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13.15 Biography: Travellers, Pilgrims, Tourists
(8,391 words)

In Volume 1-2: Biography, Additions, and Corrections | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.

previous chapter: 13.14 Traditionists

See also nos. 141222 supra

§ 1589. Ḥakīm Abū Muʿīn Nāṣir “Ḥujjat” ibn K̲h̲usrau Qubādiyānī Marwazī, born in D̲h̲ū ’l-Qaʿdah 394/Aug.-Sept. 1004 apparently at Qubādiyān, was by profession an official in the revenue department. In Rabīʿ ii 437/Oct.-Nov. 1045, when C̲h̲ag̲h̲rī Bēg Dāwud b. Mīkāʾīl b. Saljūq was Amīr of K̲h̲urāsān, Nāṣir went on revenue business from Marw to Panj-dīh, near Marw al-Rud, and from there to Jūzjānān. Here he dreamt a dream which caused him to abandon the practice of drinking and undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca. Returning to Marw he resigned his official appointment and set out on the journey which he has described in his Safar-nāmah. In Egypt, then flourishing under Fāṭimid rule, he came in contact with Ismāʿīlī theologians, and presumably it was there that he became a convert to the Ismāʿīlī creed. At this time or later he was appointed ḥujjat or leader of propaganda for K̲h̲urāsān. Some time after his return, however, his religious views or his propagandist activities met with disapproval from the authorities and he was forced to leave Balk̲h̲. He seems to have gone for a time to Māzandarān, but eventually he settled at Yumgān (or Yamkān ?) in the mountains of Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān, and there he died and was buried probably in, or about, 481/1088.

Among his works were (1) a dīwān (Editions: Tabrīz 1280/1864°, Tihrān ahs 1304–7/1925–8 (Dīwān i as̲h̲ʿār i Ḥakīm … Nāṣir b. K̲h̲usrau … ba-inḍimām i Rūs̲h̲anāʾī-nāmah … u Saʿādat-nāmah … with introduction, notes and indexes by Mujtabā Mīnuwī). Selections: (a) Auswahl aus Nâṣir Chusrau’s Kaṣîden [with translation]. Von … H. Ethé (in zdmg. 36 (1882) pp. 478–508): (b) Kürzere Lieder und poetische Fragmente aus Nâçir Khusraus Dîvân. Von H. Ethé (in Nachrichten der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Göttingen 1882, pp. 124–52). (2) Rūs̲h̲anāʾī-nāmah, a philosophical poem (Editions: (1) Nâṣir Chusrau’s Rûśanâinâma … oder Buch der Erleuchtung in Text und Uebersetzung, nebst Noten und kritisch-biographischem Appendix. Von H. Ethé (in zdmg. 33 (1879) pp. 645–65, 34 (1880) pp. 617–42): (2) Berlin 1341/1923* (Safar-nāmah i Ḥakīm N. i K̲h̲. ba-inḍimām i Rūs̲h̲anāʾī-nāmah u Saʿādat-nāmah. A reprint of Ethé’s text): (3) Tihrān ahs 1304–7/1925–8 (see above under dīwān): (3) Saʿādat-nāmah, a didactic poem (Editions: (1) Le Livre de la Félicité …, par Nâçir ed-Dîn ben Khosroû [with a French translation] par E. Fagnan (in zdmg. 34 (1880) pp. 643–74: (2) Berlin 1341/1923* (see above under Rus̲h̲anāʾī-nāmah): (3) Tihrān ahs 1304–7/1925–8 (see above under dīwān). Emendations: zdmg. 36 (1882) pp. 96–114: (4) Zād al-musāfirīn, a prose handbook of Ismāʿīlī theology and metaphysics (Edition: Berlin 1341/1923* (ed. M. Bad̲h̲l al-Raḥmān)): (5) Wajh i dīn (Edition: Berlin 1343/1925* (with preface by T. Īrānī)).

(Safar-nāmah i Ḥakīm Nāṣir i K̲h̲usrau) an account of a journey which started from Jūzjānān on 6 Jumādā ii 437/19 Dec. 1045 and during which the author visited among other places S̲h̲āburqān, Marw, Nīs̲h̲āpūr, Qūmis (i.e. Bisṭām), Dāmg̲h̲ān, Simnān, Qazwīn, Tabrīz (where he met “Qaṭrān”), Vān, Ak̲h̲lāṭ, Bitlīs, Arzan (Erzerum), Maiyāfāriqīn, Āmid, Aleppo, Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān (where he met Abū ’l-ʿAlāʾ), Ḥamāh, Tripoli, Bairūt, Sidon, Tyre, Acre, Ḥaifā, Jerusalem, Mecca (to which he made four pilgrimages), Damascus, Jerusalem again, Egypt (where he stayed two or three years) and finally the Ḥijāz, the Yemen, Laḥsā, Qaṭīf, Baṣrah, Arrajān, Iṣfahān, Nāʾīn, Ṭabas, Tūn, Sarak̲h̲s and Marw (26 Jumādā ii 444/23 Oct. 1052): Rieu i 379 (ah 1102/1691), iii 979a (abstract only. Circ. ad 1850), Blochet i 644 (ad 1874), 645 (ah 1296/1878), Ivanow 279 (ah 1292/1875).

Editions: Paris (Vienne printed) 1881°* (Sefer Nameh, relation du voyage de Nassiri Khosrau …, publié, traduit et annoté par C. Schefer. Publications de l’École Spéciale des Langues Orientales Vivantes, Série ii, vol. 1), Delhi 1882°* (Safar-nāmah i Ḥakīm Nāṣir i K̲h̲usrau. With a biographical preface by M. Alṭāf Ḥusain “Ḥalī”), Bombay 1309/1892°, Ṭihran 1312/1894–5 (Siyāḥat-nāmah. See Mas̲h̲had, fṣl. 14, ptd. bks., no. 130), [Ṭihrān ?] 1314/1896–7 (with the dīwān: see G̲h̲anī-zādah’s muqaddimah to the 1341 edition, p. dāl, and Taqī-zādah’s muqaddimah p. nb n.), Berlin 1341/1923*.

French translation: see Editions above.

Russian translation: Safar-name. Kniga puteshestviya [translation and introduction by E. E. Berthels] Leningrad1 (or Moscow ?2) 1933.

Translations of extracts: (1) An account of Jerusalem translated … from the Persian text of Násir ibn Khusru’s [sic] Safar-námah. By … Major A. R. Fuller (in jras. 1873 p. 142 et seqq.). (2) Diary of a journey through Syria and Palestine by Nâsir-i-Khusrau, in 1047 ad Translated … and annotated by G. le Strange. London, 1888° (Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society).

[Autobiographical statements in his works especially the Safar-nāmah and the dīwan (most fully discussed in S. Ḥasan Taqī-zādah’s muqaddimah to the 1304–7 edition of the dīwān and very briefly summarised in C. N. Seddon’s review, jras. 1930 pp. 671–4. A spurious autobiography (of which an abridgment is printed in the Tabrīz edition of the dīwān) is the source of incorrect and legendary information given in the K̲h̲ulāṣat al-as̲h̲ʿār, the Haft iqlīm, the Ātas̲h̲-kadah and elsewhere (cf. Browne Lit. Hist, ii pp. 218–20)); Zakarīyāʾ al-Qazwīnī Āt̲h̲ār al-bilād (in Arabic) pp. 328–9 (s.v. Yumgān. Cf. Browne Lit. Hist, ii p. 218); Tārīk̲h̲ i Guzīdah p. 826; Bahāristān, Rauḍah 6, 8th. notice; Daulat-S̲h̲āh pp. 61–4; K̲h̲ulāṣat al-as̲h̲ʿār; Haft iqlīm no. 863; But-k̲h̲ānah no. 3; Mirʾāt al-k̲h̲ayāl pp. 27–8 (no. 7); Ātas̲h̲-kadah pp. 187-[194] (no. 425 (under Iṣfahān). Based on the spurious autobiography. Summarized by Bland in jras. vii (1843) pp. 360–1); Majmaʿ al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 2711; Sprenger pp. 428–9; Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ i pp. 607–33; Rauḍāt al-jannāt iv p. 223; Bieu i pp. 379–81; H. Ethé Nasir Khusrau’s Leben, Denken und Dichten (in Travaux … du Congrés international des orientalistes à Leyde, vol. ii, Leyden 1884); Náṣir-i-Khusraw, poet, traveller and propagandist. By E. G. Browne (in jras. 1905 pp. 313–52); Browne Lit. Hist, ii pp. 218–46; M. G̲h̲anī-zādah’s muqaddimah to the 1241 edition of the Safar-nāmah; Ency. Isl. under Nāṣir-i K̲h̲usraw (Berthels); S. Ḥasan Taqī-zādah’s muqaddimah to the 1304–7 edition of the dīwān (very briefly summarised in C. N. Seddon’s review, jras. 1930 pp. 671–4)].

§ 1590. S̲h̲. Abū ’l-Faiḍ “Faiḍī” b. Mubārak was born at Āgrah in 954/1547 and died there in 1004/1595 (see no. 706 supra).

A short account of the pilgrimage of Rafīʿ al-Dīn S̲h̲āh Abū Turāb (cf. no. 982 supra) to Mecca in 986/1578 and his return in 987/1579 with the Qadam i Rasūl (beginning: Qadam i qalam dar taiy i masālik i maḥāmid i Ilāhī kūtāh ast): Bānkīpūr Suppt. i 1995 vii (foll. 68b–70a. 18th cent.).

§ 1591. For the ʿAwālim al-asrār fī g̲h̲arāʾib al-asfār, begun in 1009/1600–1 by Qāḍī Ik̲h̲tiyār, see no. 1515 supra.

For the Baḥr al-asrār, which concludes with an account of Maḥmūd b. Amīr Walī’s extensive travels from 1034/1624–5 onwards, see no. 505 supra.

§ 1592. Ṣafī b. Walī Qazwīnī has already been mentioned as the author of the Zēb i tafāsīr (no. 30 supra) and the Tuḥfat al-ak̲h̲yār (no. 148 supra).

Anīs al-ḥujjāj, an account of a journey to Mecca and Medina in 1087–8/1676–7 after the completion of the Zēb i tafāsīr: Rieu iii 980a (defective and disarranged. Circ. ad 1850).

§ 1593. M. Mufīd Mustaufī b. Najm al-Dīn Maḥmūd Bāfqī Yazdī has already been mentioned as the author of the Jāmiʿ i Mufīdī, begun at Baṣrah in 1082/1671 and completed at Multān in 1090/1679 (see no. 461 supra), and of the Muk̲h̲taṣar i Mufīd, begun in the Deccan in 1087/1676–7 and completed at Lahore in 1091/1680–1 (see no. 312 (2) supra). The fifth maqālah of the third mujallad of the former work is devoted to an account of the author’s life and travels.

A memoir (beg. Ḥamd u sipās i bī-qiyās Mālik al-mulkī rā kih rifʿat i sarā-pardah i ʿaẓamatas̲h̲), “very rich in words and poor in facts”, extending over the years 1077–85 but dealing mainly with the author’s journey to India (Iṣfahān, Bag̲h̲dād, Baṣrah, Sūrat, S̲h̲āhjahānābād, Ḥaidarābād, Sārangpūr, Burhānpūr, Aurangābād, Golconda) in 1081–5: Bodleian 423.

§ 1594. For Anand Rām “Muk̲h̲liṣ’s” account of his journey from Delhi to Muktēsar in 1156/1743 (?), see no. 780 (10) supra and the additions and corrections relating to that page.

For the Bayān i wāqiʿ of K̲h̲wājah ʿAbd al-Karīm b. ʿĀqibat-Maḥmūd Kas̲h̲mīrī, who entered Nādir S̲h̲āh’s service at Delhi in 1151/1739, reached Qazwīn with him in 1154/1741, travelled thence to ʿIrāq, Syria and Arabia, returned to Delhi in 1156/1743 and wrote an account of these travels and of contemporary history to 1198/1784, see no. 411 supra.

§ 1595. Iʿtiṣām al-Dīn b. S̲h̲. Tāj al-Dīn, of Tājpūr (described by him as in the Nadiyah District [of Bengal]), began his official career as a muns̲h̲ī under Jaʿfar ʿAlī K̲h̲ān [“Mīr Jaʿfar”, Nawwāb-Nāẓim of Bengal 1170–4/1757–60 and again 1763–5. Cf. no. 802 3rd, 5th par. supra]. On the accession of Mīr Qāsim [in 1174/1760. Cf. no. 802 5th par. supra] he entered the service of Major Yorke and took part in the campaign against the Rājah of Bīrbhūm. He later fought on the British side against Mīr Qāsim [in 1177/1763. Cf. no. 802 5th, 6th par. supra]. Then after a short period in the service of General Carnac [1765–6] he entered that of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam. In 1180/1767, when Captain Archibald Swinton came to England with a letter from S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam to George iii, Iʿtiṣām al-Dīn accompanied him.3 He embarked at Hijilī4 on 9 S̲h̲aʿbān 1180/10 January 17675 and returned to Bengal in 1183/1769 after an absence of two years and nine months.6 In 1189/1775 he was sent to Poonah to help in the negotiations of the East India Company with the Marāṭ’hās.

S̲h̲igarf-nāmah i wilāyat, or Wilāyat-nāmah, an account written in 1199/1785 of the author’s voyage to England in 1180/1767 and of his experiences there, but not of his return journey, which brought him back to Bengal in 1183/1769: Rieu iii 981b (ad 1810), i 383a (ah 1227/1812), i.o. d.p. 685 (Samwat 1869/1812), 595 (ah 1231/1816), i.o. 4021, Āṣafīyah iii p. 350 no. 94 (ah 1230/1815), ii p. 836 no. 25, Bodleian 1854, Ivanow Curzon 96 (19th cent.).

Urdu translation: R.A.S. H.2.

Abridged Urdu and English translations: Shigurf namah i Velaët, or Excellent intelligence concerning Europe; being the travels of Mirza Itesa modeen, in Great Britain and France. Translated from the original Persian manuscript into Hindoostanee, with an English version and notes, by J. E. Alexander7 [and Muns̲h̲ī S̲h̲ams̲h̲ēr K̲h̲ān: cf. Garcin de Tassy iii pp. 109–10], London 1827°*.

[Autobiographical statements, summarized in Rieu i 383, Bodleian, and Buckland’s Dictionary of Indian biography].

§ 1596. Mīr M. Ḥusain b. ʿAbd al-Ḥasanī [read perhaps ʿAbd al-Ḥusain] al-Iṣfahānī.

(Risālah i aḥwāl i mulk i Farang u Hindūstān), an account of a journey in 1188/1774 via Calcutta to Lisbon and London and of a year’s residence in the latter place, followed by a sketch of European astronomy: Rehatsek p. 19 no. 33, p. 99 no. 51.

§ 1597. [Mīr] Jamāl al-Dīn Ḥusain b. Mīr [?8] Aḥmad al-Ḥusainī al-Mūsawī b. Mīr Ibrāhīm b. Mīr Amīn al-Dīn b. Mīr Jamāl al-Dīn Ḥusain b. Mīr Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Ḥasan9 b. Mīrzà ʿImād al-Dīn Ḥusain surnamed (al-mulaqqab) Injū b. Mīr S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Rāhūlī10 was evidently the great-great-grandson of the author of the Farhang i Jahāngīrī11 (not, as Pertsch seems to have supposed, the author of the Farhang i Jahāngīrī himself).

Brief memoirs (beg. al-Ḥ. I. ’l. taʿabbada lahu), divided into a muqaddimah, a faṣl and a k̲h̲ātimah and dealing mainly with persons met by the author on his travels, especially on a journey to Mecca and Medina: Berlin 13 (7) (only 9 or 10 leaves. Defective at end).

§ 1598. G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad K̲h̲ān, who may possibly be identical with the author of the Nawādir al-qiṣaṣ (no. 1603), undertook his travels of 1196–1201/1782–7 at the request of Warren Hastings, the Governor-General of India.

Account of a journey in and beyond northern India, especially of the part from S̲h̲āhjahānābād [i.e. Delhi] to Kābul and Qandahār with reports on contemporary historical events: Ethé 2725 (defective at end).

§ 1599. S. S̲h̲āh ʿAzīz Allāh Buk̲h̲ārī, “Moonshy to Sir John Murray, Bart.”,12 was in the 68th year of his age in Ramaḍān 1209/March 1795, when he wrote at Calcutta for his employer “Seven alphabets with the combinations of all the letters in each” (Rieu ii 533). Berlin 997 and 1084 are mss. transcribed by him for Sir J. Murray in 1210/1796.

Reminiscences of a journey from Farruk̲h̲ābād in 1201/1786–7 (beg. Huwa ’l-Mutaʿālī. Rūzī dar siyāḥat i īn bī-biḍāʿat dar aiyām i bī-kārī kih kamāl i bī-qarārī-st dar sanah i 1201), written in 1203/1789 at the request of Sir J. Murray:13 Berlin 15 (1) (4 foll.).

It appears from the opening words of the reminiscences just mentioned that ʿAzīz Allāh Buk̲h̲ārī was unemployed in 1201/1786–7 and it may be conjectured that his employment by John Murray began not earlier than that year. If so, it must have been someone else who accompanied Murray and at his request kept a diary of his journey from Calcutta to Rāmpūr and back in the period 25 June 1783 to 1 January 1784.

Diary of a journey made in the company of John Murray from Calcutta along the Ganges via Mīrzāpūr, Allahabad, Cawnpore, Farruk̲h̲ābād and Āgrah to Rāmpūr and back by another route (Barēlī etc.), beginning Dar bayān i ān-kih ba-mūjab i farmūdah i k̲h̲udāwand i niʿmat and containing not only dates of arrival and departure etc. but also information about topography, local customs, industry, trade, revenue, history and other matters: Berlin 361 (apparently the original draft. 139 foll.), 362 (ah 1204/1790, fair copy by S. S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-Laṭīf. 203 foll).

§ 1600. Maulawī Rafīʿ al-Dīn b. Farīd al-Dīn K̲h̲ān Murādā-bādī, a pupil of Walī Allāh Dihlawī (see nos. 35, 222 4th par., 285, 1352 supra) and an associate of ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Dihlawī (see nos. 40, 299), died at Murādābād on 15 D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1218/27 March 1804. Several works of his (Tārīk̲h̲ i Afāg̲h̲inah, Tad̲h̲kirat al-mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲, Suluww al-kaʾīb bi-d̲h̲ihr al-ḥabīb, Qiṣar al-āmāl bi-d̲h̲ikr al-ḥāl wa-’l-maʾāl, Kanz al-ḥisāb, S̲h̲arḥ i Arbaʿīn i Nawawī, Tarjamah i ʿAin al-ʿilm, Ḥālāt al-Ḥaramain and others) are mentioned without specification of the language by Ṣiddīq Ḥasan, G̲h̲ulām-Sarwar and Raḥmān ʿAlī.

(Ḥālāt al-Ḥaramain),14 an account of a journey from Murādābād to Mecca and Medina in 1201–3/1786–8: Bānkīpūr vii 626 (19th cent.).

[Itḥāf al-nubalāʾ p. 251; Ḥadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah p. 463; Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 66.]

§ 1601. M. Baqā is described by Major Yule15 in a manuscript note as “my friend Muhummud Buqqa”.

Short account of the author’s journey from Cawnpore to Benares and back through Jaunpūr and Partābgaṛh to Lucknow from 23 April to 8 October 1798 with descriptive and historical notes on the places visited: Rieu ii 841b (late 18th cent.).

§ 1602. ʿAlī b. Mīrzā K̲h̲airāt-ʿAlī.

Manāzil i ḥajj, a short account of a pilgrimage from Persia to the S̲h̲īʿite shrines in Mesopotamia and thence to Mecca and Medina, written in 1214/1799 and dedicated to Muḥammad Mīrzā b. Ḥusain, grandson of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp ii: Ivanow 287 (early 19th cent.).

§ 1603. G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad K̲h̲ān left his birthplace, Sirhind, at the age of twelve and [in course of time ?] wandered eastwards in pursuit of learning and a livelihood. He seems to have been for a time in the service of S̲h̲ujāʿ al-Daulah (Nawwāb-Wazīr of Oudh 1167–88/1754–75), and he was wounded at the battle of Baksar (“Buxar”, ah 1178/1764). In 1214/1799, when Colonel John Collins16 was sent from Farruk̲h̲ābād to Jaipūr in pursuit of Wazīr-ʿAlī, the fugitive Nawwāb-Wazīr of Oudh,17 G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad K̲h̲ān was veterinary surgeon to his detachment. The surrender of Wazīr-ʿAlī by the Mahārājah of Jaipūr seems to have made an unfavourable impression on him, since in writing the Nawādir al-qiṣaṣ at the request of his fourteen-year-old son Faḍl i Ḥusain “his main object was to disparage the court of Jaipūr”.

Nawādir al-qiṣaṣ, narratives and notes relating to Lahore, Qaṣūr, Kas̲h̲mīr, Tibet, Multān, Siyālkōṭ, Bilāspūr (Sirhind) etc., Delhi, Jaipūr, Qāsim ʿAlī K̲h̲ān [Mīr Qāsim: cf. no. 802 5th par. supra], the Rōhēlahs of Kaṭ’hēr and Najīb K̲h̲ān [cf. nos. 909–18 supra], the Jāts, Farruk̲h̲ābād [cf. nos. 906–08], the Marāt’hās and the battle of Pānīpat [cf. nos. 555, 792], S̲h̲ujāʿ al-Daulah’s wars with the Rōhēlahs, etc.: Rieu iii 981b (circ. ad 1854, said to have been transcribed from an autograph).

§ 1604. For the Masīr i Ṭālibī fī bilād i Afranjī, Abū Ṭālib K̲h̲ān’s narrative of his journey to Europe in 1213–18/1799–1803, see no. 1178 (2) supra.

§ 1605. Raʾīs al-Umarāʾ Ḥāfiẓ M. ʿAbd al-Ḥusain Karbalāʾī Hindī Karnātakī is doubtless identical with the Nawwāb Raʾīs al-Umarāʾ who in the period 1 S̲h̲aʿbān 1234/26 May 1819 to 17 Rabīʿ i 1236/23 Dec. 1820 made a pilgrimage from Karbalāʾ via Ṭihrān to Mas̲h̲had, of which an account (Tad̲h̲kirat al-Riḍā?) was written by S. Muḥibb Ḥusain K̲h̲ān b. Jaʿfar al-Mūsawī (Berlin 360). He completed on 21 S̲h̲awwāl 1233/24 Aug. 1818:

Tad̲h̲kirat al-ṭarīq fī maṣāʾib ḥujjāj Bait al-ʿAtīq, an account of a pilgrimage from Karbalāʾ to Mecca and al-Madīnah in the period 26 S̲h̲awwāl 1230/1 Oct. 1815 to 17 Jumādā i 1232/4 April 1817: Berlin 359.

§ 1606. Ḥājjī M. Ḥusain K̲h̲ān b. Bāyram ʿAlī K̲h̲ān succeeded to the princedom of Merv in 1202/1787–8, his father having died while repelling an invasion of S̲h̲āh Murād, the Sulṭān of Buk̲h̲ārā. For some years the son continued hostilities but, having made peace, he accepted an invitation to Buk̲h̲ārā and was treacherously detained there with his chief supporters while S̲h̲āh Murād took possession of Merv and deported to Buk̲h̲ārā nearly one thousand families.18 After seven years’ detention M. Ḥusain K̲h̲ān escaped to S̲h̲ahr i Sabz and went from there to K̲h̲ujand, K̲h̲ōqand, Yārkand, K̲h̲utan, C̲h̲itrāl, Wak̲h̲ān, Kāfiristān, Jalālābād, Kābul, G̲h̲aznī, Qandahār, Isfizār, Ṭabas and eventually to Ṭihrān. It was there that he met Sir Gore Ouseley and he had been living there for eighteen years as the guest of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh when at the age of fifty-odd years he wrote his brief account of his wanderings.

Translation: Narrative of the travels of Haji Muhammed Hussein Khan, Prince of Marv, written in 1818;19 translated from the original,20 which the Prince wrote at the request of Sir Gore Ouseley (in Biographical notices of Persian poets … by the late … Sir Gore Ouseley, Bart., London 1846, pp. 332–51).

§ 1607. M. Ṣāliḥ b. Ḥājjī Bāqir K̲h̲ān S̲h̲īrāzī, known as (al-s̲h̲ahīr bi-) Kāzarānī [sic], who accompanied Sir Gore Ouseley’s embassy from Iṣfahān to Ṭihrān in 1812 and had been attached to the service of Colonel D’Arcy,21 was one of five Persians sent by the Prince Qāʾim-maqām [ʿAbbās Mīrzā b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh] to England in 1815 under the guardianship of Colonel D’Arcy for the purpose of gaining proficiency in European subjects (English, French, Latin and Natural Science in his case). He is identified by Rieu, doubtless correctly, with “Mirza Salih, one of the public secretaries of H.M. the Shah of Persia, who has been employed on a diplomatic mission in this country” and who, according to an unsigned article (Persian newspaper and translation) in the jras. v (1839) pp. 355–71, was editor of a Ṭihrān newspaper “undertaken a few years since”.22 Presumably also he is the same person as “Mírzá Ṣáliḥ of Shíráz, the Wazír of Ṭihrán”, who, according to Browne’s Press and poetry of modern Persia p. 8, sent at great expense one Mírzá Asadu’lláh, of the province of Fárs, to St. Petersburg to learn the art of printing, and … on his return thence … founded at Tabríz, with the assistance of the late Áqá Riẓá … a lithographic press, the first book lithographed at which was the Holy Qur’án in the handwriting of Mírzá Ḥusain the famous calligraphist.” A collection of Persian dialogues (Suʾāl u jawāb) composed by him for Sir Gore Ouseley, probably in 1812, is preserved in ms. at Oxford (Bodleian 1857) and is doubtless the same as the Persian dialogues … with an English translation by W. Price published at Worcester in 1822° and reissued in W. Price’s Grammar of the three principal Oriental languages, Hindoostanee, Persian, and Arabic … to which is added a set of Persian dialogues … by Mirza Mohammed Saulih, of Shiraz … with an English [and French] translation (London, Worcester printed, 1823°*).

(1)
Account of a journey from Iṣfahān to Ṭihrān [with Sir Gore Ouseley’s embassy ?], “containing topographical and historical information about these two towns and the places lying between,” and “dated at the end, ah 1227, the 11th of Jumâdâ i = ad 1812, 23rd of May”: Bodleian 1856 (40 foll.).
(2)
(Siyāḥat-nāmah i M. Ṣāliḥ i S̲h̲īrāzī), in four faṣls ((1) circumstances leading to the author’s departure, (2) his journey from Tabrīz (10 Jumādā ii 1230/19 April 1815) through Erivan, Tiflis, Moscow, St. Petersburg and thence by sea, (3) his arrival in England (29 S̲h̲awwāl 1230/4 October 1815) and his stay there, (4) his return journey by sea to Istānbūl and thence by land towards Persia from 2 S̲h̲awwāl 1234/4 July 1819 to Ṣafar 1235/Nov.- Dec. 1819, at which point the ms. breaks off with an account of his stay at Erzerum: Rieu i 387b (presented by the author to George Willock).

§ 1608. In 1237/1822 S. M. b. Aḥmad al-Ḥasanī completed

Risālah i S. M. b. A. al-Ḥ., a brief account of the author’s journey to Kurdistān with Claudius James Rich:23 Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (see Mélanges asiatiques ii (St. Petersburg 1852–6) p. 54).

§ 1609. Zain al-ʿĀbidīn b. Iskandar S̲h̲īrwānī Niʿmatallāhī, born at S̲h̲amāk̲h̲ī on 15 S̲h̲aʿbān 1194/1780, was taken as a child of five to Karbalāʾ, where he received his education. Finding his teachers biased and narrow-minded, he started at the age of seventeen on a long series of travels in search of knowledge and enlightenment, associating with scholars, mystics and others. Among the places visited by him were ʿIrāq, various parts of Persia, Kābul, where he became the disciple of a celebrated murs̲h̲id named Ḥasan ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, Peshawar, which he left after the death of Ḥasan ʿAlī S̲h̲āh in 1216/1801, Delhi, Bengal, the Deccan and other places in India, Ṭuk̲h̲āristān, Turkistān, Southern Arabia, Abyssinia, the Ḥijāz, Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor, Greece, Constantinople and Morocco. Having returned to Persia, he went to Ṭihrān and was at first well received but later, having been traduced by enemies to Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, he went successively to Hamadān, S̲h̲īrāz and Kirmān. Returning to S̲h̲īrāz in 1236/1820, he married and decided to settle there, but, having been declared an infidel by the mujtahids, he fled to Yazd. Thence he went to Iṣfahān. Shortly afterwards he returned to S̲h̲īrāz and taking his wife to Qūmis̲h̲ah settled there in 1237/1821. He died in 1253/1837. This remarkable man was both intelligent and broad-minded. His works contain varied and interesting information.

(1)
Riyāḍ al-siyāḥah, a geographical work interspersed with much biographical and historical information, of which the first volume (on Persia) was completed at Qūmis̲h̲ah in 1237/1821–2 and the second (on extra-Persian countries which the author had visited or about which he had received information) in 1242/1827: Chanykov 115 (autograph. See Mélanges asiatiques i (St. Petersburg 1849–52) p. 556), Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (ah 1258/1842. See Mélanges asiatiques ii, p. 57), Rieu Suppt. 139 (vol. ii only. Before ah 1246/1830), Cairo p. 531 (“Risālah manqūlah min kitāb Riyāḍ al-siyāḥah awwaluhā Dar c̲h̲igūnagī (sic lege) i taqsīm i zamīn ba-ḥukm i ḥukamā i ḥikmat. ah 1240/1824–5).

Edition: Iṣfahān 1329/1911 (see Harrassowitz’s Bücher-Katalog 430 (1931) no. 897).

Extract: Dorn (B.) Muhammedanische Quetten zur Geschichte der südlichen Küstenländer des Kaspischen Meeres, iv (St. Petersburg 1858°*) pp. 455–67.

(2)
Bustān al-siyāḥah, an alphabetically arranged geographical dictionary interspersed with much biographical and historical information completed at S̲h̲īrāz in 1247/1832: Rieu Suppt. 140 (lacks the four chapters which in the 1310/1892–3 edition precede the Sair (see Browne Lit. Hist. iv p. 451). Apparently a.h 1248/1832), D.M.G. 17 (only 19 of the 28 guls̲h̲ans. Circ. ah 1250/1834–5), Leningrad Pub. Lib. (see Mélanges asiatiques iii (St. Petersburg 1859), p. 732).

Editions: Ṭihrān 1310/1892–3 (see Browne Lit. Hist. iv p. 450 n. 3); 1315/1898°; S̲h̲īrāz 1342/1923–4 (see Harrassowitz’s Bücher-Katalog 430 (1931) no. 896).

Description: Browne Lit. Hist. iv, pp. 450–2.

(3)
Ḥadāʾiq al-siyāḥah, an earlier and shorter recension of the Bustān al-siyāḥah completed at S̲h̲īrāz in 1242/1827: Rieu Suppt. 141 (ah 1273/1857), Blochet i 673 (ah 1274/1857–8).

The “Risālah fī bayān aḥwāl al-jānī [I]bn Iskandar Zain al-ʿĀbidīn al-S̲h̲irwānī” (Cairo p. 531. ah 1240/1824–5) may be a part of the Riyāḍ al-siyāḥah or a short independent autobiography.24

[Ḥadāʾiq al-siyāḥah, preface; Bustān al-siyāḥah, preface and under S̲h̲amāk̲h̲ī; Mélanges asiatiques, tome iii (1857–9), pp. 50–9 (Lettre de M. Khanvkov à M. Dorn) = Bulletin histor-phil. de l’Acad. des Sciences, tome xiv, N. 16; Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī ix foll. 166b, 1. 19, 171b, p. 4, x foll. 5b, 1. 14, 7a, 1. 19, and elsewhere; Rieu Suppt. pp. 99–102; Browne Lit. Hist. iv pp. 450–2; Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān pp. 169–71.]

§ 1610. ʿAlī Mirzā “Maftūn” b. Mirzā Abū Ṭālib Dihlawī (mutawaṭṭanan) ʿAzīmābādī (maskinan).

Zubdat al-ak̲h̲bār fī sawāniḥ al-asfār, an account of pilgrimages to Mecca and Mas̲h̲had in 1241–3/1825–7 dedicated to Amīn al-Daulah Nāṣir-Jang [Wazīr to the King of Oudh, dismissed in 1263/1847. Cf. Rieu iii, p. 963a] and divided into three muḥīṭs subdivided into anhār ((1) ʿAẓīmābād by boat to Bārh, Bhāgalpūr, Rājmaḥall, Hūglī, Calcutta, thence to Ceylon, Mok̲h̲ā, Jiddah, Medina and Mecca, (2) Jiddah to Muscat, S̲h̲īrāz, Kāzarūn, Iṣfahān, Kās̲h̲ān, Naṣrābād, Qumm, Ṭihrān, Simnān, Dāmg̲h̲ān, Nīs̲h̲āpūr, Mas̲h̲had, (3) return journey to Ṭihrān etc.): Bānkīpūr vii 631 (Muḥīṭ i. Written in 1246/1831 by the author’s brother, Mirzā Amīr ʿAlī), 632 (Muḥīṭ ii. ah 1249/1833, autograph).

§ 1611. M. Qādir K̲h̲ān “Muns̲h̲ī” Bīdarī has already been mentioned as the author of the Tārīk̲h̲ i Āṣaf-Jāhī (no. 1041), the Tawārīk̲h̲ i fark̲h̲undah (ibid.), and the Tārīk̲h̲ i Qādirī (no. 1026 (2)).

Sair i Hind u gulags̲h̲t i Dakan, composed in 1247/1831–2: Āṣafīyah i p. 242 nos. 754 (ah 1254/1838), 286.

§ 1612. Nawwāb M. Muṣṭafā K̲h̲ān “S̲h̲ēftah” and “Ḥasratī” who was born at Delhi in, or about, 1806 and who died in 1869, has already been mentioned (no. 1207 supra) as the author of the Guls̲h̲an i bī-k̲h̲ār.

Targ̲h̲īb al-sālik ilā aḥsan al-masālik, or Rah-āward, an account of a pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina in 1254–6/1839–41.

Edition: place ? 1283/1866–7 (Āṣafīyah ii p. 836, Peshawar 1941).

Urdu translation by S. Zain al-ʿĀbidīn: Sirāj i munīr, place ? 1910.

§ 1613. Yūsuf K̲h̲ān Gilīm-pōs̲h̲.

Tārīk̲h̲ i Yūsufī, an account of a journey from Ḥaidarābād to Europe, especially England, in 1828, composed in 1259/1843 and dedicated to Queen Victoria: Ivanow 289 (late 19th cent.).

§ 1614. The anonymous Frenchwoman who speaks in the first person in the Rūz-nāmah i safar i S̲h̲īrāz seems to have been a teacher in the service of the S̲h̲āh,25 though Boré, the former owner of the ms., has written thereon a note saying that she went to Persia to trade in jewellery.

Rūz-nāmah i safar i S̲h̲īrāz, account of a journey in 1251/1835–6 from Ṭihrān to S̲h̲īrāz and from S̲h̲īrāz to Iṣfahān, “évidemment rédigé par un mirza persan sur les notes ou d’après les souvenirs de la voyageuse”: Blochet i 649 (1st half of 19th cent.).

§ 1615. Nawwāb Riḍā-Qulī Mīrzā26 Nāʾib al-Iyālah [Deputy Governor of Fārs], Nawwāb Najaf-Qulī Mīrzā “Wālī”, Governor of Kūhgīlūyah and Bihbahān as well as “a well known Persian and Arabic scholar, an excellent poet, and consulted as an oracle on many subjects, being exceedingly fond of literature”, and Ḥusām al-Daulah Taimūr Mīrzā,27 “a celebrated warrior, horseman, and hunter,” who “governed Bushir for many years and had seen many English who visited the Persian Gulf”, are respectively the first, the third, and the fifth of the seventeen sons of the Farmān-farmā Ḥusain-ʿAlī Mīrzā b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh enumerated in the Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī (x fol. 5a, 11. 17, 21, 23). When their father the Governor of Fārs was defeated in his attempt to supplant his brother Muḥammad S̲h̲āh and to seize the throne after the death of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh [19 Jumādā ii 1250/23 October 1834], they managed to escape from S̲h̲īrāz (op. cit. x fol. 4b, l. 7 from foot) and after visiting England in the summer of 1836 settled in Bag̲h̲dād. An account of these events was written by Najaf-Qulī Mīrzā and a copy of it was obtained from him, or from one of his brothers, at Bag̲h̲dād by Asʿad Yaʿqūb K̲h̲aiyāṭ,28 a Syrian Christian who had been for more than five years Principal Interpreter to the British Consul General at Damascus and had accompanied the princes as their interpreter. Another account of the visit was written by their British mihmāndār, James Baillie Fraser,29 under the title Narrative of the residence of the Persian princes in London in 1835 [sic30] and 1836, with an account of their journey from Persia and subsequent adventures (2 vols., London 1838).

English translation: Journal of a residence in England, and of a journey from and to Syria, of their Royal Highnesses Reeza Koolee Meerza, Najaf Koolee Meerza, and Taymoor Meerza, of Persia, to which are prefixed some particulars respecting modern Persia, and the death of the late Shah. Originally written in Persian, by H.R.H. Najaf Koolee Meerza, son of Prince Firmân Firmân [sic], grandson of H.M. Fathali Shah, the late Emperor of Persia; and translated, with explanatory notes, by Assaad Y. Kayat. In two volumes. Printed for private circulation only. London 1839°*.

[A portrait of the three princes forms the frontispiece to Fraser’s Narrative.]

§ 1616. Ḥājj Mīrzā ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Marāg̲h̲ī, entitled Ḥājib al-Daulah and later Iʿtimād al-Salṭanah, was the father of M. Ḥasan K̲h̲ān Marāg̲h̲ī Iʿtimād al-Salṭanah (for whom see no. 192 supra). From the latter’s list of successive Heads of Government Departments in Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh’s reign (al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār pp. 15–29) it appears that he became Minister of Justice in 1278/1861–2 (op. cit. p. 16b) and Minister of Waẓāʾif in the nineteenth year of the reign (i.e. in 1282/1865–6. Op. cit. p. 17b). Other offices held by him are mentioned without dates in the aforesaid list under the headings Idārah i Farrās̲h̲- k̲h̲anah u Ḥijābat i Daulat (p. 19a), Idārah i Bannāʾī i Dīwān i Aʿlā (p. 21b),31 Idārah i Bāg̲h̲āt i Mubārakah i Daulatī (p. 22a) and Idārah i K̲h̲āliṣajāt i Dīwānī (p. 23b). He was at different times Governor of ʿArabistān and K̲h̲ūzistān (op. cit. p. 31b), Luristān (op. cit. p. 32a) and Gīlān (ibid). According to the Mas̲h̲had catalogue he died in 1285/1868–9.

(Safar-nāmah i Ḥājj Mīrzā ʿAlī K̲h̲ān i Marāg̲h̲ī),32 an account of a journey to Mecca written in 1263/1847: Mas̲h̲had iii p. 90 (ah 1306/1888–9).

§ 1617. Mubāriz al-Daulah Pīr Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān K̲h̲wēs̲h̲gī Qaṣūrī, who was born at Qaṣūr in 1794 and died in 1856, has already been mentioned (no. 840 supra) as the author of a history of Bahāwalpūr.

(1)
Autobiography (in Persian ?): see no. 840, last par. supra.
(2)
Sairistān, an account of a visit to England in 1851–2 together with a brief history of his tribe: Multān33 1854° (pp. 237).

§ 1618. K̲h̲udā-dād K̲h̲ān b. Rāḍō K̲h̲ān Tarīn has already been mentioned (no. 834 supra) as the author of the Lubb i tārīk̲h̲ i Sind’h, completed in 1318/1900.

Waqāʾiʿ al-sair i Jaisalmēr, an account of a tour to Jaisalmēr in 1859: Karāc̲h̲ī 1875*.

§ 1619. Maulawī Abū Rajā M. Zamān K̲h̲ān S̲h̲āhjahānpūrī, Mudarris in a madrasah at Ḥaidarābād and one of the instructors who educated Mīr Maḥbūb ʿAlī K̲h̲ān (Niẓām of Ḥaidarābād, b. 1866, succeeded his father 1869, d. 1911), wrote an Urdu work Hadīyah i Mahdawīyah (Editions: Cawnpore 1867*, 1877*) in refutation of the teachings expounded in four tracts by S. ʿĪsā, commonly called (ʿurf) ʿĀlim Miyān, Mahdawī Ḥaidarābādī, the leader of the Mahdawī sect (cf. no. 1411 (21)). On 6 D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1292/3 Jan. 1876 he was murdered in a mosque at Ḥaidarābād by an alleged Mahdawī. According to Niẓāmī Badāyūnī an annual ʿurs is celebrated at his tomb in the court of his madrasah.

Dāstān i jahān, an account of a journey to Egypt, Syria, and Mesopotamia in 1283/1866 (pp. 3–92 = Kitāb i), followed by a geography of the world (pp. 92–309 = Kitāb ii), a history of Jerusalem (pp. 309–360 = Kitāb iii) and a history of the Ottoman Sulṭāns (pp. 360–92 = Kitāb iv): Badāyūn [1906°, 1911*].

[Raḥmān ʿAlī pp. 188–90; Niẓāmī Badāyūnī Qāmūs al-mas̲h̲āhīr (in Urdu) ii pp. 191–2 (evidently based mainly on Raḥmān ʿAlī or on some common source).]

§ 1620. For Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh’s diaries of his journeys in Europe and Asia see no. 439.

§ 1621. Ḥājjī Ḥabīb Punnōc̲h̲hī.

Manāzil al-safar i ḥajj, a metrical account of a pilgrimage in 1287–8/1870–1: Lahore 1875* (24 pp.).

§ 1622. Nawwāb M. Kalb-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān succeeded his father, Yūsuf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, as Nawwāb of Rāmpūr in 1865. He was a member of Lord Lytton’s Council and was created g.c.s.i. He died in 1887 and was succeeded by his son Mus̲h̲tāq ʿAlī K̲h̲ān. His works include (1) S̲h̲igūfah i k̲h̲usrawī, addresses, prefaces and other compositions, Rāmpūr 1287–9/1870–3°*, and (2) Tarānah i g̲h̲am.

Qindīl i Ḥaram, an account in rhymed prose of a pilgrimage in 1872: Rāmpūr 1290/1873°*.

[Nigāristān i suk̲h̲un pp. 128–30; Būstān i Awad’h p. 188; Who’s who in India, 1911; Rām Bābū Saksēna A history of Urdu literature pp. 177–9; portrait in the Urdu translation of R. B. Saksēna’s work.]

§ 1623. For the diary of M. Ḥasan K̲h̲ān Marāg̲h̲ī Iʿtimād al-Salṭanah, describing his journey with Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh from Tiflīs to Ṭihrān in 1290–1/1873–4, see no. 444 (4) supra. The journey on which he accompanied Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh to Mas̲h̲had in 1300/1882 is described in the Maṭlaʿ al-s̲h̲ams (for which see no. 471 supra).

§ 1624. Farhād Mīrzā b. ʿAbbās Mīrzā b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, who died in 1888, has already been mentioned in connexion with the works Qamqām i zak̲h̲k̲h̲ar (no. 259 supra) and Jām i Jam (no. 193 a (3)).

Hidāyat al-sabīl wa-kifāyat al-dalīl, diary of a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1292–3/1875–6: S̲h̲īrāz 1294/1877* (362 pp.), Ṭihrān 1294/1877° (385 pp.).

§ 1625. Sulṭān-Murād Mīrzā Ḥusām al-Salṭanah is the eleventh of the twenty-six sons of ʿAbbās Mīrzā b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh enumerated by Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān (Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ ix, fol. 166a, 1. 11). He held at different times the governorships of several towns34 and provinces,35 but he is more especially associated with K̲h̲urāsān, of which province he was Governor at least five times (al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār pp. 29b, 30a). It was he who dealt with the rebellion of the Sālār (M. Ḥasan K̲h̲ān b. Allāh-Yār K̲h̲ān Qājār Dawālū) and besieged him in Mas̲h̲had after the death of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (Watson History of Persia pp. 368, 380, 383–4). He was for a time Minister of War (al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ar p. 16).

Dalīl al-anām fī sabīl ziyārat Bait Allāh al-ḥarām, the journal of a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1297/1880: Majlis 693 (ah 1323/1905).

[Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī ix foll. 155a, l. 17, 166a, l. 11, x foll. 18b, l. 2, 58b antepenult., 71b, l. 19, 91b, l. 7, 113b, l. 16, 118b, l. 17, 120a, l. 15, and elsewhere.]

§ 1626. Ḥājjī Pīr-zādah Nāʾīnī.

Safar-nāmah i Ḥājjī Pīr-zādah i Nāʾīnī, an account of a journey to Paris, Istānbūl and Cairo in 1303/1885–6: Majlis 695 (ah 1321/1903).

§ 1627. Nawwāb Mīr Lāʾiq ʿAlī K̲h̲ān ʿImād al-Salṭanah Sir Sālār-Jang [ii], k.c.i.e., elder son of the great Prime Minister of Ḥaidarābād, Nawwāb Mīr Turāb ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Sir Sālār-Jang [I], g.c.s.i., was born at Ḥaidarābād in 186236 or 1863,37 and was educated with Mīr Maḥbūb ʿAlī K̲h̲ān (b. 1866, succeeded his father as Niẓām in 1869, d. 1911). After his father’s death in 1883 he was appointed Secretary to the Council of Regency and in 1884 he became Prime Minister. Having resigned in April 1887 owing to differences with the Niẓām, he visited England and was created k.c.i.e. He died in July 1889. His son, Mīr Yūsuf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān (Sālār-Jang iii), was Prime Minister in 1912–14.

The travels in Europe of Nawab Mir Laik Ali Khan Imadul Saltana Sir Salar Jang Bahadur (Waqāʾiʿ i musāfarat etc.38): Bombay 1305/1888°.

[Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography p. 371; Niẓāmī Badāyūnī Qāmūs al-mas̲h̲āhīr (in Urdu) i p. 278.]

§ 1628. S. M. Riḍā b. Muftī S. Dildār Ḥusain Hās̲h̲imī was Mīr Muns̲h̲ī to Amīr al-Daulah Saʿīd al-Mulk Rājah M. Amīr Ḥasan K̲h̲ān Mumtāz-Jang,39 Rājah of Maḥmūdābād (near Sītāpūr in Oudh), whom he accompanied on the journey described in his Dalāʾil al-ẓafar.

Dalāʾil al-ẓafar fī tad̲h̲kirat al-safar, an account of a journey in 1306/1889 to the S̲h̲īʿite sanctuaries of Mesopotamia.

Edition: Lucknow [1893°*].

§ 1629. Maḥmūd Ṭarzī b. G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad K̲h̲ān Ṭarzī, a descendant of Sardār Raḥm-dil K̲h̲ān, brother of Amīr Dōst-Muḥammad K̲h̲ān (who reigned 1242–80/1826–63), was born at G̲h̲aznī in 1285/1870. In the reign of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān K̲h̲ān (1296–1319/1879–1901. Cf. no. 575 supra) his father, having been accused of high treason and banished from Afg̲h̲ānistān, settled with all his family at Damascus, and here Maḥmūd married a Syrian wife. After the father’s death the family was pardoned by Ḥabīb Allāh K̲h̲ān (1319–37/1901–19) and Maḥmūd returned to Kābul, where in 1329/1911 he founded the fortnightly newspaper, Sirāj al-ak̲h̲bār, “the ancestor of all the present periodical publications in Afghanistan” (Bogdanov). In 1919 after the accession of his son-in-law, Amān Allāh K̲h̲ān (1919–29), he was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. In 1922 he became Afg̲h̲ān Minister to France and Belgium, but in 1924 he was reappointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. In 1927 he went to France on leave for the sake of his health.

He played a prominent part in the literary renaissance which occurred in the reign of Ḥabīb Allāh K̲h̲ān. Among his works are (1) Rauḍah i ḥikam, “moral, literary and political essays” (Arberry), Kābul 1331/1913*, (2) Az har dahan suk̲h̲anī u az har c̲h̲aman samanī, a commonplace book in prose and verse, Kābul 1331/1913*, (3) Adab dar fann or Maḥmūd-nāmah, a small collection of odes (45 pp.), Kābul 1331/1913* (i.o. v.t. 3754a), (4) Tārīk̲h̲ i muḥārabah i Rūs u Z̲h̲āpān (see no. 609 [Russo-Japanese War] supra), as well as the following translations of the Turkish versions of novels by Jules Verne, (5) Siyāḥat dar jaww i hawā (=Robur le Conquérant=A clipper of the clouds), Kābul 1332/1913*, (6) Jazīrah i pinhān (= L’île mystérieuse), Kābul 1332/1914* (vol. i), (7) 20,000 farsak̲h̲ siyāḥat dar zīr i baḥr (= Vingt mille lieues sous les mers), Kābul 1332/1914*. According to Bogdanov he “found time to translate (from the Arabic and Turkish versions) several novels by Victor Hugo and most of the novels by Jules Verne”. Few of these seem to have reached Europe.

Siyāḥat-nāmah i sih qiṭʿah i rūy i zamīn dar 29 rūz, an account of a journey in Asia, Europe and Africa in 1308/1890–1: Kābul 1333/1915* (674 pp.).

[L. Bogdanov Notes on the Afghan periodical press (in Islamic culture iii/1 (Jan. 1929) pp. 126–52) p. 127 n. 2.]

§ 1630. Colonel S̲h̲āh Bēg K̲h̲ān b. Raḥmān Bēg b. Yūsuf Bēg S̲h̲ug̲h̲nānī was born in 1288/1871, his father being Aq-saqāl of some villages in S̲h̲ug̲h̲nān. In 1301/1884 he was taken to Kābul and became a protégé of the Amīr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, who arranged for the continuance of his education and subsequently gave him employment at court. After his return from his first pilgrimage he was appointed by the Amīr Ḥabīb Allāh to membership of the Common Council (p. 1177: dar jumlah i mimbarān i S̲h̲ūrā-yi ʿĀmm) and six months later to the Privy Council (s̲h̲araf i bār-yābī i S̲h̲ūrā-yi K̲h̲āṣṣ nīz ʿaṭā farmūdand). Later he became Afg̲h̲ān Minister in Bombay.

Safar i aiyām i saʿīdah bā nikāt i muḟīdah (so at top of p. 1 and in the preface, but on the cover Safar-nāmah i Ḥijāz … mus̲h̲tamil-bar ḥālāt i S. i a. i s….), accounts of pilgrimages from Kābul to Mecca in 1320–1/1903 and 1322–3/1904–5 (pp. 19–34), together with extracts (nikāt i mufīdah) from the Anwār i Suhailī and elsewhere (pp. 35–116) and a biography of the author (pp. 8–19), the whole accompanied by an Urdu translation by the editor, M. Fāḍil K̲h̲ān b. M. Ḥusain, Mīr Muns̲h̲ī to the Afg̲h̲ān Legation: Lahore [1915*].

[Biography referred to above. Portrait frontispiece. Portrait of the translator at end.]

§ 1631. Other works:—

(1)
Adventures of Columbus, Discoverer of America. Translated by Mirza Mahommad Munshi. (Aḥwāl i Kristōfar Kulambas): Calcutta 1910*.
(2)
Aḥwāl i Kristōfar Kulambas: see Adventures, etc., above.
(3)
Armag̲h̲ān i Hindūstān, by S. Luṭf-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh Maudūdī C̲h̲is̲h̲tī. Edition: place? 1311/1893–4 (Āṣafīyah ii p. 836).
(4)
Fawāʾid al-nāẓirīn, an account of al-Ṭāʾif and Mecca translated from J. L. Burckhardt’s Travels in Arabia (London 1829, vol. i p. 101–vol. ii p. 87) by M. Najm al-Dīn: Rieu iii 993b (AH. 1254/1838 ?).

Edition: Fowaid oon Nazireen, or Travels of the late Mr. John Lewis Burckhardt on the Hedjaz, as far as Mecca. Abridged and translated into Persian by Robert Neave, Esq., and arranged for the press by Nuzmood Deen Mahomud, Calcutta 1832°*.

(5)
Guldastah i Ḥakīm mausūm bah Safar i Ḥijāz, an account of a pilgrimage by ʿAbd Allāh K̲h̲ān “Ḥakīm” Kāndilī: Lahore 1322/1904*.
(6)
Guldastah i Ingilistān, a short account in prose and verse of a visit to London, by S. ʿAbd Allāh b. M.: Calcutta 1271/1854°*.
(7)
ʿIbrat al-nāẓirīn safar-nāmah i ʿIrāq: Āṣafīyah ii p. 836.
(8)
Nuh sāl dar Amrīkah, by ʿAbd Allāh Das̲h̲tī: Ṭihrān, date ? (see Luzac’s Oriental List 1934 p. 107).
(9)
Rūz-nāmah i Mīrzā M. S̲h̲afīʿ Gus̲h̲tāsb Māzandarānī (Travels ? cf. no. 14 below): Leningrad Univ. 866b (Salemann-Rosen p. 16).
(10)
Rūz-nāmah i safar i Mīrzā Naṣīr Allāh Sulṭān: Leningrad Univ. 407 (Salemann-Rosen p. 16).
(11)
Rūz-nāmah i safar i Piṭirburg̲h̲, by Mīrzā Masʿūd: Leningrad Univ. 680 (Salemann-Rosen p. 16).
(12)
Safar i Ḥijāz. See Guldastah i Ḥakīm.
(13)
Safar-nāmah i janāb i Qāḍī Taqī Muttaqī, the travels of q.t.m., of Ambala, by S. Amīn Allāh b. M. Munīr: Ambala [Anbālah], [1909*].
(14)
Safar-nāmah i Mīrzā M. S̲h̲afīʿ Gus̲h̲tāsb Māzandarānī (cf. no. 9 above): Leningrad Univ. 866a (Salemann-Rosen p. 16).
(15)
Safar-nāmah i Mūsyū Farānsīsī: Āṣafīyah ii p. 836.
(16)
Safar-nāmah i Qum, by Mīrzā G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain Afḍal al-Mulk: Majlis 697 (ah. 1324/1906).
(17)
Safar-nāmah (Mimwār) i Sar Antwān S̲h̲arlī u Sar Rubart S̲h̲arlī, a translation made by Ḥājj ʿAlī-Qulī K̲h̲ān Sardār i Asʿad: Ṭihrān 1330/1912 (see Mas̲h̲had iii p. 136).
(18)
Safar-nāmah i Wāmbirī, a translation made in 1302/1884–5 by Āwānus40 Masīḥī b. Ustād Ibrāhīm Zargar-bās̲h̲ī (cf. no. (22) below) from the French version of A. Vámbéry’s Travels in Central Asia, being the account of a journey from Teheran … performed in 1863 (London 1864): Majlis 698 (ends in Faṣl xv).
(19)
Sarbāz i Pārsī, an account of travels in Persia by K̲h̲alīl Wazīr: Bombay ahs 1311/1933* (96 pp.).
(20)
Sawāniḥ i safar al-Ḥijāz: Leningrad Univ. 1141i (Romaskewicz p. 10).
(21)
Siyāḥat i Turāb, by Turāb ʿAlī: Lindesiana p. 228 no. 349 (circ. ad. 1820).
(22)
(Siyāḥat-nāmah), a translation made in 1890 by Āwānus K̲h̲ān (cf. no. (18) above) from a French version of H. M. Stanley’s In darkest Africa (London 1890): Majlis 699 (ah. 1308/1890–1).
(23)
Siyāḥat-nāmah, account of an expedition sent in Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh’s reign to extend the telegraph to Iṣfahān, Yazd, Kirmān and the ports of the Persian Gulf: Majlis 700.
(24)
Ṭalīʿah i s̲h̲ams, a translation by Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān Ṣaḥḥāf-bās̲h̲ī of an account of Christopher Columbus: Mas̲h̲had 1327/1909 (see Mas̲h̲had 14, ptd. bks., no. 139).
(25)
Tuḥfat al-bāṣirīn, a diary of a pilgrimage by M. ʿAlī b. M. Qāsim: Karāc̲h̲ī 1858°.
(26)
Tūs̲h̲ah i rāh, a mat̲h̲nawī describing a journey from Kas̲h̲mīr to India and meetings with persons of distinction by M. Anwar S̲h̲āh “Anwar”:41 Lahore 1874* (18 pp. Cf. Arberry p. 306).

next chapter: 13.16 Women

Notes

^ Back to text1. So Ency. Isl. under Nāṣir-i-K̲h̲usraw.

^ Back to text2. So Harrassowitz’s Litterae orientales 58 (April 1934) p. 22

^ Back to text3. Cf. Bengal: past and present, vol. 45 (1933) p. 135, where the following extract from Captain Swinton’s diary is quoted from p. 105 of the Swinton family records (Edinburgh 1908, privately printed): In the end of the year 1765 the Emperor Shah Alam requested the English Army to conduct him to Delhy, and assist in placing him on the throne of his Fathers, but as Lord Clive could not promise him that, he resolved with Lord Clive’s approbation to send a letter to the King of Great Britain to solicit his assistance. As I was about to return to Europe and was well known to the King of Hindostan, the Vizier Monyr ul Dowla requested me to be the bearer of it. This I mentioned to Lord Clive who readily consented: accordingly in December, 1765, the letter was delivered to Lord Clive, and the same time put into my hand by his Lordship…. He also requested me to carry a Munshy to Europe with me in case it should be thought proper to send an answer in the Persian language. Having obtained Lord Clive’s consent, I engaged the Munshy to go to Europe. Monyr ul Dowlah [so] however insisted on paying Rs. 2,000 towards his charges.

^ Back to text4. Cf. W. Foster’s Early travels in India 1583–1619 p. 25 n. 1: “Hijili, on the west side of the Hūgli river, at the mouth of the Rāsulpur river. It was for a long time a place of importance, as cargoes were landed there for transport up the Hūgli, but was gradually washed away.”

^ Back to text5. This date does not seem to tally with the statement in Captain Swinton’s diary (if correctly reproduced) that S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam’s letter was delivered to him in December 1765.

^ Back to text6. This would imply that he returned in, or about, the beginning of Jumādā i 1183/September 1769.

^ Back to text7. Sir James E. Alexander 1803–85: see the Dictionary of national biography and Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography.

^ Back to text8. Queried by Pertsch for some reason unspecified.

^ Back to text9. Ḥusain according to Pertsch.

^ Back to text10. Sic ? Read perhaps Rāhūyī.

^ Back to text11. Mīr J. al-D. Ḥu. b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Ḥa. Injū, a member of a S̲h̲īrāzī Saiyid family, went to the Deccan and eventually became Wakīl, or Prime Minister, to Murtaḍā Niẓām-S̲h̲āh (reigned 972–96/1565–88). Entering Akbar’s service in the 30th regnal year (993–4), he held high positions both in his reign and in that of Jahāngīr and died at Āgrah in 1035/1625–6 (according to the Tārīk̲h̲ i Muḥammadī, cited by Rieu iii p. 10886). See Burhān i maʾāt̲h̲ir pp. 3977, 45222, 4531, 4545, 4563, 456 antepenult., 5674; Āʾīn i Akbarī p. 226b no. 164 (only his name in a list of Nuh-ṣadīs), Blochmann’s trans. p. 450; Memoirs of Jahāngīr, tr. Rogers and Beveridge, i 46 and elsewhere; The Embassy of Sir T. Roe to India … edited by Sir W. Foster, new ed., Oxford, 1926, pp. 209–12; Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ iii pp. 358–60 (quoted and translated in Blochmann’s Contributions to Persian lexicography (jasb. 37 (1868)) pp. 66–8, translated in Āʾīn i Akbarī, tr. Blochmann, pp. 450–1); Rieu ii pp. 496–7.

^ Back to text12. John Macgregor Murray, who was Military Secretary to the Commander-in-Chief in the Rohilla War (1774) and subsequently First Secretary and Member of the Military Board, became a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1787, was created a Baronet in 1795, retired in 1798 and died in 1822 (see East India Military Calendar London 1823, vol. ii p. 461; Rieu i 409b). Two volumes containing respectively Persian letters received by him in the years 1788–96 and Persian letters sent by him in the same period to various Indians of rank are described in Rieu i p. 410. Two volumes described in Rieu i pp. 409b and 410a contain miscellaneous papers collected by him on the history and administration, land-tenure and revenue of Bengal and Bihar, etc.

^ Back to text13. In his description of this ms. (Berlin p. 52) Pertsch does not say that Sir John Murray was present on this journey, but he says so, perhaps erroneously, later in the catalogue (p. 380).

^ Back to text14. No title is mentioned in the preface.

^ Back to text15. William Yule, father of Sir Henry Yule.

^ Back to text16. For whom see Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography p. 89.

^ Back to text17. He was wanted for the murder of George Frederick Cherry (for whom see Buckland op. cit. p. 80).

^ Back to text18. “An almost mortal blow was dealt it at the end of the 18th century when the Amīr of Buk̲h̲ārā S̲h̲āh Murād destroyed the dam on the Murg̲h̲āb and drove away almost all the inhabitants of Merw.” (Ency. Isl., Suppt., under Merw al-S̲h̲ahidjān (Jakoubovsky)).

^ Back to text19. Sir Gore Ouseley left Persia in 1814. M. Husain Kh̲ān’s account of his wanderings was sent to him by letter.

^ Back to text20. The original does not seem to be among the Ouseley mss. described by Ethé in the Bodleian catalogue.

^ Back to text21. Attached to Sir G. Ouseley’s mission in 1810, he subsequently entered the Persian service.

^ Back to text22. The specimen described in the jras., “lithographed on two large folios, printed on one side only” and “surmounted by the Persian emblem of the Lion and Sun”, began with the headings Ak̲h̲bār u waqāʾiʿ i s̲h̲ahr i Muḥarram al-Ḥarām 1253 * Dar Dār al-K̲h̲ilāfah i Ṭihrān inṭibāʿ yāftah * Ak̲h̲bār i mamālik i s̲h̲arqīyah. The second part of the paper, devoted to European news, is headed Ak̲h̲bār i mamālik i g̲h̲arbīyah. This newspaper seems not to be mentioned in Browne’s Press and poetry of modern Persia.

^ Back to text23. For C. J. Rich (1787–1821) see the Dictionary of national biography, Rieu iii p. xi, etc.

^ Back to text24. The opening words are given as al-Ḥamdu lillāhi Rabbi ’l-ʿālamīn.

^ Back to text25. C̲h̲ūn īn kamīnah i namak-k̲h̲wārah i daulat-k̲h̲wāh i S̲h̲āhans̲h̲āh i gītī-panāh madām i muʿallim kih zan i Farangsīs-am (quoted by Blochet from fol. 1b).

^ Back to text26. Cf. no. 1225 6th footnote.

^ Back to text27. Spelt “Taymoor Meerza” by Asʿad Y. K̲h̲aiyāṭ, and “Timour Meerza” by J. B. Fraser. “Teymur” and “Taymur” are given in the Farhang i Nafīsī as the ways of pronouncing the name of the founder of the Tīmūrid dynasty (Tamerlane). Taimūr Mīrzā, best known as the author of the Bāz-nāmah i Nāṣirī, died in 1291/1874 (according to Phillott’s introduction to his translation of the Bāz-nāmah).

^ Back to text28. Cf. Fraser’s Narrative i p. 58.

^ Back to text29. For whom see the Dictionary of national biography and Buckland’s Dictionary of Indian biography.

^ Back to text30. The princes did not reach England until 1836.

^ Back to text31. Cf. Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī x fol. 141a (fifth page from end) ult

^ Back to text32. Called Safar-nāmah simply in the Mas̲h̲had catalogue, but it is not clear whether this is a formal title or a description.

^ Back to text33. So M. S̲h̲afīʿ in Islamic culture iii/3 pp. 454, 472 (cf. no. 840 3rd par. 1st footnote supra).

^ Back to text34. e.g. Iṣfahān (al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār p. 21a penult.), Yazd (ibid. p. 33a), Kirmāns̲h̲āh (ibid., p. 35a).

^ Back to text35. e.g. Fārs (al-M. wa-’l-ā. p. 21a), Kurdistān (ibid. p. 32a).

^ Back to text36. So Buckland.

^ Back to text37. 1280/1863 according to Niẓāmī Badāyūnī.

^ Back to text38. In the Āṣafīyah catalogue (ii p. 836) the work is called Safar-nāmah i Sālār Jang i marḥūm, but this cannot be the actual title.

^ Back to text39. b. 1849, succeeded his father 1858: see Sir R. Lethbridge The Golden Book of India pp. 331–2.

^ Back to text40. For this name cf. no. 1150 1st par. penult. footnote supra.

^ Back to text41. Another work by the same author is Manẓūm i Anwar, poems in praise of Kalb-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān. Nawwāb of Rāmpūr (for whom see no. 1622 supra), Amritsar 1293/1876°* (220 pp.).

Cite this page
“13.15 Biography: Travellers, Pilgrims, Tourists”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 25 February 2024 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2772-7696_SPLO_COM_10213150>
First published online: 2021



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