsī Nāẓim al-aṭibbā, was born at Ṭihrān in ahs 1274/1895. After completing his education in Europe165 he returned to Persia in ahs 1297/1918–19 and received an appointment in the Ministry of Public Works. In ahs 1306/1927–8 (so Īrānī) or 1308/1929–30 (so Ishaque) he entered the service of the Ministry of Education and was nominated to lectureships in Literature and History in the Faculties of Law and Literature [presumably at the University of Ṭihrān]. His works, of which seventeen are mentioned in a list accompanying his edition of the Rubāʿīyāt of Bābā Afḍal Kās̲h̲ānī (Ṭihrān ahs 1311/1933, with bio-bibliographical introduction), include novels, a French-Persian dictionary, a life of S̲h̲. Zāhid Gīlānī (Ras̲h̲t ahs 1307/1928–9. Cf. no. 1150, 1st par., 3rd footnote, supra), and editions of classical Persian texts (e.g. ʿUmar K̲h̲aiyam’s Rubāʿiyāt, Ṭihrān. ahs 1306/1927–8, 2nd ed. ahs 1309/1930–1, the Qābūs-nāmah, Ṭihrān ahs 1312/1933, Sanāʾī’s Sair al-ʿibād ilā ’l-maʿād, Ṭihrān ahs 1316/1937, K̲h̲wand-Amīr’s Dastūr al-wuzarāʾ, Ṭihrān ahs 1317/1938, Ḥusain Kās̲h̲ifī’s Lubb i lubāb i Maʿnawī, Ṭihrān (see Luzac’s Oriental List 1940, p. 108), “ʿAṭṭār’s” Dīwān i qaṣāʾid u g̲h̲azalīyāt, Ṭihrān ahs 1319/1940–1, and the Tārīk̲h̲ i Baihaqī, vol. i, Ṭihrān ahs 1319/1940).
- ¶ Aḥwāl u muntak̲h̲ab i as̲h̲ʿār i K̲h̲wājū-yi Kirmānī: Ṭihrān ahs 1307/1928.
- Aḥwāl u as̲h̲ʿār i … Rūdakī i Samarqandī: vol. i. Ṭihrān ahs 1309–10/1930–2; vol. ii. Ṭihrān ahs. 1310/1931–2.
- Majd al-Dīn i Hamgar i S̲h̲īrāzī: Ṭihrān ahs. 1314/1935–6.
- Aḥwāl u as̲h̲ʿār i fārisī i S̲h̲. Bahāʾī: Ṭihrān 1316/1937–8. [Īrānī Poets of the Pahlavi regime pp. 344 i-344 xviii (portrait); Ras̲h̲īd Yāsimī Adabīyāt i muʿāṣir pp. 57–9 (portrait), 110, 114, 116.]
§ 1237. G̲h̲ulam-Riḍā K̲h̲ān Ras̲h̲īd Yāsimī is the son of M. Walī K̲h̲ān, Mīr Panj, Īl i Gūrān, Qalʿah i Zanjī, and was born in 1314/1896–7 at Kirmāns̲h̲āh. In 1333/1914–15 he went to Ṭihrān and after completing his education served for a time in the Ministry of Education and subsequently in the Ministry of Finance. At the time when Ishaque and Īrānī wrote [circ. 1932] he held an appointment at the Imperial court. On the title-page of his Adabīyāt i muʿāṣir [1937–8] he is described as a Professor in the University of Ṭihrān. A list of his published works printed on the cover of his translation of E. G. Browne’s Literary History of Persia, vol. iv, comprises twenty titles and includes seven translations. The Dīwān i Masʿūd i Saʿd i Salmān published at Ṭihrān in ahs. 1318/1939 was edited by him.
- Aḥwāl i Ibn i Yamīn: Ṭihrān ahs 1303/1924.
- Tatabbuʿ u intiqād i aḥwāl u āt̲h̲ār i Salmān i Sāwajī: Ṭihrān[circ. 1928 ?].
- Adabīyāt i muʿāṣir, mainly notices of contemporary poets166 followed by brief sketches of other branches of literature: Ṭihrān ahs 1316/1937–8 (printed as an appendix to the Tārīk̲h̲ i adabīyāt i Īrān, i.e. Ras̲h̲īd Yāsimī’s translation of the fourth volume of E. G. Browne’s Literary History of Persia).
[Ishaque Sukh̲anvarān-i-Īrān i pp. 92–105 (portrait); Īrānī Poets of the Pahlavi regime pp. 284–307 (portrait).]
§ 1238. Dr. Qāsim G̲h̲anī, a medical graduate of the American University at Bairūt, is a physician practising in Ṭihrān. In 1924–5, five or six years after graduating at Bairūt, he spent eighteen months in Paris, and he was there for a second visit in 1928. Two of Anatole France’s novels, Thaϊs and La révolte des anges, have ¶ been translated by him into Persian. He and M. b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb Qazwīnī were joint editors of the Dīwān i Ḥāfiẓ published at Ṭihrān in ahs 1320/1941.
- Baḥt̲h̲ dar āt̲h̲ār u afkār u aḥwāl i Ḥāfiẓ. Vol. i: Tārīk̲h̲ i ʿaṣr i Ḥāfiẓ, Ṭihrān ahs. 1321/ah 1361/1942 (with preface by Prof. M. Qazwīnī); vol. ii pt. 1: Tārīk̲h̲ i taṣawwuf dar Islām, Ṭihrān ahs 1322/ah 1362/1943.
[M. Qazwīnī’s preface.]
§ 1239. Badīʿ al-Zamān Furūzān-far b. Āqā S̲h̲. ʿAlī Bus̲h̲rūyaʾī K̲h̲urāsānī was born at, or near, Bus̲h̲rūyah in ahs. 1318/1900–1. Educated first at local schools and later at Mas̲h̲had under the well-known poet “Adīb” Nīs̲h̲āpūrī (d. 1344/1926), he went to Ṭihrān early in ahs. 1303/1924 and studied philosophy and other subjects. In 1308/1929 he was appointed Lecturer in Persian Literature (as well as Arabic Literature and Logic, according to Īrānī) at the Teachers’ Training College (Dār al-Muʿallimīn, now called Dānis̲h̲-sarāy i ʿĀlī). When the Madrasah i Sipahsālār was reconstituted as the Faculty of Theology and Philosophy (ahs. 1313/1934–5), he was made Assistant Director(?) (muʿāwin i ān dānis̲h̲-kadah gardīd). In 1316/1937–8 he became Director of the newly-founded Institute for the Training of Preachers. On the title-page of his life of Rūmī [1315/1937] he is described as a Professor in the University of Ṭihrān (ustād i Dānis̲h̲-gāh i Ṭihrān), a title doubtless held concurrently with more than one of the aforementioned appointments.
- Suk̲h̲an u suk̲h̲anwarān, a poetical anthology with a biographical and critical introduction to the selections from each poet: vol. i (44 poets of K̲h̲urāsān and Transoxiana from the third to the sixth century), Ṭihrān ahs. 1308–9/1930; vol. ii, pt. 1 (11 poets of ʿIrāq and Ād̲h̲arbāyjān in the fifth and sixth centuries), Ṭihrān [ahs 1312/1933]; in progress ? (Vols. i and ii, pt. 1, reviewed by R. A. Nicholson in jras. 1936 pp. 122–3).
- Risālah dar taḥqīq i aḥwāl u zindagānī i Maulānā Jalāl al-Dīn i Rūmī: Ṭihrān 1315/1937‡ (vol. i).
[Autobiographical statements in the muqaddimah to no. (2); Ishaque Sukh̲anvarān-i-Īrān i pp. 32–7 (portrait); Īrānī Poets of the Pahlavi regime pp. 178E–194 (portrait); Yāsimī Adabīyāt i muʿāṣir pp. 27–9 (portrait)].
§ 1240. M. Isḥāq (M. Ishaque), M.A., B.Sc., Ph.D., Lecturer in Arabic and Persian in the Post-Graduate Department of the University of Calcutta and formerly Assistant Lecturer in the Department of Arabic and Islamic Studies at the University of Dacca, was born at Calcutta in 1900 and educated at Calcutta University. He visited Persia in 1930 and 1934 and in the eight months that he spent in the country he made the acquaintance of many prominent writers ¶ and collected the literary and biographical material which formed the basis for his Suk̲h̲anwarān i Īrān dar ʿaṣr i ḥāḍir. Subsequently he obtained the degree of Ph.D. at the University of London for a thesis substantially identical with his work Modern Persian Poetry (Calcutta 1943).
- Sukh̲anvarān-i-Īrān dar ʿaṣr-i-ḥāẓir. Poets and poetry of Modern Persia, vol. i [notices of 33 poets] with thirty-two portraits and two Musical Notes … Calcutta (Delhi printed), 1933‡, vol. ii [notices of 51 poets] with fifty-one portraits and one Musical Note … Calcutta (Delhi printed), 1937‡ [vol. iii, devoted to prose-writers, is to follow].
[Armag̲h̲ān xi/7 (Sept.–Oct. 1930), pp. 559–60 (with portrait).]
§ 1241. Ḥabīb Yag̲h̲māʾī b. Mīrzā Asad Allāh is a grandson of the poet “Yag̲h̲mā” and was born in 1320/1902–3 at the village of K̲h̲ūr in the district (bulūk) of Jandaq and Biyābānak. Educated at the Teachers’ Training College (Dār al-Muʿallimīn) in Ṭihrān, he was for two years Director of Education and Charitable Bequests at Simnān (ba-riyāsat i maʿārif u auqāf i Simnān manṣūb gas̲h̲t) before being appointed Lecturer in Persian Literature at the Dār al-Funūn in Ṭihrān and a member of the staff of the Press Department (u baʿdan ba-muʿallimī i adabīyāt i Fārisī dar Dār al-Funūn u ʿuḍwīyat i Idārah i Kull i Inṭibāʿāt bar qarār gardīd). His poems have been published mainly in newspapers and periodicals. An edition of Asadī’s Kars̲h̲āsp-nāmah was published by him at Ṭihrān in ahs 1317/1938. Several unpublished works of his are mentioned by Ishaque.
- S̲h̲arḥ i hāl i Yag̲h̲mā, an account of the poet “Yag̲h̲mā”,167 who died on 16 Rabīʿ ii 1276/13 Nov. 1859, preceded by a description of the district of Jandaq and Biyābānak: Ṭihrān [circ. 1927 ?‡],
[Ishaque Suhhanvarān-i-Īrān i pp. 64–9 (portrait); Yāsimī Adabīyāt i muʿāṣīr pp. 96–7 (portrait).]
§ 1242. For ʿAbd al-Ḥusain “Āyatī’s” Tārīk̲h̲ i Yazd, which was completed in ahs. 1317/1938–9, and of which pp. 268–351 are devoted to the poets of Yazd, see the Additions and Corrections to this work.
§ 1243. Appendix
- Bazm i wiṣāl, a metrical account by “Ṣabūrī” of his journey from Persia to India and his doings there: Lucknow 1873°*.
- Ḥisār i Nāy: s̲h̲arḥ i hāl i Masʿūd i Saʿd i Salmān, completed in ahs. 1317/1938 by Suhailī K̲h̲wānsārī: Islāmīyah Press [Ṭihrān ? 1938 ? ‡].
- Life and Times of Hafiz of Shiraz, by M. Ḥamīd Allāh: [Allahabad 1892*]. ¶
- Mad̲h̲āq i suk̲h̲an, “a biographical dictionary of famous Persian poets,”2 by S̲h̲āh Ḥaidar Ḥasan b. S̲h̲āh M. Ḥasan Ilāhābādī: [India] 1300/1883*.
- S̲h̲arḥ i aḥwāl i Nāṣir i K̲h̲usrau, drawn up for Charles Schefer by the Persian Minister of Public Instruction and Jaʿfar-Qulī K̲h̲ān b. Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān: Blochet i 637.
- Tad̲h̲kirah i muk̲h̲taṣar dar ḥāl i Rēk̲h̲tah-gōyān i Hind, by M. Ṣadr al-Dīn: Browne Suppt. 304 (Corpus 159168).
- Tad̲h̲kirah i mutaʾak̲h̲k̲h̲irīn i sh̲uʿaraʾ i Fārs, short notice of modern poets, mainly of Fārs, with copious extracts from their works: Browne Coll. J. 19 (apparently only about half of the work).
- Tad̲h̲kirah i s̲h̲uʿāraʾ, by Maulawī ʿAbd al-G̲h̲anī “G̲h̲anī” Farruk̲h̲ābādī. Edition: place ? 1916 (Āṣafīyah iii p. 162 no. 198).
- Tad̲h̲kirah i s̲h̲uʿarāʾ i Qāʾināt, notices of thirty poets of Qāʾināt or Bīrjand, by Diyāʾ al-Dīn Qāʾinātī (contemporary): Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 80 (W. Ivanow’s collection, ah 1330/1912, transcribed from an autograph).
- Tad̲h̲kirah u tabṣirah, notices of popular Persian poets, by Mahdī Ḥusain Nāṣirī: Allahabad [1915*].
- Tad̲h̲kirat al-nisāʾ, on the poetesses of India, without author’s name: Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 82 (Ḥājjī Ḥabib Allāh’s library, Nellore. ah 1182/1768).
- Tad̲h̲kirat al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ, by Bahāʾ al-Dīn Ḥasan K̲h̲ān “ʿUrūj”, probably the author of the Payām i ulfat (Ivanow 402, 1st Suppt. 793): Āṣafīyah i p. 318 nos. 12, 99.
- Tad̲h̲kirat al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ, by Ṣiddīq K̲h̲ān b. Amīr Muẓaffar: Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 49.
- Yag̲h̲mā-yi Biyābānak, a life of “Yag̲h̲mā” (cf. no. 1241 supra) by ʿAlī Muqaddam: Ṭihrān ahs. 1313/1934*.
^ Back to text1. According to K̲h̲wājah ʿAbd al-Majīd’s Urdu dictionary Jāmiʿ al-lug̲h̲āt, s.v. Gardēzī, the Gardēzī Saiyids are a clan (qabīlah) of Saiyids settled at Muẓaffargaṛh (in the Panjāb). Gardēz, from which doubtless their ancestor, or ancestors, migrated, is in Afg̲h̲ānistān, some fifty miles from G̲h̲aznī.
^ Back to text5. Like Ḥassān b. T̲h̲ābit (for whom see Ency. Isl., etc.) “Āzād” composed Arabic qaṣīdahs in praise of the Prophet (quotations from some of these qaṣāʾid i Nabawīyah are made in the Subḥat al-marjān, e.g. twenty or so on pp. 218–20). The title dates back to “Āzād’s” lifetime, since it occurs in the puff by his pupil, Qāḍī ʿAbd al-Qādir “Mihrbān” Aurangabadi, appended to the Subḥat al-marjān (p. 297 19).
^ Back to text6. For the Wāsiṭī Saiyids, who claim descent from a Saiyid said to have migrated from Wāsiṭ to India in the reign of Sulṭān Maḥmūd G̲h̲aznawī (or at some other time), see Āʾīn i Akbarī tr. Blochmann i pp. 390–5, Blumhardt Cat. of the Hindustani MSS. in the I.O. Library pp. 21–22, etc.
^ Back to text9. Wa-fī sanati t̲h̲alāt̲h̲ wa-arbaʿīn wa-miʾah wa-alf ṭalabanī ’l-k̲h̲āl … ilā baldati Sīwistān (Subḥat al-marjān p. 885). In the K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah (p. 12411) Dhū ’l-Ḥijjah 1142 is given as the date of his leaving Bilgrām for Sīwistān.
^ Back to text11. wa-fī awāk̲h̲iri sanati tisʿah [sic] wa-k̲h̲amsīn wa-miʾah wa-alf ḥaṣalat al-muwāfaqah bainī wa-bain al-Nawwāb Niẓām al-Daulah Nāṣir-Jang k̲h̲alaf al-Nawwāb Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Jāh fa-aḥabbanī ḥubban ʿajaz al-qalam ʿan bayānihi wa-rafaʿanī makānan mā ḥāma aḥadun ḥauma arkānihi wa-kāna lā yadaʿunī fī ’l-ẓaʿn wa-’l-iqāmah wa-lā yamallu min ṣuḥbatī ḥīnan min azminat al-istidāmah (Subḥat al-marjān p. 1225).
^ Back to text12. wa-lammā … tawallā ’l-Nawwāb Niẓām al-Daulah Nāṣir-Jang riʾāsat al-Dakan … bālag̲h̲a ’l-akt̲h̲arūna an ak̲h̲tāra manṣiban min manāṣib al-imārah … fa-nafaḍtu d̲h̲ailī min al-habā’ al-mant̲h̲ūr wa-mā miltu ʿan jāddat al-istiqāmah ilā s̲h̲arak al-g̲h̲urūr … (Subḥat al-marjān p. 12216).
^ Back to text13. “Āzād’s” edition, containing 260–290 biographies exists in several manuscripts. A much enlarged edition containing about 730 biographies, was completed in 1194/1780 by the author’s son, Mīr ʿAbd al-Ḥaiy (Ṣamṣām al-Mulk) and was published at Calcutta in 1887–91 (Bibliotheca Indica. 3 vols.).
^ Back to text14. The date 1200 is given also in the K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār and elsewhere. Rieu says that in the Tārīk̲h̲ i dil-afrūz (cf. no. 1038 (1) supra) G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain K̲h̲ān “Jauhar”, who saw “Āzād” at Aurangābād in 1198/1783–4, gives 1199/1784–5 as the date of his death.
^ Back to text15. For the vast cemetery of Rauḍah or K̲h̲uldābād. which contains the tombs of Aurangzēb, Abū ’l-Ḥasan Quṭb-S̲h̲āh, Āṣaf-Jāh, some kings of Aḥmadnagar and several well-known saints, see Haig, Historic Landmarks of the Deccan pp. 56–8.
^ Back to text17. Cf. Subḥat al-marjān p. 122 antepenult. (wa-Tasliyat al-fuʾād d̲h̲akartu fīhā baʿḍ qaṣāʾidī wa-fawāʾidī [sic: read fawāʾid ?] uk̲h̲ar wa-qad naqaltu ʿanhā tarājim al-ʿulamāʾ wa-maṭālib uk̲h̲rā fī hādh̲ā ’l-kitāb), p. 12310 (al-maqālat al-ūlā fī ’l-muḥassināt allatī naqaltuhā ʿan al-Hindīyah ilā ’l-’Arabīyah wa-’l-muḥassināt ḥilyah li-l-kalām muṭlaqan lākinna lahā jilwatan uk̲h̲rā fī ’l-kalām al-mauzūn fa-ʿalaiya an ad̲h̲kura hāhunā madḥ al-manẓūm min al-kalām wa-’l-ḥamāʾil al-manūṭah bi-ʿawātiq [sic lege] al-aqlām wa-qad ḥarrartu lahu faṣlan fī kitābī Tasliyat al-fuʾād fa-ajʿaluhu juzʾan [sic lege) min hād̲h̲ā ’l-sawād).
^ Back to text18. In the K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah written in 1176 only one Arabic dīwān is mentioned and this is said to consist of 3000 verses (p. 12517: Dīwān i fārisī u ʿarabī i faqīr murattab ast. Dīwān i ʿarabī sih hazār bait bās̲h̲ad).
^ Back to text19. Atamma taʾlīfahu sanata 1187 according to Sarkis. If this dīwān is correctly described as al-diwan al-awwal, 1187 cannot be the date of collection. If 1187 is an error for 1287, that may be the date of printing (see the next note).
^ Back to text21. Wajāhat-Ḥusain writes iṣṭilāhāt (as in the Ḥadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah), but the correctness of iṣlāḥ is shown by the words quoted by Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad from the preface (wa-lā yak̲h̲fā ʿalā ’l-ṭabīb al-ṭārif bi-muʿālajat al-amrāḍ anna manṣib al-islāḥ aʿlā wa-arfaʿ min manṣib al-iʿtirāḍ fa-waqaʿa fī k̲h̲āṭirī an uṣliḥa mā fī kalāmihi min al-fasād).
^ Back to text22. Classed among the Muḥāḍarāt i ʿArabī in the Āṣafīyah catalogue. S̲h̲ams Allāh Qādirī places it among “Āzād’s” Persian works. It may of course contain extracts in both languages. Wajāhat-Ḥusain does not mention it.
^ Back to text23. Mīr ʿAbd al-Jalīl, “Āzād’s” maternal grandfather, has already been mentioned (no. 1162, beginning supra). The mat̲h̲nawī in question is doubtless that on the marriage of the Emperor Farruk̲h̲-siyar (Edition: Lucknow 1299/1882°*. mss.: Nadhīr Aḥmad 210, Panjāb Univ. Lib., Āṣafīyah iii p. 632 (?). Cf. S. Maqbūl Aḥmad Ṣamdanī Ḥayāt i Jalīl ii pp. 62–72).
^ Back to text27. This Turcoman clan-name is explained by Luṭf-ʿAlī Bēg early in the historical introduction with which the second Mijmarah of the Ātas̲h̲-kadah opens. Bēgdil K̲h̲ān, according to him, was the third of the four sons of Ildigiz K̲h̲ān, who was the third of the six sons of Og̲h̲ūz K̲h̲ān. [For this eponymous ancestor of the Og̲h̲uz Turks see the articles G̲h̲uzz, Tog̲h̲uzg̲h̲uz and Turks in the Ency. Isl.] In the time of Maḥmūd G̲h̲aznawī, or in that of C̲h̲ingiz K̲h̲ān, the Bēgdilīs with other Turkish tribes migrated to Persia and, while some remained there, others went on and settled in Syria. In Tīmūr’s reign Amīr Jahāngīr, when campaigning in Syria, recognized the Syrian Bēgdilīs as his countrymen and led them back to Persia with the intention of restoring them to Turkistān. On reaching Ardabīl, however, the Bēgdilī leaders had the honour of meeting Sulṭān ʿAlī Siyāh-pūs̲h̲ Ṣafawī [Sulṭān K̲h̲wājah ʿAlī, as he is called in the Silsilat al-nasab i Ṣafawīyah p. 45 (= jras. 1921 p. 407)] and, having solicited his intercession, they obtained permission to leave the Tīmūrid camp (urdū-yi Tīmūrī] and stay at Ardabīl as murīds of that saintly personage. In the 250 years since S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīls accession they had given faithful service to the Ṣafawī family and many of them had held high positions. The descendants of those Bēgdilīs who had returned from Syria were known as Bēgdilī S̲h̲āmlū, while the descendants of those who had never gone to Syria were called simply Bēgdilī [see jras. 1843 pp. 380–1, where a less corrupt text than that of the 1277 edition is summarised. Cf. the articles Ḳizil-bās̲h̲ and S̲h̲āh-sewan in the Ency. Isl.].
^ Back to text28. The incorrect date 1123/1711 given by Browne comes from the corrupt 1277 edition of the Ātas̲h̲-kadah. Its incorrectness is shown by the words which immediately follow: u muqārin i īn ḥāl fitnah i Maḥmūd i G̲h̲̲.lījān [sic, for G̲h̲iljāy] i Afg̲h̲ān rūy dādah.
^ Back to text30. Several of Luṭf-ʿAlī Bēg’s relations held prominent positions. His maternal uncle Muḥammad-Qulī K̲h̲ān succeeded Fatḥ-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, “Wālih’s” great-uncle (cf. no. 1147, 1st par., beginning supra), as Prime Minister to S̲h̲āh Sulṭān-Ḥusain. His paternal uncles, Walī-Muḥammad K̲h̲ān and Muṣt̤afā K̲h̲ān Bēgdilī, and another maternal uncle, Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān Bēgdilī, were sent on missions to the Ottoman Sulṭān.
^ Back to text32. ʿAlī S̲h̲āh = ʿĀdil S̲h̲āh = ʿAlī-Qulī K̲h̲ān, who succeeded his uncle, Nādir S̲h̲āh, in 1160/1747 but was deposed in S̲h̲awwāl 1161/Sept. 1748 by his brother Ibrāhīm (see Malcolm History of Persia ii pp. 53–5, Watson History of Persia pp. 40–1, Sykes History of Persia ii pp. 272,275–6, Zambaur Manuel de généalogie p. 261).
^ Back to text35. S̲h̲ah Sulaimān ii [Ṣafawī] was proclaimed king at Mas̲h̲had in Muḥarram or Ṣafar 1163 (cf. no. 404 supra) and after reigning for 40 days was deposed and blinded (see Malcolm ii pp. 55–6, Watson p. 41, Zambaur p. 261).
^ Back to text40. According to ʿAbd al-Muqtadir the Bānkīpūr ms. contains no mention of “Firībī” and no date later than 1187. The biography of “Firībī” is in the Bombay edition of 1277, as well as in Bodleian 384 and the ms. or mss. described by Bland.
^ Back to text41. Ibn al marḥūm Luṭf-ʿAlī ʿAlī Muḥammad al-S̲h̲īrāzī maskinan al-Burūjirdī mauṭinan, described by Ethé as the author’s son, but, if these words are the sole evidence, it is not decisive.
^ Back to text43. “The careful biographical information, along with the many and extensive extracts from Dîwâns, renders the work very valuable indeed. There occur many poets whom Garcin de Tassy (in his Histoire de la Littérature Hindouie et Hindoustanie) does not even mention, and the very useful list of Rêkhta poets given by A. Sprenger (in his Catalogue, p. 195 sq.) might be considerably enriched from this source with valuable biographical information.”
^ Back to text45. Born at Delhi, migrated to Lucknow in 1173/1759–60, lived for some time at Faiḍābād and at Ilāhābād, where the Emperor S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam became his pupil in the art of poetry, died at Lucknow in 1221/1806–7. See Rieu i 376a. Bānkīpūr iii pp. 258–9, Sprenger p. 481, Ṣuḥuf i Ibrāhīm, (penultimate biography under Mīm), K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār no. 475, Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 2699, Tad̲h̲kirah i dil-gus̲h̲ā (Berlin p. 672 no. 112).
^ Back to text47. Went to Delhi [presumably from Persia] in Muḥammad S̲h̲āh’s reign, and was afterwards invited by Nawwāb Mahābat-Jang (for whom see no. 960 supra) to Murs̲h̲idābād, where he died in the time of Sirāj al-Daulah (ah 1169–70).
^ Back to text48. According to Rieu “he was born in Lucknow”. Garcin de Tassy, citing the Tad̲h̲kirah i Hindī and paraphrasing doubtless the same words as Rieu, says “Mashafi habita d’abord Lakhnau”. According to Saksena he was born at Akbarpūr. There is one place of that name near Fyzabad and another near Cawnpore. S̲h̲ēftah (cited by Garcin ii p. 286) says that he was born at Delhi: Grahame Bailey that he “belonged to Amrohā, but went as a young man to Delhi, which he considered his native place”.
^ Back to text50. Four according to Sprenger, who speaks of “a rough copy of a Persian Dywán in the style of Jalál Asyr, and one in the style of Nácir ’alyy”, whereas ʿAbd al-Muqtadir regards these two as a single dīwān “in the style of Jalâl Asîr and Nâṣir ʿAlî”.
^ Back to text57. The proper name of “Mujrim’s” son is given as Miyān Raḥmat Allāh by Garcin (and, presumably on Garcin’s authority, by Ethé in the Bodleian catalogue), but Miyān Raḥmat Allāh “ʿIs̲h̲qī” (Sprenger p. 241, Majmūʿah i nag̲h̲z ii p. 3962) seems to be a different person.
^ Back to text60. Evidently a different person from S̲h̲. Aḥmad ʿAlī “K̲h̲ādim” Sand’hīlawī [so], author of an anthology entitled Anīs al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq, if Sprenger is right in saying (p. 147) that the latter “flourished in India in 1165” [p.s. Cf. Mai-k̲h̲ānah ed. M. S̲h̲afīʿ p. 347 n. 3]. Sandīlah is a town 32 miles N.W. of Lucknow.
^ Back to text65. In the Anīs al-aḥibbāʾ (ah 1197/1783) he is called Bhagwān Dās “Bismil”. In the Bānkīpūr Catalogue Hindī is not expressly said to be a tak̲h̲alluṣ, but that is doubtless implied by the statement that “he at first adopted the tak̲h̲alluṣ Bismil”. Moreover, his autobiography, to judge from its position (fol. 93b in a volume of 102 foll.), must be under “Hindī”.
^ Back to text71. Īn d̲h̲arrah i k̲h̲āksār … dar sarkār i … Sulṭān M. i Ṣafawī al-mutak̲h̲alliṣ Ṭulūʿī … dar muṣāḥabat u s̲h̲ug̲h̲l i s̲h̲arīf i kitābat būd (quoted by Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad from the preface to the Tad̲h̲kirah i Kātib).
^ Back to text73. Abū Ṭālib K̲h̲ān Tabrīzī Iṣfahānī, on the other hand, regarded “Wālih’s” tad̲h̲kirah as “abounding in beautiful poetry” and was greatly charmed with it (see jras. 1848 p. 155, where the preface to his K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār is summarized).
^ Back to text74. According to Sprenger “he undertook it at the request of Mr. Elliot” and completed it in 1230. Perhaps Sprenger’s copy was an early edition with a preface specially written for Mr. Elliot.
^ Back to text82. According to Vambéry, however, the Majmaʿ i Maḥmūd, of which he possessed a ms. (see zdmg. 45 (1891) pp. 403–5), is a collection of works by Maḥmūd Qājār, eleven in his ms., namely, (1) Safīnat al-Maḥmūd, (2) Muntak̲h̲ab al-Maḥmūd, (3) Guls̲h̲an i Maḥmūd, (4) Mak̲h̲zan al-Maḥmūd, (5) Nuql i majlis, (6) Sunbulistān, (7) Parwardah i k̲h̲ayāl, (8) Maqṣūd i jahān, (9) Maḥmūd-nāmah, (10) Naṣāʾiḥ al-Maḥmūd or Durar al-Maḥmūd (Rieu, Suppt. p. 87, gives these as two different works), (11) Bayān al-Maḥmūd.
^ Back to text83. It will be observed that the ms. described by Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad is dated 1239. If this date is correct the ms. must represent an edition earlier than the muqaddimah in praise of Naṣīr al-Dīn Ḥaidar.
^ Back to text88. d. at Ḥaidarābād in, or about, 1840 (see Sprenger p. 269, Garcin de Tassy ii pp. 418–20, Beale Oriental biographical dictionary, Saksēna History of Urdu literature pp. 146–7, T. Grahame Bailey History of Urdu literature p. 59, etc.).
^ Back to text94. Cf. R. G. Watson History of Persia p. 380: There were at this time absent from the kingdom, in banishment, two men who had been the most powerful, as well as perhaps the ablest, statesmen of Persia. One of the two was the Shah’s uncle, Bahman Meerza, who had been implicated in the proceedings of the Asef-ed-Dowleh at Meshed. It was believed that the latter had offered to him the crown of Persia, and the discovery of this conspiracy had led to Prince Bahman being deprived of his government of Azerbaeejan, and to his being forced to retire to Georgia, where he remained under Russian protection. The other exiled Persian statesman was the Asef-ed-Dowleh, the uncle of the late Mahomed Shah. The Ameer-i-Nizam was urged to recall both of these illustrious exiles; but with regard to the case of Bahman Meerza, he observed that, should the prince be permitted to return to his country, his wealth, influence and popularity would quickly secure for him his former government of Azerbaeejan, which he would be likely to constitute an independent province.
^ Back to text96. “Mr. Churchill states in a letter that Bahman Mirza subsequently fled to the Caucasus and died there a few years ago “ (Rieu Suppt. p. 90. From Rieu’s preface it appears that the Churchill mss. were acquired from 1884 to 1894). Cf. Browne Coll. p. 119, where it is said that a certain ms. “was originally transcribed in 1277/1860 for Prince Bahman Mírzá Bahá’u’d-Dawla, who according to a note in Schindler’s writing attached to the volume, died in the Caucasus in ad 1883.” [Bahman Mīrzā Bahāʾ al-Daulah, however, was not the same person as the Bahman Mīrzā who died in the Caucasus. The former was a son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh (47th in the list given in the Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī ix fol. 172b) and was Governor of Kāsh̲ān (op. cit. x fol. 22a, l. 21), Yazd (op. cit. x fol. 23b, l. 5), Simnān (op. cit. ix fol. 172b (17th page from end), l. 4) and doubtless of other places. He is presumably the Bahman Mīrzā who “died at Ṭihrán in Rabíʿ ii, 1277 = Oct.-Nov. 1860” (Browne Coll. p. 90).]
^ Back to text97. “Bí-Nawá” according to the catalogue of the Browne Collection, but this is not supported by the Tad̲h̲kirah i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī, the Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥaʾ or the “endorsement” on “Sipihr’s” ms. seen by S. Churchill (cf. the next note).
^ Back to text98. The ms. described by Rieu was acquired through Sidney Churchill, who “states that a ms. belonging to Sipihr, of Teheran [for whom see no. 191 supra], and containing, besides the above Ṭabaḳah, two Silsilahs, treating of later and contemporary poets, is endorsed “Taz̤kirah i Darvīsh Navā”.
^ Back to text100. This is the date given by Niẓāmī Badāyūnī in the Qāmūs al-mas̲h̲āhīr. If the catalogues are right in saying that he was 26 when he completed the Guls̲h̲an i bī-k̲h̲ār in 1250, he must have been bom in 1223 or 1224, i.e. in 1808 or 1809.
^ Back to text102. In the Ṣubh i waṭan “he” calls himself M. G̲h̲auth K̲h̲ān and says that his original name was M. Ghauth (cf. Madras almanac for 1842). In the Madras almanac for 1854 and in the official announcement of his death he is called G̲h̲ulām-M. G̲h̲auth K̲h̲ān.
^ Back to text104. His grandfather ʿAẓīm al-Daulah in 1801 ceded his rights and authority in the Carnatic to the East India Company. Since the death of M. G̲h̲aut̲h̲ K̲h̲ān the successive heads of this family have borne the title Prince of Arcot (Amīr i Arkāt). For the present Prince of Arcot see Who’s Who under Arcot, Prince of. This house, to quote The Times of 3.12.1855, “was a century ago one of the most prominent in Southern India. His [i.e. M. G̲h̲aut̲h̲ K̲h̲ān’s] ancestor it was who was supported as Nawab by the English, in opposition to a relative and rival, whose cause was espoused by the French. The struggle between the two European nations lasted long, but in the end, spite of the genius and devotion of men like Labourdonnais, Dupleix and Lally, the English triumphed and with them their ally the Nawab. But the power of his race was soon at an end. In 1801 Lord Wellesley, as Governor-General, entered into a treaty with the reigning Nawab by which that Prince ceded his rights and authority in the Carnatic to the British, one-fifth of the yearly revenues being guaranteed to him for the maintenance of himself and his retainers.” For the Persian histories of the Carnatic see nos. 1082–87 supra.
^ Back to text110. Minūc̲h̲ihr K̲h̲ān Gurjī Tiflīsī, a Georgian eunuch taken captive in Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s Georgian Campaign of 1219/1804, became Īc̲h̲-Āqā-sī in charge of the royal Ḥaram and was given the title of Muʿtamad al-Daulah after the death of the previous holder of the title, ʿAbd al-Wahhāb “Nas̲h̲āṭ”, on 5 D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1244/8 June 1829 (cf. Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣiri ix fol. 146b, l. 20). Early in 1258/1842 he was appointed Governor of Iṣfahān, Luristān and ʿArabistān (op. cit. x fol. 24a antepenult). Cf. Browne, A year amongst the Persians pp. 60, 201.
^ Back to text123. Dar ḥaḍrat i … M. S̲h̲āh Qājār … ba-manṣab i k̲h̲azīnah-dārī maḥsūd i aqrān būdah (Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn p. 62711): Āqā M. S̲h̲āh wai rā rīs̲h̲-safīd i ʿamalah i k̲h̲alwat u ṣandūq-dār i jinsī i k̲h̲wud kardah (Majmaʿ al-al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii p. 58121).
^ Back to text124. Pas az intiqāl i ān daulat ba-ḥaḍrat i … Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh … dar ān darbār … ba-manṣab i mad̲h̲kūr [i.e. manṣab i k̲h̲azīnah-dārī] muftak̲h̲ir u ḥasb al-amr maʾmūr ba-k̲h̲idmatgud̲h̲ārī i Farmān-farmā-yi mamlakat i Fārs s̲h̲udah ba-S̲h̲īrāz āmadah (Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn p. 62712); Baʿd az sālī dū ba-Taḥwīl-dārī u Ṣāḥib-jamʿī i kull i mutawajjihāt i dīwānī i Fārs maʾmūr u ba-k̲h̲idmat i … Ḥusain ʿAlī Mīrzā-yi Farmān-farmā-yi Fārs mas̲h̲g̲h̲ūl būd (Majmaʿ al-fuṣahā’ ii p. 58123).
^ Back to text126. For accounts of him see Anjuman i K̲h̲āqān. Nigāristān i Dārā, Tad̲h̲kirah i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī, Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī ix fol. 177b penult. (7th page from end), Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ix pp. 252–3. He died in 1247/1831–2.
^ Back to text127. Son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh and for thirty years Governor of Fārs, he became a pretender to the throne on his father’s death but was defeated and he died on his way to the fortress prison of Ardabīl.
^ Back to text128. C̲h̲ūn zamān i k̲h̲urd-sālī dar-gud̲h̲as̲h̲t ba-mulāzamat i S̲h̲āh-zādah i Farmān-farmā u farzandānas̲h̲ ba-sar mī-raft u muʿazzaz u mukarram mī-zīst u manāṣib i munāsib dās̲h̲t (Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii p. 581); rūzgārī c̲h̲and nīz ba-ḥukm i wirāt̲h̲at mulāzamat numūd ʿāqibat ba-k̲h̲wud sitīzān u az k̲h̲idmat gurīzān dar kunj i ʿuzlat pā ba-dāman kas̲h̲īd hamginān-rā kāras̲h̲ s̲h̲igift āmadah etc. (Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn p. 6282). In speaking of Riḍā Qulī Mīrzā, Ḥusain ʿAlī Mīrzā’s eldest son, Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān says Bandah i mu’allif sāl-hā dar k̲h̲idmatas̲h̲ ḥarīf i ḥujrah u garmābah u gulistān būdah am (Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī x fol. 5a, l. 19).
^ Back to text131. Faqīr-rā ba-munādamat i Nawwāb Fīrūz Mīrzā manṣūb dās̲h̲tand (Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii p. 5824); c̲h̲ūn man i bandah…. dar ān zamān ba-ṣawāb-dīd i Muʿtamad al-Daulah ba-munādamat u muṣāḥabat i amīr-zādah i mad̲h̲kūr muftak̲h̲ir u maʾmūr būdam u jamʿī az mutaʿalliqīn u ʿiyāl dar mauṭin i māʾlūf yaʿnī S̲h̲īrāz dās̲h̲tam li-hād̲h̲ā Nawwāb i as̲h̲raf Farmān-farmā-yi jadīd i Fārs Farīdūn Mīrzā marā az ḥarakat manʿ u ba-sukūn amr farmūd u ba-k̲h̲ilʿat u inʿām u raḥmat u ikrām dar ḥaḍrat i k̲h̲wud muʿazzaz u mas̲h̲ʿūf hami-dās̲h̲t c̲h̲unān-kih dar tahniyat i wurūdas̲h̲ midḥatī kih ziyādah az has̲h̲tād bait būd mauzūn u maʿrūḍ dās̲h̲tam ba-ʿadad i abyāt as̲h̲rafī i tūmānī jāʾizah jāʾiz s̲h̲umurd u adā farmūd (Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī x fol. 10b, l. 1).
^ Back to text133. u dar īn aiyām Nawwāb … Farīdūn Mīrzā … bandah i muʾallif u ʿAlī-Qulī K̲h̲ān Sartīb i Afs̲h̲ār rā bā baʿḍī tuḥaf u hadāyā rawānah i Dār al-khilāfah numūd u pas az s̲h̲araf-yābī i ḥuḍūr i ḥaḍrat i sulṭānī u maʿrūfīyat dar k̲h̲idmat i janāb i Ḥājjī [Mīrza Aqāsī] i Airawānī ba-tawaqquf i rikāb māʾmūr s̲h̲udīm (Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī x fol. 22a, l. 22). Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān reached Ṭihrān on 15 Ramaḍān and stayed at the house of Ḥājjī Mīrzā Āqāsī, the Prime Minister (Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii p. 5827).
^ Back to text135. Ham dar īn sāl S̲h̲āh-zādah ʿAbbās Mīrzā pas az faut i birādar i akbar i k̲h̲wud dar s̲h̲ab i iḥyā-yi Ramaḍān muṭawallid gardīd u samī i birādar i raftah s̲h̲ud u ḥaḍrat i S̲h̲āhansh̲āhī bandah i muʾallif rā ba-tarbiyat u k̲h̲idmat i ū maʾmūr farmūd (Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī x fol. 25a, l. 19).
^ Back to text136. Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii 5829–11. Cf. op. cit. i fol. 5a, l. 13: ba-k̲h̲idmat i tarbiyat i yakī az s̲h̲āh-zādagānam māʾmūr u ba-manṣab i tark̲h̲ānī i ḥuḍūr i bāhir al-nūr dar safar u ḥaḍar u k̲h̲alwat u jalwat masrūr dās̲h̲t. For the word tark̲h̲ānī cf. op. cit. ii p. 5151: dar zamān i jawānī dar k̲h̲idmat i … Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh simat i munādamat dās̲h̲tah dar k̲h̲alawāt ba-kitāb-k̲h̲wānī u dar jalawāt ba-tark̲h̲ānī mak̲h̲ṣūṣ būdah kamāl i maḥramīyat dar ān-ḥaḍrat yāftah.
^ Back to text138. Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii p. 582 14: ba-rikāb-būsī s̲h̲araf-yāb gas̲h̲tah ba-k̲h̲idmat i muqarrarah maʾmūr āmadam ba-sababī c̲h̲and az ān k̲h̲idmat istiʿfā numūdam u ba-kunj i ʿuzlat uftādam.
^ Back to text140. pas ba-riyāsat u nāẓimīyat i Madrasah i Dār al-Funūn … muftak̲h̲ir gas̲h̲tam u dar-īn ḍimn ḥasb al-amr ba-itmām i tārīk̲h̲ i Rauḍat al-ṣafā ḥukmī raft … (Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii p. 582 17). The Dār al-Funūn was opened on 5 Rabīʿ ii 1268/28 January 1852 (al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār p. 111).
^ Back to text143. Of the twenty works enumerated below all but the Jāmiʿ al-asrār (no. 14), the Niz̲h̲ād-nāmah (no. 17) and the Farhang (no. 18) are mentioned in the Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ (ii p. 582). The Jāmiʿ al-asrār is mentioned without information concerning its subject in the author’s list of his own works in the Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn (pp. 628–9). That list, although it immediately follows a statement that 1260 was the current year and that the author’s age was then forty-five, contains (at least in the printed edition of ahs 1316) several works written after 1260, since it includes all the twenty enumerated below except the Sifārat-nāmah (no. 15), the Niz̲h̲ād-nāmah (no. 17) and the Farhang (no. 18).
^ Back to text152. 1288 is given as the date of completion on p. 678 1 of vol. ii. In the preface (vol. i, fol. 6a, 1. 7) and in the heading to Bāb ii (vol. i p. 64) 1284 and 1285 respectively are mentioned as the current year, but earlier years are elsewhere described as current, e.g. 1274 (vol. ii p. 54815) and 1275 (vol. ii p. 81 13). The work, based in part on material collected over a period of thirty years (see vol. i, fol. 4b ult.), would doubtless have remained unfinished, if the author had not been instructed first by Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (vol. i, fol. 5a, l. 14) and later by Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh (fol. 6a, l. 4) to finish it.
^ Back to text153. The word bāb is applied to these divisions at the end of the preface (vol. i, fol. 6a, l. 14), at the beginning of the biography of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh (fol. 10b, ll. 1 and 5) and in the heading to Bāb ii (vol. i p. 64. Bābs iii and iv are without headings). On the other hand the word rukn is used, but doubtless only by way of comparison, a few lines before the divisions are called abwāb (vol. i, fol. 6a, l. 10: u ān-rā murattab u mubawwab sāk̲h̲tam u bunyān i ān-rā mānand i ʿālam i jusmānī bar c̲h̲ār rukn nihādam). On p. 657 of vol. i the words qismat and ṭabaqah are used.
^ Back to text154. These dates are given in the heading to the table of contents on fol. 7b in vol. i, but there is some confusion in the arrangement of the poets, since, although Bāb ii includes some poets of the eighth century (e.g. Ṣafī al-Dīn Ardabīlī, d. 735, vol. i p. 313, and ʿAlī Hamadānī, d. 786, p. 340), there are far more in Bāb iii (e.g. Ibn i Yamīn, d. 763, vol. ii p. 2, Ḥāfiẓ, d. 791, p. 11, K̲h̲wājū. d. 734, p. 15, Salmān i Sāwajī, d. 769, p. 19). The mutawassiṭīn in Bāb iii seem to be poets who died between 701 and 1151 (ah 1150 being given on p. 56 (cf. Ṭarāʾiq al-ḥaqāʾiq iii p. 42 33) as the date of the death of “Hās̲h̲imī” Dihlawī b. M. Muʾmin “ʿArs̲h̲ī”, who is erroneously described as the author of the Maẓhar al-āt̲h̲ār (cf. Rieu ii 802, Ethé 1765), a mat̲h̲nawī really written in 940). Here again, however, there is some overlapping, since Bāb iv contains Fatḥ Allāh “Janāb” Iṣfahānī, who died in 1146 (vol. ii p. 92).
^ Back to text162. Ibn-i-Aschur-Muhammad-Rahmatullah-i-Bukhari according to Semenov’s Kurzer Abriss p. 9. This might conceivably represent M. Rahmat Allāh b. ʿAs̲h̲ūr Buk̲h̲ārī. According to Semenov’s Buk̲h̲ārā catalogue the name appears as Ibn-e ʿAshur-Rehmetolla-ol-Bokhari in the lithographed edition.
^ Back to text166. As sources of biographical information concerning contemporary poets Rash̲īd Yāsimī mentions (in addition to the works of Ishaque and Īrānī) the Bihtarīn as̲h̲ʿār of “Pizhmān” Bak̲h̲tyārī [Ṭihrān 1313/1934*], the Muntak̲h̲abāt i āt̲h̲ār of M. Diyāʾ Has̲h̲trūdī [ah 1342/1023–4], the Gulhā-yi adab of Saʿādat Nūrī [Iṣfahān ahs 1342/1923–4], and the Asrār i k̲h̲ilqat of Muṭīʿī [cf. Ishaque Modern Persian poetry p. 195, from which it appears that this work is the A. i k̲h̲. of Sarhang Aḥmad Ak̲h̲gar, ed. Ḥusain Muṭīʿī Ṭihrān ahs 1314/1935–6].