In Volume 1-2: Biography, Additions, and Corrections | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.
§ 1574. Qādī S. Nūr Allāh “Nūrī”1 b. S. S̲h̲arīf b. S. Nūr Allāh Ḥusainī Marʿas̲h̲ī S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tarī was born at S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tar2 in 956/1549 (?).3 In early manhood (fī mabādiʾ al-s̲h̲abāb4) he went to Mas̲h̲had and he subsequently settled in India. ¶ He was there apparently in 992/1584, if not earlier, since his work al-Jalālīyah5 completed in that year (i.ḥ. 775) is stated by Iʿjāz Ḥusain to have been written in the time of Jalāl al-Dīn M. Akbar Bahādur, Sulṭān of Delhi, a statement based doubtless on the author’s own words. In Rajab 993/July 15856 he began at Lahore his best known work, the Majālis al-muʾminīn. In 995/1587 he wrote and dedicated to the K̲h̲ān i K̲h̲ānān ʿAbd al-Raḥīm K̲h̲ān7 al-ʿAs̲h̲arat al-kāmilat al-K̲h̲ān-i-K̲h̲ānānīyah (iḥ 2116).
It must have been in 994/1586 or 995/15878 that Akbar, to whom he had been presented by Ḥakīm Abū ’l-Fatḥ Gīlānī,9 appointed him, though a S̲h̲īʿite, Qāḍī of Lahore in place of the aged S̲h̲. Muʿīn, who after falling down through infirmity in the imperial darbār had been retired and who died in 995/1587.10 ʿAbd al-Qādir Badāʾūnī speaks in high praise of his integrity as a judge, his strict control of corrupt muftīs and muḥtasibs, and his personal piety and learning. His last years seem to have been spent in Āgrah, since it was there that he completed his Iḥqāq al-ḥaqq in 1014/1605 and there that he was flogged to death by order of Jahāngīr on 18 Jumādā ii 1019/7 Sept. 1610. Authorities disagree concerning the precise reason for his execution. According to the Amal al-āmil (p. 736) he was put to death bi-sabab taʾlif Iḥqāq al-ḥaqq, and this may well be correct. Not only does that work indicate a fanatical hatred of Sunnism, but as Horovitz has shown, it contains at least one passage which Jahāngīr might have considered personally offensive. The statement in the Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ that the cause of his undoing was the evidence of his S̲h̲īʿism provided by the Majālis al-muʾminīn is highly improbable. As Horovitz observes, his S̲h̲īʿism was no secret11 and would in itself have been no sufficient ground for execution.12 Another account says that he incurred Jahāngīr’s wrath by a disparaging remark about the latter’s patron saint S̲h̲. Salīm C̲h̲is̲h̲tī.13 In any ¶ case Nūr Allāh is regarded by the S̲h̲īʿites as a martyr and those in India call him al-S̲h̲ahīd al-thālith.14
Of his numerous works the lists given in the Nujūm al-samāʾ and in M. Hādī’s S̲h̲ahīd i t̲h̲ālit̲h̲ contain 89 and 109 titles respectively. They include a number of ḥawās̲h̲ī on well-known text-books, but few of them seem to have become popular. Concerning those mentioned by Brockelmann (Sptbd. ii pp. 607–8) it may be noted that the Maṣāʾib al-nawāṣib (ih 2954) is preserved also at the India Office (Arab. mss. Cat. ii no. 2158) and a Persian translation of it by M. As̲h̲raf at Mas̲h̲had (I fṣl. i no. 260), the Iḥqāq al-ḥaqq (ih 111) also at the India Office (Arab. mss. Cat. ii no. 2149), the British Museum (Ellis-Edwards p. 8), Bānkīpūr (x 623), and the r.a.s.b. (As̲h̲raf ʿAlī, Arab. Cat. p. 23. 3 copies), and a Persian translation of it at Bānkīpūr (xiv 1332), and the Ḥās̲h̲iyah ʿalā tafsīr al-Baiḍāwī also at Calcutta (A.S.B. Govt. Coll. 1903–7 p. 16). The Sirāj al-qulūb wa-ʿilāj al-d̲h̲unūb mentioned by Brockelmann as a work of Nūr Allāh’s is by Zain al-Dīn al-Maʿbarī (cf. Sarkis Dictionnaire encyclopédique de bibliographie arabe col. 1762). Nūr Allāh’s annotations on the fifth maqṣad (al-Imāmah) of al-Qūs̲h̲jī’s commentary (al-S̲h̲arḥ al-jadīd, Brockelmann i p. 50917, Sptbd. i p. 92612) on Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī’s Tajrīd al-ʿaqāʾid) are preserved at the India Office (Loth 471 xv). Badāʾūnī describes Nūr Allāh as ṣāḥib i taṣānīf i lāʾiqah, but he specifies only a tauqīʿ “beyond all praise” (kih az ḥaiyiz i taʿrīf u tauṣīf bīrūn-ast) on the undotted15 tafsīr of “Faiḍī”.
- Majālis al-muʾminīn, begun in Rajab 993/1585 at Lahore and completed on 23 D̲h̲ū ’l-Qaʿdah 1010/1602,16 biographies of eminent S̲h̲īʿites (including a number who according to the author passed as Sunnites though they were really S̲h̲īʿites practising taqīyah) divided into a ¶ fātiḥah (on the term S̲h̲īʿah) and twelve majālis ((1) places with S̲h̲īʿite associations, p. 11, (2) some S̲h̲īʿite tribes and families, p. 52, (3) S̲h̲īʿite contemporaries of the Prophet, p. 66, (4) S̲h̲īʿites of the next generation (Tabiʿūn), p. 118, (5) S̲h̲īʿite scholars of the succeeding generations, p. 141, (6) Ṣūfīs, p. 255, (7) philosophers, p. 329, (8) S̲h̲īʿite kings and 16 S̲h̲īʿite dynasties, p. 354, (9) governors, generals, etc., p. 420, (10) wazīrs and calligraphists,17 p. 433, (11) Arab poets, p. 458, (12) Persian poets, p. 496): ih 2738, i.o. d.p. 745 (ah 1016/1608), 732 (breaks off in Majlis v. ah 1051/1641–2 (earlier part only)), Ethé 704 (n.d.), 2829 ii (fragments), i.o. 3834, 3869, Lindesiana p. 207 no. 363 (circ. ad 1600), Bānkīpūr vii 720 (ah 1045/1635), 721 (18th cent.), Berlin 601 (ah 1051/1641), 602 (defective), Leningrad Univ. 1039 (ah 1052/1642–3. See Romaskewiez p. 13), Mas̲h̲had iii p. 100 (ah 1054/1644–5), Majlis 556 (ah 1058/1648), Rieu i 337a (17th cent.), 338a (17th cent.), 338a (17th cent.), 338b (17th cent.), Ivanow 276 (1st 5 majālis. 17th cent.), 1st Suppt. 773 (last 6 majālis. ah 1077/1667), Bodleian 367 (n.d.), 368 (ah 1102/1690) 369 (n.d.), 370 (n.d.), Blochet i 429 (ah 1104/1692), 430 (defective at end. 17–18th cent.), Edinburgh 244 (ah 1157/1744, copied from a ms. of 1028/1618), Asʿad 1280, ʿUmumīyah 5148.
Editions: Ṭihrān 1268/1852° (unpaginated), 1299/1881–2‡.
[Biography of his grandfather, S. Nūr Allāh b. M.-S̲h̲āh S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tarī, in Majālis al-muʾminīn pp. 223–5; brief autobiographical passage in Iḥqāq al-ḥaqq, k̲h̲ātimah (quoted in Goldziher’s Beiträge zur Literaturgeschichte (see below) pp. 486–8, Nujūm al-samāʾ pp. 10–11, S̲h̲ahīd i t̲h̲ālit̲h̲ (see below) pp. 26–30); Āʾīn i Akbarī p. 234 (only his name in a list), Blochmann’s trans. p. 545 (where a few facts are added from unspecified sources); Ṭabaqāt i Akbarī ii p. 468 (only Imrūz [i.e. in 1002 presumably] ba-qaḍā-yi Lāhaur mas̲h̲g̲h̲ūlast u ba-diyānat u amānat u faḍāʾil u kamālāt ittiṣāf dārad); Badāʾūnī Muntak̲h̲hab al-tawārīk̲h̲ iii 137–8; Mirʾāt al-ʿālam (among the ʿulamā’ at the end of Ārāyis̲h̲ vii); Amal al-āmil p. 73; Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (the passage, or parts of it, quoted in Nujūm al-samāʾ pp. 12–13, 14–16, and thence, so far as the account of the martyrdom is concerned, in Der Islam iii pp. 66–7); Tad̲h̲kirah i S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tar p. 36; K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār no. 290; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 2821; Rauḍāt al-jannāt iv pp. 222–3; Nujūm al-samāʾ pp. 9–17; I. Goldziher Beiträge zur Literaturgeschichte der Sîʿâ und der sunnitischen Polemik (Sitzungsberichte der K. Akademie der Wissenschaften [zu Wien], phil.-hist. Classe, 78. Bd., Vienna 1874) pp. 486–513 (on the Iḥqāq al-ḥaqq mainly. A review of the Beiträge was published in zdmg. ¶ 29 (1876) pp. 673–81 by O. Loth, who added some details); Rieu i 337; Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 245; Taqijja, von J. Horovitz (in Der Islam iii (1912) pp. 63–7, where the text of ʿAlī-Qulī K̲h̲ān “Wālih’s” account of the martyrdom is quoted from the Nujūm al-samāʾ); S̲h̲ahīd i t̲h̲ālit̲h̲, an Urdu biography by Mirzā M. Hādī “ʿAziz” Lak’hnawī, Lucknow 1916* (photograph of the tomb as frontispiece); Saḥīfah i nūr, an Urdu biography by S. Ṣag̲h̲īr Ḥasan “S̲h̲ams” Zaidī Wāsiṭī, Delhi 1919*; Būhār Arabic Cat. pp. 124–7; Bānkīpūr viii pp. 161–2; Ency. Isl. under Nūr Allāh (Hidayet Hosain); Brockelmann Sptbd. ii pp. 607–8.]
§ 1575. Aḥmad b. M. ʿAlī b. M. Bāqir al-Iṣfahānī commonly called (al-mas̲h̲hūr bi-) al-Bihbahānī,18 a member of the Majlisī family which produced several famous Shīʿite theologians,19 was born at Kirmāns̲h̲āhān in 1191/1777. His father, a bitter enemy of the Ṣūfīs, whom he denounced in his Risālah i K̲h̲airātīyah (Rieu i p. 33b), was “the chief priest of Kermanshah”, whom Sir John Malcolm met in 1800 (History of Persia, London 1829, ii pp. 271, 297–8) and who died in 1216/1801–2 (see Mirʾāt al-aḥwāl i jahān-numā, Maṭlab 4; Rauḍāt al-jannāt iv pp. 121–2; Qiṣaṣ al-‘ulamāʾ p. 157, in the notice of his father). Aḥmad b. M. ʿAlī had visited the Mesopotamian sanctuaries and various towns in Persia before leaving Mas̲h̲had in 1219/1804–5 on the journey which took him via Bandar i ʿAbbās, Ṣuḥār, and Masqaṭ to Bombay in Ṣafar 1220/1805. From Bombay he went to Ḥaidarābād (Deccan) and, among other places, Calcutta (1221/1806), Murs̲h̲idābād, ʿAẓīmābād (Patna), Faiḍābād (Fyzabad) (1222/1807), Lucknow, Faiḍābād again (1223/1808), ʿAẓīmābād again, Murs̲h̲idābād again, Jahāngīrnagar (i.e. Dacca) and again ʿAẓīmābād, where he wrote his autobiography in 1224–5/1809–10. A list of his own works, nineteen in number, is given in the Mirʾāt al-aḥwāl i jahān-numā (Maṭlab v, maqṣad 2, near the end) and is quoted in the Bānkīpūr Catalogue (vii pp. 184–5). Of the Tuḥfat al-muḥibbīn (no. 9, composed at Faiḍābād) and the Tanbīh al-g̲h̲āfilīn (no. 15, composed at Lucknow in 1222/1807 = i.ḥ. 709, on the ak̲h̲bārīs and ʿulamāʾ suspected of Ṣūfism) there are mss. at Bānkīpūr (xiv nos. 1321 and 1322). The Risālah i wilādat u wafāt i Ch̲ahdārdah Maʿṣūm (= no. 12 (?), i.ḥ. 1542) is preserved at Calcutta (Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 1063 (2)). A later work, the Sabīl al-najāt completed at ʿAẓīmābād in 1225/1810 or 1226/1811 and dedicated to M. ʿAlī K̲h̲̲ān Qājār, is preserved at Calcutta in two copies (Ivanow 1128 and Ivanow-Curzon 392).
- ¶ Mirʾāt al-aḥwāl i jahān-numā, an account of the author’s ancestors and relations, of his own life and travels, and of the persons whom he met, completed (so far as the first mujallad, the only one extant,20 is concerned) in 1225/1810 at ʿAẓīmābād [i.e. Patna], dedicated to M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Qājār [Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s eldest son, d. 1237/182121] and divided into five maṭlabs ((1) M. Taqī b. Maqṣūd ʿAlī Majlisī22 and his descendants, (2) M. Bāqir b. M. Taqī Majlisī,23 (3) M. Ṣāliḥ b. Aḥmad Māzandarānī,24 pupil and son-in-law of M. Taqī, (4) M. Bāqir b. M. Akmal Iṣfahānī Bihbahānī,25 grandson of M. Ṣāliḥ and grandfather of the author, (5) the author’s memoirs in three maqṣads, (a) from his birth to his landing at Bombay, (b) his life in India, (c) account of Europe and the English) and a K̲h̲ātimah (advice to kings and rulers and a sketch of Persian history from the decline of the Ṣafawīs to the author’s time): Rieu i 385a (ah 1225/1810), Suppt. 131 (ah 1281/1864, containing on the margins of foll. 69–79 some additional notices written in Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh’s reign by M. Ṣādiq b. S. M. Mahdī b. Amīr S. ʿAlī), Bānkīpūr vii 628 (lacking the sketch of recent Persian history at end of K̲h̲ātimah. 19th cent.) 629 (ah 1225/1810–11), Būhār 96 (ah 1225/1810–11), i.o. d.p. 748 (not later than ah 1226/1811), i.o. 3941 (defective at both ends and damaged. 19th cent.), Ivanow 278 (ah 1227/1812), 2nd Suppt. 935 (lacks Maqṣad 3 of Maṭlab v and K̲h̲ātimah. Mid-19th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 252 no. 195, Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 71 (S. Zain al-ʿĀbidīn, Murs̲h̲idābād).
[Rieu i pp. 385–6; Nujūm al-samāʾ pp. 382–6 (based on the Mirʾāt al-ahwāl); Bānkīpūr vii pp. 180–5.]
§ 1576. In 1231/1816 an anonymous author dedicated to G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn Ḥaidar, King of Oudh,
- Āʾīnah i ḥaqq-numā, notices of contemporary S̲h̲īʿite scholars, especially S. Dildār ʿAlī,26 his teachers and pupils and some persons who visited ¶ Lucknow in his time: i.o. d.p. 259 (b), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1330, iii p. 182, Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2062 (19th cent).
§ 1577. M. ʿAlī b. Ḥājjī M. Ḥasan known as Hindī went from Persia to India in 1193/1779 and returned home after an absence of thirty-seven years, fifteen of which were spent in the service of Nawwāb Āṣaf al-Daulah (Nawwāb-Wazīr of Oudh 1189–1212/1775–97) and those from 1227/1812 onwards (evidently, therefore, only two or three) in that of the Governor General27
- Majmaʿ al-nuqūl, stories of persons who honoured the memory of al-Ḥusain by means of taʿziyahs, pilgrimages to Karbalāʾ, and lamentation (taʿziyah-dārān u zawwārān u giryah-kunandagān i Saiyid al-S̲h̲uhadāʾ): Berlin 1020.
§ 1578. Mīrzā M. Ḥaidar-S̲h̲ukōh b. Mīrzā M. Kām-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ Bahādur b. Mīrzā M. Sulaimān-S̲h̲ukōh b. Muḥammad S̲h̲āh, apparently a great-grandson of the Mogul Emperor Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (1131–61/1719–48), flourished in the third quarter of the 13th/19th century.
- Majmūʿah i Ḥaidar-S̲h̲ukōh (beginning: Fātiḥah i kull i kalām … ammā baʿd īn S̲h̲īʿī i maurūt̲h̲ī M. Ḥaidar-S̲h̲ukōh b. Mīrzā M. Kām-bak̲h̲s̲h̲, etc.), memoirs, correspondence (some of the letters being dated 1270/1853–4), and a declaration of allegiance to S̲h̲īʿism, which, according to the author, was the faith of the earlier Indian Tīmūrids: Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 930 (21 foll., defective at end. Late 19th cent.).
§ 1579. M. b. Sulaimān b. M. Rafīʿ b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib b. ʿAlī al-Tunakābunī28 was born in 1234/1818–19 or 1235/1819–20.29 His father, a scholar and physician, was for some years in attendance on Muḥammad-Qulī Mīrzā, Governor of Māzandarān. It is stated in the Mas̲h̲had catalogue (iii p. 142) on the authority of Ḥājj S. M. (Mujtahid i) Tunakābunī that M. b. Sulaimān died in 1308/1890–1. His works, of which he gives a list in the Qiṣaṣ al-ʿulamāʾ, amounted to more than two hundred. Of these al-Fawāʾid fī uṣūl al-dīn, a manẓūmah, was published at Ṭihrān in 1283/1866–7 (Aḥsan al-wadīʿah i p. 12210), the Mawāʿiẓ al-muttaqīn at [Ṭihrān] in 1297/1880°, and the Sabīl al-najāt in the same volume as the Qiṣaṣ ¶ al-ʿulamāʾ at [Ṭihrān] in 1304/1886° and 1309/1891‡. In his list of his works are mentioned an alphabetically arranged Tad̲h̲kirat al-ʿulamāʾ (Qiṣaṣ al-ʿulamāʾ p. 6919. Cf. p. 714), a work entitled Karāmāt al-ʿulamāʾ (op. cit. p. 6920) and an autobiography entitled Mud̲h̲akkir al-ik̲h̲wān (op. cit. p. 723).
- Qiṣaṣ al-ʿulamāʾ, notices of 153 ancient and modern S̲h̲īʿite scholars completed 17 Rajab 1290/10 Sept. 1873, arranged ba-tartīb i ijāzāt u tartīb i azminah u aʿṣār and beginning with the author’s teacher S. Ibrāhīm Qazwīnī: Āṣafīyah i p. 348 nos. 114–5 (ah 1301/1883–4).
Editions: [Persia ?] 1296/1879°; [Ṭihrān] 1304/1886° (followed by (1) M. b. Sulaimān Tunakābunī’s Sabīl al-najāt, (2) S. Murtaḍā’s Tabṣirat al-ʿawāmm); [Ṭihrān] 1308–9/1891‡ (followed by the same two works on p. 350 and p. 358 respectively); Bombay or Lucknow (?) 1306/1888–9 (cf. Aḥsan al-wadīʿah i p. 1226, Browne Lit. Hist, iv p. 354); Tabrīz 1320/1902–3 (cf. Aḥsan al-wadīʿah i p. 1226).
Description: A traveller’s narrative written to illustrate the episode of the Bàb edited … and translated … by E. G. Browne, ii (Cambridge 1891) pp. 197–8.
Urdu translation by Mīr Nādir ʿAlī “Raʿd”: Qiṣaṣ al-ʿulamāʾ, Ḥaidarābād 1340–1/1921–3*.
[Qiṣaṣ al-ʿulamāʾ, 1308–9 ed., pp. 58–74; al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār p. 157; Aḥsan al-wadīʿah i pp. 121–3.]
§ 1580. Maulawī Mīrzā Muḥammad ʿAlī (so on the title-page and in the three prefixed taqārīẓ) al-Kas̲h̲mīrī aṣlan t̲h̲umma ’l-Lak’hnawī (so in the third taqrīẓ, p. iv, l. 3) or, as he calls himself in the preface, Muḥammad b. Ṣādiq b. Mahdī, was a pupil of S. M. ʿAbbās S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tarī30 and an old friend of S. Ḥāmid Ḥusain.31
- Nujūm al-samāʾ fī tarājim al-ʿulamāʾ, lives of S̲h̲īʿite scholars of the eleventh (p. 4), twelfth (p. 157), and thirteenth (p. 313) Islāmic centuries, begun in 1286/1869–7032 at the request of S. Ḥāmid Ḥusain33 and divided, ¶ according to the preface, into three najms, one for each century, and a k̲h̲ātimah, of which the subject is not stated: Lucknow 1303/1886° (“Vol i (jild i awwal),” apparently the only one published, consisting of 424 pages and ending with Muftī S. Muḥammad-Qulī K̲h̲ān b. S. M. Ḥusain b. S. Ḥāmid Ḥusain, who died at Lucknow in 1260/1844).34
§ 1581. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz “Jawāhir al-Kalām” is the author of Kitāb-k̲h̲ānahā-yi Īrān (Firdausī Press [Tihrān] ahs 1311/1932–3), at the end of which is printed a list of other works by the same author. These are (1) At̲h̲ār al-S̲h̲īʿat al-Imāmīyah (see below), (2) a Persian translation of Ibn K̲h̲aldūn’s Muqaddimah (described as having been sent to the Persian Ministry of Education in the hope that it would be published), (3) a commentary [doubtless in Arabic] on the Kifāyat al-uṣūl of Mullā M. Kāẓim K̲h̲urāsānī35 (in three volumes, of which half of the first volume is described as having been lithographed at Tihrān), (4) Nahj al-faṣāḥah, a collection of the Prophet’s short speeches, sayings etc., modelled on the Nahj al-balāg̲h̲ah (unfinished), (5) philosophical and other essays published in periodicals at Cairo, Bairūt and Istānbūl. According to a statement on the back cover of the Kitāb-k̲h̲ānahā-yi Irān the author had collected much material for two further works, namely (6) Tārīk̲h̲ i Tihrān and (7) Kitāb i mak̲h̲ṭūṭāt i Īrān, on the Arabic and Persian mss. in the libraries of Persia.
- Āt̲h̲ār al-S̲h̲īʿat al-Imāmīyah rājiʿ ba-ʿaqāʾid u afkār u adwār i siyāsī u adabī u tārīk̲h̲ i bilād u mamālik u āt̲h̲ār i adabī u māddī u s̲h̲arḥ i ḥāl i mardumān i nāmī i ʿilmī u siyāsī i S̲h̲īʿah az ibtidā-yi tas̲h̲kīl i īn firqah tā ʿaṣr i ḥāḍir … in twenty volumes, of which only two are described at the end of the Kitāb-k̲h̲ānahā-yi Īrān as having been printed, namely vol. iii (in Arabic [Tihrān 1342/1924‡ (according to the title-page, but 1348 [1929–30] according to the cover)] and also in a Persian translation, s̲h̲āmil i ḥālāt i salāṭīn u farmānrawāyān i S̲h̲īʿah az ibtidā-yi Islām, tā kunūn) and vol. iv (s̲h̲āmil i ḥālāt i kāffah i wuzarāʾ u umarāʾ i īn firqah), the latter (biographies of wazīrs arranged chronologically under the dynasties and then (Bāb 2, p. 125) biographies of amīrs similarly arranged) having been printed in a Persian translation at the Maṭbaʿah i Majlis [Tihrān] in ahs 1307/1928–9‡. From the colophon of vol. iv it appears that the subject of vol. v is the history of modern Persia from Qājār times to the present.
¶ § 1582. Other works:—
- Kāk̲h̲ i dil-āwīz yā Tārīk̲h̲ i S̲h̲arīf i Raḍī,36 by S. ʿAlī Akbar Burquʿī Qummī (in, and offprinted from, Armag̲h̲ān xix/5–6 (Murdād 1317/1938) pp. 357–71, xix/7 (Mihr 1317) pp. 451–8, xix/8 (Ābān 1317) pp. 505–12, xix/9–10 (Ispand 1317) pp. 593–608 (cf. Luzac’s Oriental List 1940 p. 107)).
- Risālah dar faḍīlat i ʿilm u ʿulamāʾ, a short treatise written not earlier than 1052/1642 (S̲h̲āh Ṣafī being referred to as dead) by M. Muqīm al-Ḥusainī al-Astarābādī37 on the spiritual advantages of theological learning, with eulogies of some famous S̲h̲īʿite divines and especially an encomiastic biography of M. Bāqir Dāmād (d. 1040/1630–1 or 1041/1631–2. See Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 579 and the authorities there cited): Ivanow Curzon 705 (late 18th cent.).
- Risālah dar sabab i s̲h̲ahādat i S̲h̲ahīd i T̲h̲ānī, on the death of Zain al-Dīn al-ʿĀmilī38 at Istānbūl: Ivanow 1st Spt. 827(6) (ah 1252/1837).
^ Back to text1. Dar fann i s̲h̲āʿirī kamāl i qudrat u mahārat dās̲h̲t tak̲h̲alluṣ i wai Nūrī būd dar jawāb i qaṣīdah i S. Ḥasan i G̲h̲aznawī qaṣīdaʾī guftah kih īn c̲h̲and bait az ānjāst: S̲h̲ukr i K̲h̲udā kih nūr i ilāhīst rahbaram, etc. (Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿaraʾ; as quoted in Nujūm al-samāʾ p. 12). The author of the Nujūm al-samāʾ goes on to say Rāqim al-ḥurūf rā bisyārī az as̲h̲ʿār i ābdār i ān sulālat al-ak̲h̲yār ba-naẓar rasīdah. Cf. Badāʾūnī iii p. 13716: ṭabʿ i naẓmī dārad u as̲h̲ʿār i dil-nis̲h̲īn mī-gūyad. No dīwān or other collection of his poems seems to be recorded in the catalogues, but the list of his works in the Nujūm al-samāʾ includes a dīwān i qaṣāʾid (p. 16 antepenult.) and a dīwān i as̲h̲ʿār (p. 177).
^ Back to text2. Majālis al-muʾminīn p. 31, l. 10 from foot (dar ān-diyār i faiḍ-āt̲h̲ār maulid i īn k̲h̲āksār ast), Iḥqāq al-ḥaqq, k̲h̲ātimah, quoted in Nujūm al-samāʾ p. 10 (id̲h̲ baʿda mā rakibtu g̲h̲ārib al-ig̲h̲tirāb fī mabādiʾ al-s̲h̲abāb li-taḥsīl al-ḥikam wa-takmīl al-fuyūḍ wa-’l-niʿam min waṭanī S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tar al-maḥrūsah ilā ’l-Mas̲h̲had al-muqaddasat al-Riḍawīyat al maʾnūsah ramānī zamānī ilā ’l-Hind al-manḥūsah qāmat tilka ’l-s̲h̲auhāʾ al-maʾyūsah ʿalā ’zdiyād g̲h̲ammī, etc.).
^ Back to text4. See the passage from the Iḥqāq al-ḥaqq quoted in the second previous footnote. Mirzā M. Hādī says, on the authority of a note in an old ms. of the Masāʾib al-Nawāṣib, that he went to Mas̲h̲had in 979/1571–2. In that year he must have reached the age of twenty-three, if 956 is the correct date for his birth.
^ Back to text6. Cf. Rieu i. p. 338a, where it is recorded that “at the end [of Add. 23,541, Rieu i p. 337a] is a marginal note, apparently transcribed from the author’s autograph, stating that the work had been commenced in Lahore, in Rajab, a h. 993, and completed on the 23rd of Zulkaʿdah, ah 1010.
^ Back to text14. That the third place among the martyrs was still regarded as vacant by some at least of the S̲h̲īʿites of Persia in the 19th century is shown by the fact that the title S̲h̲ahīd i t̲h̲ālit̲h̲ was given to Hājjī Mullā M. Taqī Burg̲h̲ānī, who was assassinated by a Bābī in 1848 (sec Qiṣaṣ al-‘ulamāʾ p. 19 seq.; Nujūm al-samāʾ pp. 407–11; Aḥsan al-wadīʿah pp. 30–5; Tārīk̲h̲ i jadīd pp. 274–80; Browne Lit. Hist, iv p. 421; Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 829; etc.). For the S̲h̲ahīd i awwal see Majālis al-muʾminīn p. 249; Luʾluʾatā ’l-Baḥrain pp. 142–8; Brockelmann i 108, Sptbd. ii p. 131 and for the S̲h̲ahīd i t̲h̲ānī no. 1582 (3) infra. In the Nujūm al-samāʾ p. 330, the title S̲h̲ahīd i rābiʿ is given to Mīrzā M. Mahdī b. Hidāyat Allāh Mūsawī Iṣfahānī Mas̲h̲hadī.
^ Back to text15. Tauqīʿī bar tafsīr i muhmal i S̲h̲. Faiḍī nawis̲h̲tah. Several orientalists have misunderstood the word muhmal and spoken of the “worthless” tafsīr of “Faiḍī”. The peculiarity of “Faiḍī’s” tafsīr, the Sawāṭiʿ al-ilhām (Brockelmann ii p. 417, Sptbd. ii p. 610), is that it consists entirely of words containing no dotted (manqūṭ) letters. His Mawārid al-kilam wa-silk durar al-ḥikam is another specimen of this kind of composition.
^ Back to text16. The authority for these dates is a marginal note “apparently transcribed from the author’s autograph” at the end of the b.m. ms. Add. 23, 541. Mirzā M. Hādī gives 990/1582 as the date of composition, and so does E. G. Browne (on what authority ?).
^ Back to text30. wa-huwa mimman qaraʾa ʿalaiya baʿḍa ’l-kutubi ’l-adabīyah wa-s̲h̲aṭran min kitābī Rawāʾiḥ al-Qurʾān fī faḍāʾil umanāʾ al-Raḥmān (first taqrīẓ, p. i, l. 5 from foot). M. ʿA. S̲h̲. is the author of a mat̲h̲nawī entitled Mann u salwā (i.h. p. 564. Editions: [Delhi ?] 1263/1847°, Amrōhah 1894°) and other works.
^ Back to text31. S. H. H. Mūsawī Nīs̲h̲āpūrī Lak’hnawī wrote the large S̲h̲īʿite work ʿAbaqāt al-anwār fī imāmat al-Aʾimmat al-aṭhār, of which the British Museum has a number of parts published from 1293/1876 to 1314/1896 (Edwards col. 243). Cf. al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār p. 168.
^ Back to text32. A prefixed taqrīẓ by S. Ḥāmid Ḥusain is dated 1290/1873, but the printed text contains quotations from the Qiṣaṣ al-ʿulamāʾ (e.g. pp. 41010, 4129, 4156), which were doubtless inserted some years later than 1290.