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13.17 Biography: General and Miscellaneous
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In Volume 1-2: Biography, Additions, and Corrections | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.

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§ 1644. M. b. Manṣūr b. Sa‘īd … b. Abī Bakr al-Ṣiddīq al-Taimī al-Quras̲h̲ī, surnamed (al-mulaqqab) Mubārak-S̲h̲āh known as (maʿrūf bi-) Fak̲h̲r i Mudabbir, as he calls himself (“Tārīk̲h̲”, ed. Ross, p. 623, Ādāb al-ḥarb, preface1), was descended on his mother’s side from the amīr Bilgā-tagīn, the father-in-law of Sulṭān Maḥmūd G̲h̲aznawī (Rieu ii p. 488a). Fifteen years after the defeat of K̲h̲usrau S̲h̲āh by ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn G̲h̲ōrī [i.e. in or about 565/1169–70, since according to Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Kāmil xi p. 108, K̲h̲usrau S̲h̲āh was defeated in 550/1155] he was in Multān and was then a mere youth (kūdakī, Rieu ibid.). “Several other references to Multān make it probable that it was his native place” (Rieu, ibid.). After the defeat of K̲h̲usrau Malik by Muʿizz al-Dīn M. b. Sām [in 582/1186] Mubārak-S̲h̲āh went to Lahore and caused a search to be made for title-deeds and other family papers long inaccessible to him. His family pedigree having been found and taken to Lahore, he conceived the idea of working out genealogical tables of the Prophet and the ʿAs̲h̲arah i Mubas̲h̲s̲h̲arah, one of whom was his ancestor Abū Bakr. This led to further study and eventually after more than thirteen years of research he completed a volume of genealogical tables, which earned the warm commendation of his erudite father, the pupil of many great scholars of G̲h̲aznah (“Tārīk̲h̲”, p. 705) and the master of more than twenty branches of learning (ibid. p. 6810). In the autumn of 602/1206, when Muʿizz al-Dīn M. b. Sām was in Lahore, he was told about these tables and asked to see them, but before they could be shown to him he left Lahore and was murdered on his way to G̲h̲aznah. When his successor, Quṭb al-Dīn Aibak, entered Lahore, he too was told about Mubārak-S̲h̲āh’s tables. The author was presented and the tables, or some of them, were read to the Sulṭān, who expressed his approval and gave orders that they should be transcribed and bound for the royal library. A later work by this author, the Ādāb al-ḥarb wa-’l-s̲h̲ajāʿah (so Rieu ii p. 487 and Ivanow 1608), or Ādāb al-mulūk wa-kifāyat al-mamlūk (so in Ethé 2767), seems to be undated, but it is dedicated to Sulṭān Īltutmis̲h̲, who reigned at Delhi from 607/1210 to 633/1236.2 In both of these works he speaks of himself as an infirm old man (pīr i ḍaʿīf, “Tārīk̲h̲” p. 623).

(S̲h̲ajarah i ansāb i Mubārak-S̲h̲āhī),3 137 genealogies relating to the Prophet, the ʿAs̲h̲arah i Mubas̲h̲s̲h̲arah, the Muhājirūn, the Anṣār, the Prophets mentioned in the Qurʾān, the G̲h̲assānids, the Tabābiʿah, Pre-Islāmic and Islāmic poets, the Pre-Islāmic Persian kings, the Umaiyads and ʿAbbasids, Arab tribes, the Umarāʾ of Umaiyad and ʿAbbāsid times, the Ṭāhirids, Ṣaffārids, Sāmānids, Subuktagīnids, G̲h̲ōrids and others, preceded by an introduction containing some historical information about the last G̲h̲ōrids and their first successors in India as well as a number of pages in description and praise of the Turks: Ellis Coll. M. 253 (16th cent.).

Edition of the introductory matter and of the account of Adam and Eve and their immediate descendants (i.e. foll. 1–48a and 50b–55b out of 125): Ta‘ríkh-i [sic] Fakhru’d-Dín Mubáraksháh, being the historical introduction to the Book of Genealogies of Fakhru’d-Dín Mubáraksháh Marvar-rúḍí [sic4] completed in ad. 1206. Edited from a unique manuscript by E. Denison Ross, London 1927* (r.a.s., Forlong Fund).

Description with an abridged translation of most of the introductory portion: The genealogies of Fakhr-ud-Dín Mubárak Sháh. [Signed E. Denison Ross. In ʿAjab-nāmah: a volume of oriental studies presented to E. G. Browne, Cambridge, 1922, pp. 392–413].

Elucidation of Mubārak-S̲h̲āh’s statements concerning the Turks: On Mubarakshah Ghuri [sic]. By Ahmet-Zeki Validi (in bsos. vi/4 (1932) pp. 847–58. Pp. 85627–858 are devoted to a description of the Raḥīq al-taḥqīq of Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn M.-S̲h̲. G̲h̲ōrī, who, as indicated below, seems to be a different person).

In spite of some curious resemblances it seems impossible to identify Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Mubārak-S̲h̲āh Quras̲h̲ī (M. b. Manṣūr) with Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Mubārak-S̲h̲āh Marwarrūd̲h̲ī. The latter, according to Ibn al-At̲h̲īr (al-Kāmil, ed. Tornberg, xii p. 160 ult.), was Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Mubārak-S̲h̲āh b. al-Ḥasan [so in Tornberg’s text, not b. Abī ’l-Ḥasan, as Ross states] al-Marwarrūd̲h̲ī. a good Arabic and Persian poet, the owner of a guest-house containing books for the learned and chess-boards for the ignorant [evidently therefore a rich man], who stood high in the regard of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn the Great, Lord of G̲h̲aznah and Harāt, and who died in S̲h̲awwāl 602/May-June 12065 [i.e. several years before Mubārak-S̲h̲āh Quras̲h̲ī can have died]. According to the Ṭabaqāt i Nāṣirī (p. 288, where he is called Malik al-kalām Maulānā Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Mubārak-S̲h̲āh Marwarrūd̲h̲ī) he wrote in verse a genealogy of the G̲h̲ōrids (nisbat-nāmah i īn salāṭīn i nāmdār rā dar silk i naẓm kas̲h̲īdah). Minhāj i Sirāj had himself in 602/1205–6 [i.e. at, or about, the age of thirteen: see no. 104 supra] seen a copy of this metrical genealogy in the ḥaram of Māh i Mulk, G̲h̲iyāth al-Dīn M. b. Sām’s daughter, who told him [Ṭabaqāt p. 697–13] that the work was originally dedicated to Sulṭān ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Ḥusain Jahānsūz [who died in 551/11566] but was put aside by the author in an unfinished state until eventually completed with a new dedication to G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn M. b. Sām [d. 599/1202]. In the Haft iqlīm (no. 516, Ethé col. 415. Text quoted by Ross in Ta‘ríkh-i Fakhru’d-Dín, introd., pp. iii–v) there is a notice of a certain Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Mubārak-S̲h̲āh, who, though placed under Marw i S̲h̲āhjān, is evidently the same person as Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Mubārak-S̲h̲āh Marwarrūd̲h̲ī. He is described as Ṣadr i Saḥbān-bayān i daryā-banānī,7 an intimate friend of Sulṭān G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn G̲h̲ōrī and a dispenser of lavish hospitality.8 Amīn Rāzī quotes two verses from a qaṣīdah of his in praise of Malik Saif al-Dīn G̲h̲ōrī [who died in 558/11629]. Finally Mubārak-S̲h̲āh Marwarrūd̲h̲ī is probably identical with the poet Mubārak-S̲h̲āh G̲h̲ūrī, who according to the Ḥabīb al-siyar (Bombay ed. ii p. 155, translated by Ross in ʿAjab-nāmah p. 394) wrote verses in praise of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn [G̲h̲ōrī] as well as the astronomical work al-Madk̲h̲al al-manẓūm fī baḥr al-nujūm,10 and who, as Ahmet-Zeki Validi has shown (bsos. vi/4 pp. 856–8), completed in Muharram 584/March 1188 the metrical work on ethics Raḥīq al-taḥqīq (min kalām Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Mubārak-S̲h̲āh G̲h̲ōrī. ms.: Āyā Ṣōfyah 4792).

§ 1645. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn A. b. M. b. Ibrāhīm b. Abī Bakr Ibn K̲h̲allikān al-Barmakī al-Irbilī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī was born at Arbela in 608/1211 and died at Cairo, as a professor in the Madrasat al-Amīnīyah, in 681/1282. His Arabic biographical dictionary, the Wafayāt al-aʿyān wa-anbāʾ abnāʾ al-zamān, was begun at Cairo in 654/1256 and completed in 672/1274. The Arabic text has been published at Göttingen (ed. F. Wüstenfeld) in 1835–50, at Paris (only as far as no. 678, ed. MacGuckin de Slane) in 1838–42, at Būlāq in 1275/1859° and 1299/1882°, at Cairo in 1299/1882° and 1310/1892‡ and at [Ṭihrān ?] in 1284/1867°. An English translation by MacGuckin de Slane was published in the Oriental Translation Fund Series, Paris and London, 1842–71°. [See Brockelmann i pp. 326–8, Sptbd. i p. 561; Ency. Isl. under Ibn K̲h̲allikān; etc.]

The following Persian translations are extant:—

Manẓar al-insān fī tarjamat Wafayāt al-aʿyān, an abridged translation begun in 893/1487 and completed in 895/1489 by Yūsuf b. Aḥmad b. M. b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAlī b. Aḥmad al-S̲h̲ujāʿ al-Sijzī or al-Sanjarī for Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh Bēgaṛah of Gujrāt (reigned 863–917/1458–1511): Rieu ii 809a (latter half of the work. 16th cent.), i 334a (ah 1012/1603), 335a (16th cent.), Bānkīpūr viii 719 (ah 1018/1609).
(Tarjamah i Wafayāt al-aʿyān) an incomplete (?)11 translation made for Sulṭān Salīm i (ah 918–26/1512–20) by [ʿAbd al-] Kabīr b. Uwais b. M. al-Laṭīfī (i.e. Ẓahīr al-Dīn al-Ardabīlī al-Ḥanafī known as (al-s̲h̲ahīr bi-) Qāḍī-zādah),12 who completed the first part (nos. 1–204) at Istānbūl on 5 D̲h̲ū ’l-Qaʿdah 926/17 Oct. 1520 and the second part (nos. 205–453) in 928/1521–2; Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 455, Browne Suppt. 1359 (Pt i, autograph, ah 926/1520, Pt. ii, transcribed from an autograph, ah 1019/1610–11. King’s 110), Majlis 538 (Pt i, ah 926/1520), Bodleian 361 (Pts iii, ah 1197/1783).

§ 1646. For the Bahjat al-tawārīk̲h̲, which was completed in 861/1456–7 by S̲h̲ukr Allāh b. S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad al-Rūmī and which is largely biographical (the 13 bābs being devoted respectively to (1) cosmography, geography and ethnology, (2) the Pre-Islāmic prophets, (3) Muḥammad’s genealogy, (4) his birth, life, etc., (5) his wives, children, and other relations, (6) his ten principal associates, (7) his other companions, (8) the Twelve Imāms, (9) the famous s̲h̲aik̲h̲s, (10) the ancient philosophers, (11) the Pre-Islāmic Persian kings, (12) the Umaiyad and ʿAbbāsid Caliphs, (13) the Ottoman Sulṭān), see no. 122 supra.

§ 1647. For the Tārīk̲h̲ i Ṣadr i jahān, which was written at least partly in 907/1501–2 by Faiḍ Allāh b. Zain al-ʿĀbidīn Banbānī and which contains biographies of poets, Companions of the Prophet, scholars, etc., see no. 127 supra.

§ 1648. Abū Bakr b. Hidāyat Allāh Ḥusainī wrote his Riyāḍ al-khulūd in 989/1581.

Riyād al-khulūd, on the lives and sayings of amirs, scholars, and divines: Majlis 549 (ah 1316/1898–9).

§ 1649. Amīn [ibn] Aḥmad Rāzī13 was born at Rai,14 of which town his father, Khwājah Mīrzā Ahmad,15 a favourite of Sh̲āh Ṭahmāsp, was for some years Kalāntar. Khwājah M. Sh̲arīf “Hajrī” Rāzi,16 Wazīr successively of K̲h̲urāsān, Yazd and Iṣfahān, was his paternal uncle, and Iʿtimād al-Daulah (Ghiyāth Bēg b. M. Sh̲arīf), Nūr-Jahān’s father and Jahāngir’s Wazīr, was his first cousin. That Amīn Rāzī was resident in India when he wrote the Haft iqlīm, is shown by incidental references to Akbar and his court, such, for example, as the statement that “Ṭarīqī” Sāwajī (Haft iqlīm no. 1011: cf. Badāʾūnī iii p. 263) was for about fifteen years mulāzim i īn dargāh.

Haft iqlīm, biographical notices of about 1560 poets, saints, scholars, and other celebrities completed in 1002/1593–417 and arranged geographically under their towns or countries, of which in many cases geographical accounts are given: Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 501 no. 14411, Sipahsālār ii p. 485 no. 1123 (ah 1025/1616), nos. 1124–5, Bodleian 416 (ah 1039/1630), 417 (ah 1075/1665), 418 (ah 1199/1785), 419 (3rd and 5th iqlīms only. N.d.), 420 (4th iqlīm only. N.d.), ms. Pers. c. 24 (ah 1052/1642), Oxford Ind. Inst. ms. Whinfield 20 (defective. N.d.), Cairo p. 509 (ah 1052/1643), Rieu i 335b (17th cent.), 336b (ah 1059/1649), 337a (17th cent.), 337a (the first two-thirds of the work. 17th cent.), iii 970a (ah 1261/1845), Suppt. 138 (17th cent.), Leningrad Univ. 1134 (ah 1066/1655–6. See Romaskewicz p. 15), 1154 (vid. ibid.), Blochet 642 (ah 1068/1657–8), 643 (ah 1094/1683), Ethé 724, 725 (ah 1089/1678), 726 (defective, beginning in 3rd iqlīm. ah 1093/1682), i.o. 4541 (ah 1006/1597–8 or 1106/1694–5 ? date indistinct), Bānkīpūr vii 636 (17th cent.), Āṣafīyah iii p. 162 no. 190 (17th cent.), i p. 232 no. 465, Ivanow 282 (ah 1166/1752–3), 283 (ad 1871), Curzon 706 (19th cent.), Lindesiana p. 113 no. 712 (extracts only. Circ. ad 1750), Majlis 456 (ah 1273/1856–7), Būhār 100 (19th cent.), Bombay Univ. 36 (portion only, corresponding to nos. 985–1558 in Ethé’s description), Browne Pers. Cat. 110, Browne Coll. K. 5 (13) = Houtum-Schindler 39, K. 4 (= i.o. 4541 above), Eton 56 (imperfect), Kapurthala 49 (see Oriental College Magazine vol. iii/4 (Lahore, Aug. 1927) p. 19), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (2 copies. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. iii, no. 1 (Lahore, Nov. 1926), p. 68).

Edition: Haft Iqlîm, or the geographical and biographical encyclopaedia of Amîn Aḥmad Râzî. Edited by E. Denison Ross and … ʿAbdul Muqtadir (Fasc 2. Edited by A. H. Harley and ʿAbdul Muqtadir. Fasc 3. Edited by A. H. H., ʿA. M. and M. Mahfuz-ul Haq), Calcutta 1918°* (Fasc. 1), 1927°* (Fasc. 2), 1939 (Fasc. 3). These three fasciculi, which form “vol. i”, extend to “Partawī” of S̲h̲īrāz (no. 260 in Ethé’s enumeration).

Abridgment: Intik̲h̲āb i Haft iqlīm by Faiḍ Allāh “Himmat” Anṣārī Jaunpūrī, dedicated to Wajīh al-Dīn ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Bahādur: Ethé 727.

Extracts: (1) [on Māzandarān, Gīlān, etc.] B. Dorn Muhammedanische Quellen zur Geschichte der südlichen Küstenländer des Kaspischen Meeres, St. Petersburg 1850–8°*, Theil iv pp. 88–100, (2) [on Turkistān] Description … de Boukhara par Mohammed Nerchakhy, suivie de textes relatifs à la Transoxiane. Texte persan publié par C. Schefer, Paris 1892°*, pp. 243–91, (3) [on Africa] Documents persans sur l’Afrique publiés et traduits par C. Huart (in Recueil de mémoires orientaux. Textes et traductions publiés … à l’occasion du XIVe Congrès International des Orientalistes réuni à Alger avril 1905. Publications de l’École des Langues Orientales Vivantes, ve série, vol. 5, Paris 1905°*, pp. 104–14 (text), 114–30 (trans.)).

For one or two other extracts see Edwards.

Translations of extracts: (1) [on Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar (French)] Notice de l’ouvrage persan qui a pour titre Matla-assaadeïn … Par M. Quatremère (in Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque du Roi … tome xiv (Paris 1843°*)), pp. 474–89. (2) [on Africa] see Extracts (3) above.

Lists and epitomes of the biographies: ((1) Ethé coll. 381–499, (2) [nos. 985–1558 only, i.e. from “Qudsī” Tafris̲h̲ī to Amīr Aḥmad Ḥājjī of Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar] Bombay Univ. pp. 68–107.

§ 1650. M. Ṣādiq, the author of the Ṭabaqāt i S̲h̲āhjahānī, who mentions a brother of his, Mullā M. Yūsuf Kas̲h̲mīrī Hamadānī (d. 1033/1623–4) among the poets of Jahāngīr’s reign, may be regarded as certainly identical with M. Ṣādiq Hamadānī, the author of the Kalimāt al-ṣādiqīn (see no. 1311 supra), who in the Tārīk̲h̲ i Muḥammadī is called Maulānā Ṣādiq Kas̲h̲mīrī (see Rieu iii p. 1096b). From the Ṭabaqāt i S̲h̲āhjahānī Rieu ascertained that the author was born about 1000/1591–2, that he spent his life in Delhi, studied under S̲h̲. Fāʾiḍ (d. 1022/1613), and was a favourite disciple of S̲h̲. ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Dihlawī (for whom see nos. 243, 1298 supra). The author of the Kalimāt al-ṣādiqīn, who often refers to S̲h̲. ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Dihlawī as ḥaḍrat i mak̲h̲dūmī, mentions a maternal grandfather, Ḥājjī M. Hamadānī, who went to Multān and finally settled in Delhi, where he died in 1006/1597 (Bānkīpūr viii pp. 34–5). He speaks of an earlier work of his entitled Silsilat al-ṣādiqīn and expresses a hope of being able to write a Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Jahāngīrī (ibid. p. 35).

Ṭabaqāt i S̲h̲āhjahānī, lives of 871 celebrities who lived under Tīmūr and his successors, divided into ten ṭabaqāt ((1)) Tīmūr, 770–807/1369–1405, (2) Mīrān-S̲h̲āh and S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲, 807–50/1405–47, (3) Mīrzā Sulṭān-Muḥammad and Ulug̲h̲ Bēg, 850–3/1447–9, (4) Abū Saʿīd, 854–73/1450–69, (5) ʿUmar S̲h̲aik̲h̲, 873–99/1469–94, (6) Bābur, 900–37/1495–1530, (7) Humāyūn, 938–63/1531–56, (8) Akbar, 963–1014/1556–1605, (9) Jahāngīr, 1014–37/1605–27, (10) S̲h̲āh-Jahān, from 1037/1627 to the date of composition, which is not specified in the preface, though 1046/1636–7 is mentioned early in Ṭabaqah 10 as the current year), each ṭabaqah being subdivided into three bābs ((1) Saiyids and saints, (2) scholars, physicians and men of letters (ʿulamāʾ, ḥukamāʾ, fuḍalāʾ), (3) poets): Āṣafīyah i p. 246 no. 721 (before ah 1156/1743), Ethé 705 (n.d.), Rieu iii 1009b (19th cent.).

§ 1651. For the Ṣubḥ i ṣādiq, which was completed in 1048/1638–9 by Mirzā M. Ṣadiq b. M. Ṣāliḥ Iṣfahānī and of which the third mujallad is devoted to celebrated men of the first eleven centuries, see no. 142 2nd par. supra. The same author’s S̲h̲āhid i ṣādiq (for which see no. 142 1st par. supra) contains some biographical matter (e.g. Bāb iii, faṣl 79, which is devoted to “notices of remarkable events and of the death of celebrated men in chronological order from the Hijrah to ah 1042” (Rieu ii p. 776), and the k̲h̲ātimah. which is “an alphabetical list of proper names of places and men, with fixation of their spelling, and short notices” (ibid.)).

§ 1652. For the Mirʾāt al-ʿālam, which was composed in 1078/1667 ostensibly by Bak̲h̲tāwar K̲h̲ān but really by M. Baqā Sahāranpūrī and which contains biographies of celebrities, see no. 151 (2) supra.

§ 1653. Mīrzā Nūr al-Dīn M. “ʿAlī” b. Ḥakīm Fatḥ al-Dīn S̲h̲īrāzī, entitled Niʿmat K̲h̲ān and Dānis̲h̲mand K̲h̲ān, who died at Delhi in 1122/1710, has already been mentioned as the author of the Waqāʾiʿ i Ḥaidarābād (no. 751 (1) supra) and other works.

Rāḥat al-qulūb (beg. Āfrīn Suk̲h̲an-āfrīnī rā kih dar ṣalā-yi t̲h̲anāyas̲h̲), satirical notices of some contemporaries, whose names are indicated by means of riddles: Rieu ii 796a (18th cent.), Edinburgh 375 (1) (18th cent.).

§ 1654. For the Farḥat al-nāẓirīn, which was completed in 1184/1770–1 by M. Aslam Parasrūrī and of which the k̲h̲ātimah is devoted to geography, the lives of scholars, saints and poets, and the family of S̲h̲ujāʿ al-Daulah, see no. 168 supra.

§ 1655. For the Ḥadīqat al-aqālīm, which was written mainly in 1192–6/1778–82 by Murtaḍā Ḥusain Bilgrāmī and which, like the Haft iqlīm, consists largely of geographically arranged biographies, see no. 170 supra.

§ 1656. For the Lubb al-siyar u jahān-numā, which was compiled in 1208/1793–4 by Mīrzā Abū Ṭālib K̲h̲ān Iṣfahānī and of which the third bāb contains biographies of philosophers, Companions of the Prophet, scholars, poets, etc., see no. 173 supra.

§ 1657. For the Zubdat al-g̲h̲arāʾib, which was composed in 1231/1816 by M. Riḍā “Najm” Ṭabāṭabā and of which the fifth volume contains lives of philosophers, saints, poets, etc., see no. 180 (1) supra.

§ 1658. For the Yādgār i Bahādurī, which was completed in 1249/1833–4 by Bahādur Sing’h b. Hazārī-Mal, and of which the third sāniḥah contains inter alia biographies of philosophers, saints (Muslim and Hindu), scholars, poets and others, see no. 182 supra.

§ 1659. Maulawī S. As̲h̲raf al-Dīn Aḥmad b. Nawwāb Wazīr al-Sulṭān S. M. Amīr ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Bahādur, who was born in 1855 and received the title of K̲h̲ān Bahādur in 1893, has already been mentioned (no. 975 supra) as the author of the Ṭabaqāt i Muḥsinī-yah (Calcutta 1889*). In addition to the Nau ratan referred to there he wrote some essays on education published under the title C̲h̲ār dīwār at Calcutta in 1894*.

Dur-dānah i k̲h̲ayāl, an autobiography: Lucknow (N.K.) 1889*.

§ 1660. According to M. ʿAlī “Tarbiyat”18 as translated by E. G. Browne in The Press and poetry of modern Persia, pp. 165–6, the Nāmah i dānis̲h̲warān i Nāṣirī was “compiled by a committee of scholars consisting of Mírzá Abu’l-Faẓl of Sáwa, Mīrzā Hasan of Ṭálaqán,19 ʿAbdu’l-Wahháb of Qazwín,20 known as “Mullá Áqá”, and Muḥammad, called al-Mahdí21 This work, which was not completed, is a detailed Dictionary of Biography of the notable and eminent persons, men of letters, divines, philosophers, mystics, etc., who were most celebrated in Islám, and contains accounts of their biographies, adventures, characteristics and writings. Its publication was begun in ah 1296 (= a.d. 1879) under the supervision of ʿAlí-qulí Mírzá Iʿtiẓádu’s-Salṭana.22 On his death in ah 1298 (= ad 1881), after the publication of two volumes,23 the editorial committee made over the supervision to Muḥammad Ḥasan Khán Iʿtimádu’s-Salṭana,24 so that the last five volumes (iii–vii) were published as appendices to the Year Books (Sál-náma) of ah 1318, 1319, 1321, 1322, and 1323 (= a.d. 1900–5).”

Nāmah i dānis̲h̲warān i Nāṣirī, a large unfinished dictionary of learned men, vol. i (beginning with Ibn Bābawaih25 and ending with Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm b. Aḥmad b. M. Ṭabarī26) [Ṭihrān] 1296/1879°, vol. ii (beginning with Abū ’l-Baqāʾ ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥusain al-ʿUkbarī27 and ending with Ibn Abī ’l-ʿAzāqir, i.e. M. b. ʿAlī al-S̲h̲almag̲h̲ānī28) Ṭihrān 1312/1894 (cf. Browne Lit. Hist. iv p. 447 and Āṣafīyah i p. 348 no. 57), vols. iii–vii appended to the Sāl-nāmahs specified above.

§ 1661. M. Ḥasan K̲h̲ān Marāg̲h̲ī, entitled Ṣanīʿ al-Daulah and afterwards Iʿtimād al-Salṭanah, who died at Ṭihrān in 1896, has already been mentioned several times (nos. 192, 306, 328, 444, 471, 480, 609 [America, 2nd work]). His work al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār is mentioned as no. 444 (2), but, since it contains a considerable amount of biography, it deserves further attention and more precise description here.

al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ar, memorabilia of the first forty years of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh’s reign, written in 1306/1888–9 and divided into sixteen chapters ((1) on the S̲h̲āh’s personal appearance, mental and spiritual gifts, etc., p. 4, (2) his children and grandchildren, p. 11, (3) the mothers of his children, p. 13, (4) list of high officials, p. 15, (5) list of provincial governors, p. 29, (6) list of wars, rebellions, riots, punitive expeditions, etc., p. 37, (7) buildings erected, repaired or decorated, parks and gardens laid out, etc., p. 53, (8) social reforms, innovations, discoveries, etc., p. 91, (9) the S̲h̲āh’s journeys in Persia and elsewhere, p. 132, (10), biographies of scholars, divines, writers, physicians, etc., p. 135, (11) list of persons honoured with the Nis̲h̲ān i Timt̲h̲āl i Humāyūn, p. 227, (12) list of titles conferred, p. 230, (13) the national revenue of 1268/1851–2 compared with that of 1303/1885–6, p. 242, (14) contemporary rulers in all parts of the world, p. 245, (15) diplomatic representatives of foreign countries in Ṭihrān, p. 253, (16) a year-by-year record of remarkable events outside Persia, p. 257), to all of which is appended a separately paginated list of officials in the ministries at Ṭihrān and in the offices of the provincial governments, etc.: Tihrān 1306–7/18890*. (Pp. 294, 62. The date 1306 is given on the title-page, but 8 Muḥarram 1307 in the colophon on p. 294.)

§ 1662. Ḥājj S̲h̲. ʿAbbās b. M. Riḍā Qummī is described as marḥūm on the title-page of the Tihrān edition of the Hadīyat al-aḥbāb.

Hadīyat al-aḥbāb fī d̲h̲ikr al-maʿrūfīn bi-l-kunā wa-’l-alqāb wa-’l-ansāb, short alphabetically arranged notices of ancient and modern S̲h̲īʿite and Sunnite scholars, poets, etc., composed in 1349/1930–1 (according to the Sipahsālār catalogue i p. Yā-Alif) and divided into three bābs ((1) names beginning with Abū, (2) names beginning with Ibn, (3) nisbahs, surnames, descriptions, etc.): Najaf 1349/1930–1 (Sipahsālār cat., loc. cit.); Tihrān ahs 1329/1950‡ (281 pp.).

§ 1663. Ḥājī Mīrzā Yaḥyā “Yaḥyā” b. S. Ḥādī Daulatābādī, well known as a writer, an educationist and a prominent figure in the Persian revolution, was born at Daulatābād in 1281/1864–5. In the second volume of M. Ishaque’s Sukh̲anvarān-i-Īrān dar ʿaṣr-i-ḥāẓir, published in 1937, it was stated that for some years he had been resident in Belgium and was acting as guardian to the Persian students in that country. In the same author’s Modern Persian poetry, published in 1943, the date of his death is given as 1318 (!), possibly a misprint for 1361/1942, since his son in his preface to the Ḥayāt i Yaḥyā speaks of the eighty years of his life. Among his published works is Urdībihis̲h̲t (vol. i only, Tihrān ahs 1304/1925*, a collection of his poems).

Ḥayāt i Yaḥyā, an autobiography in four volumes: Tihrān ahs 1328/1950-, in progress (the date is that of the editor’s preface to vol. ii, the only volume so far published. Title on cover: Tārīk̲h̲ i muʿāṣir yā Ḥayāt i Yaḥyā).

[Browne The press and poetry of modern Persia pp. 54, 102, 157, Lit. Hist, iv pp. 225, 307; D. J. Irani Poets of the Pahlavi regime pp. 668B–690 (portrait); M. Ishaque Sukh̲anvarān-i-Īrān ii pp. 416–22 (portrait), Modern Persian poetry pp. 9, 17, 87, 165, etc.; Ḥabīb Allāh Muk̲h̲tārī Tārīk̲h̲ i bīdārī i Īrān p. 28 (portrait).]

§ 1664. Mīrzā Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. ʿAbd al-ʿAlī Qazwīnī, whose father has already been mentioned (no. 1660) as one of the compilers of the Nāmah i dānis̲h̲warān, was born at Ṭihrān on 15 Rabīʿ al-Awwal 1294/30 March 1877, and it was at Ṭihrān that he received an education in the usual subjects of the traditional Islamic curriculum. Of all these subjects the Arabic adabīyāt, and especially Arabic grammar, appealed to him most strongly (Bīst maqālah i Qazwīnī, pt. 1, p. 6: Az miyān i īn hamah ʿulūm i mutadāwalah na-mī-dānam ba-c̲h̲ih sabab az hamān ibtidā-yi amr s̲h̲auqī s̲h̲adīd ba-adabīyāt i ʿArab girībān-gīr i man s̲h̲ud tā akt̲h̲ar i aiyām i ṣibā u s̲h̲abāb dar s̲h̲uʿab i muk̲h̲talifah i īn fann ba-k̲h̲uṣūṣ naḥw ṣarf gardīd u ʿumr i girān-māyah dar is̲h̲tig̲h̲āl ba-ism u fiʿl u ḥarf gud̲h̲as̲h̲t u aknūn kih taʾammul i aiyām i gud̲h̲as̲h̲tah mī-kunam u bar ʿumr i talaf-kardah taʾassuf mī-k̲h̲wuram bāz yakī az bihtarīn i tafrīḥāt i man muṭālaʿah i S̲h̲arḥ i Raḍī u Mug̲h̲nī ’l-labīb ast kih barā-yi man aḥlā min waṣl al-ḥabīb ast! Al-ʿādah ka-’l-ṭabīʿat al-t̲h̲āniyah). Apart from his teachers in various madrasahs he came into close contact with several persons of culture and distinction, such as S̲h̲. Hādī Najmābādī. S. Aḥmad “Adīb” Pīs̲h̲āwarī, S̲h̲ams al-‘ulamā’ S̲h̲. M. Mahdī Qazwīnī ʿAbd-al-Rabb-ābādī (cf. no. 1160 1st footnote, supra) and M. Ḥusain K̲h̲ān “Furūg̲h̲ī” Iṣfahānī (cf. no. 319 supra). One of the sons of the last-named, M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān D̲h̲akāʾ al-Mulk (cf. no. 320 supra), became his pupil in Arabic, his instructor in French and soon his intimate friend. For some years too he gave instruction in Arabic grammar to the two sons of S̲h̲. Faḍl Allāh Nūrī (who was crucified at Ṭihrān on 13 Rajab 1327/31 July 1909). In 1322/1904 at the suggestion of his brother, Mīrzā Aḥmad K̲h̲ān, who was then in London, he came to see the manuscripts of the British Museum, and he remained in London for nearly two years. In 1324/1906, having accepted the invitation of the Trustees of the E. J. W. Gibb Memorial to prepare an edition of the Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahān-gus̲h̲āy i Juwainī (for which see no. 340 (1) supra), he moved to Paris, where several good manuscripts of that work are preserved. At the end of 1333/1915, when it became impossible for him to continue his work in Paris (ba-ʿilalī kih īn-jā mauqiʿ i d̲h̲ikr i ān nīst dīgar barāy i man dar Pārīs ba-hīc̲h̲ wajh idāmah i kārhāʾī kih ba-dast dās̲h̲tam mumkin na-būd), he welcomed the proposal of his old friend, Ḥusain-Qulī K̲h̲ān Nawwāb, the newly appointed Persian Minister to Germany, that they should travel together through Switzerland to Berlin. There he and the other members of the Persian colony, among whom were S. Ḥasan Taqī-zādah (cf. no. 321 (a) (1) supra), S. M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Jamāl-zādah, Mīrzā Maḥmūd K̲h̲ān G̲h̲anī-zādah, Mīrzā Ḥusain Kāẓim-zādah, M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Tarbiyat (cf. no. 1493 supra) and Mīrzā Ibrāhīm Pūr-Dāwud (cf. Browne Press and poetry of modern Persia pp. xviii, 289), suffered hardships which some of them mitigated by engaging in propagandist activities (cf. Browne Lit. Hist, iv p. 483). When the war came to its end, Qazwīnī was eager to resume his work on the Tārīk̲h̲ i Jahān-gus̲h̲āy i Juwainī, but travel from one European country to another was difficult in those days and it was not until 16 Jumādā ii 1338/8 January 1920 that he again reached Paris. His return had been facilitated by his old friend M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Furūg̲h̲ī” (cf. no. 320 supra), one of the Persian delegates to the Peace Conference, who soon afterwards was instrumental in obtaining for him a modest stipend from the Persian Government. He was by this time recognized as by far the most learned and critical of living Persians in historical and linguistic matters.29 In 1939 he returned to Persia and accepted an invitation to teach in the University of Ṭihrān. He died on 6 K̲h̲urdād 1328/28 Rajab 1368/27 May 1949. In addition to several well-known volumes of the Gibb Memorial Series edited by him with copious learned notes his works include articles contributed to Persian periodicals. Twenty of these have been collected and published under the title Bīst maqālah i Qazwīnī30 (pt. i, Bombay [1928*], pt. ii, Ṭihrān ahs 1313/1934*).

Maqālaʾī tārīk̲h̲ī u intiqādī … dar bāb i nusk̲h̲ah i Naft̲h̲at al-maṣdūr31 see no. 1459 1st footnote.
S̲h̲arḥ i ḥāl i Abū Sulaimān i Manṭiqī i Sijistānī32 (French title: Abû Sulaimân Manṭiqî Sidjistânî …), Chalon-sur-Saone 1352/1933 (46 pp. Publications de la Société des Études Iraniennes et de l’Art Persan, 5).
Wafayāt i muʿaṣirīn, alphabetically arranged biographies of the author’s contemporaries, begun in the periodical Yādgār iii/3, continued in the succeeding issues of that volume, then interrupted for reasons explained in iv/3 pp. 73–4, resumed in v/1–2 (Sept.-Oct. 1948) pp. 89–110 (letters Z and S), v/3 pp. 51–72 (S̲h̲33), v/4–5 pp. 63–91 (Ṣ-Ẓ), v/6–7 pp. 122–8 (part of ʿAin), v/8–9 pp. 66–72 (ʿAin continued), interrupted at that point by the author’s death34 and concluded in v/10 pp. 44–54 by a life of Qazwinī himself [unsigned, but presumably by the editor, ʿAbbās Iqbāl].

[Autobiography in Bīst maqālah i Qazwīnī, pt. i (Bombay [1928]) pp. 5–23; Yādgār v/8–9 pp. 1–8 (portrait frontispiece), v/10 pp. 44–5; The Times 4.6.49; bsoas. xiii/2 (1950) pp. 547–50 (an obituary by Mojtabā Mīnovī); Īraj Afs̲h̲ār Nat̲h̲r i Fārsī i muʿāṣir pp. 57–66 (portrait).]

§ 1665. ʿAbd Allāh Mustaufī was born according to Machalski (Rocz. Or. xv p. 1063) in “1294 h. (1875)”, i.e. presumably either in 1292/1875 or in 1294/1877.

S̲h̲arḥ i zindagānī i man yā Tārīk̲h̲ i ijtimāʿī u idārī i daurah i Qājārīyah, a history of Qājār times incorporating autobiographical memoirs and a highly interesting picture of Persian domestic and social life: Ṭihrān ahs 1324/1945–6 onwards (cf. Additions and corrections ad no. 451 (4) end, (11) infra).

Description of vols. i–ii: F. Machalski Quelques remarques sur l’état actuel de l’historiographie persane (in Rocznik Orientalistyczny xv (1939–49)) pp. 105–7.

§ 1666. Īraj Afs̲h̲ar.

Nat̲h̲r i Fārsī i muʿāṣir: muntak̲h̲abātī az bihtarīn i āt̲h̲ār i muwarrik̲h̲īn u muḥaqqiqīn i nāmī i Īran az ṣadr i mas̲h̲rūṭīyat tā muʿāṣir [with short biographies35 and portraits], Ṭihrān ahs 1330/1951 (to be followed by a similar volume on novelists, etc., and dramatists by Saʿīd Nafīsī).

§ 1667. Other biographical works:—

Abraham Lincoln; sa vie et son oeuvre, by K̲h̲ān Bahādur Mīrzā Muḥam­mad (for whom see under Dūstdārān i bash̲ar below): Berlin ah 1343/1924 (Publications Iranschähr, no. 8. See the r.a.s.’s Catalogue of printed books, p. 278).
Ad̲h̲kār al-kirām al-bararah fī manāqib Imām Dār al-Hijrah, a biography of Mālik b. Anas, by Maulawī S. M. Jalāl al-Dīn: Madras 1310/1893* (116 pp.).
Aḥwāl i Amīr ʿAṭāʾ Allāh Faʿfarī Zainabī, an account of A. ʿA. A., who migrated from Delhi to Bengal [sc. Bihār], became Wazīr to S̲h̲ēr S̲h̲āh at Sahasrām (“Sasseram” in Bihār) and eventually settled at P’hulwārā, near Patna, by S̲h̲āh Nūr al-Ḥaqq: Bankipur Suppt. ii 2272 (ah 1298/1881).
Aḥwāl i aulād u jāydād i Saiyid Aḥmad Sāndawī, “compiled by ʿAlī Naqī K̲h̲ān, under instructions from the Governor-General of India, to clear up certain complications which had arisen in regard to the disposal of the estate in Oudh in the possession of the descendants of Sayyid Aḥmad Sāndwī”: Edinburgh 89 (159 foll., with a large map of Fatḥ-ganj. ah 1230/1814).
Aḥwāl i Sar Jams̲h̲ēd-jī Jījī-bhā’ī, a metrical biography of Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy [probably the first Baronet of that name (1783–1859),36 but the b.m. catalogue does nor make this clear], by Farāmarz Naurōz-jī Kuṭār: Bombay a.y. 1264/1895° (63 pp.).
Armag̲h̲ān i aḥbāb (Tad̲h̲kirah i mas̲h̲āhīr mausūm bah A. i a.), brief biographies of poets, kings, and other celebrities, mainly Persian, by Sh̲ams al-ʿulamāʾ Maulawī M. Ḥusain [b. M. Sirāj al-Dīn], Professor, Mission College, Lahore,37 whose preface is dated 1 November 1890 and who compiled in 1906 a work entitled al-ʿAjāʾib (see index): Lahore 1890° (68 pp.); 1917* (116 pp.); Sād’haurah 1893° (64 pp.).
al-Aslāf, a biographical dictionary of famous men, ancient Greeks and Muslims, prophets, etc., by M. Sh̲ajāʿat ʿAli K̲h̲ān: Badāyūn 1916* (114 pp.).
Ch̲ahār Āʾīn i Maḥbūbī, by Maulawī Abu ’l-Faiḍ Najm al-Dīn b. Aḥmad ʿAlī ʿAbbāsī C̲h̲irīyākōtī [who died in 1306/1888–9: see Raḥmān ʿAlī pp. 235–6]: Āṣafīyah iii p. 162 no. 145 (under Tad̲h̲kirah i fārisī, but without further indication of the subject, which may not be biographical, ah 1334/1915–16).
Dūstdārān i bas̲h̲ar, biographies of famous philanthropists, male (vol. i) and female (vol. ii,38 of which the preface is dated Masqaṭ, 28 Ṣafar 1330 [1912]), by [Mīrzā] Muhammad [b. Aḥmad,39 Munsh̲ī], m.r.a.s.,40 Order of the Lion and the Sun (2nd Class), Nis̲h̲ān i ʿIlmī (3rd Class): Bombay [printed, but published at Najaf] 1914† (138 pp. Vol. i only ?); Berlin (Kāvayānī Pr.) 1343/1925* (the date of vol. ii, which alone is in the i.o. Library).
Faḍl i Ṣafdarī, on the merits of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, by M. Najm al-Dīn Qādirī: Ārah [“Arrah”], Nūr al-Anwār Pr., 1294/1877* (pp. 8, 76).
al-Farʿ al-nāmī min al-aṣl al-sāmī, on ansāb (according to Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Ṣiddīqī iv, appended fihrist i kutub, p. 14), by Ṣiddīq Ḥasan K̲h̲ān (for whom see pp. 278, 913, 1137): Bhōpāl (so M. i Ṣ., without date) 1301/1883–4 (so Āṣafīyah ii p. 1556, without place, but Sarkīs and Brockelmann say India 1291: there may, therefore, be two editions).
Jaur [u] jafā (?), love-story of the author, M. Riḍā, son of the late Amīr M. Zamān K̲h̲ān Durrānī Fufalzai, and a dancing-girl named Murād-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ at D̤ērah Ghāzī K̲h̲ān [once seat of the Durrānī Governors], written in 1221/1806: Rieu i 384b (cf. iii 1087a. 36 Pictures).
Jawāhir i arbaʿah. Edition: place ? date ? (Āṣafīyah. i p. 346, under Tarājim i Fārisī, but without further indication of the subject).
Kār-nāmah i suturgān i sh̲urafā i Pārsiyān i mamlakat i Hindūstan, biographies of eminent Parsees, by Āmūzandah Shērmand Īrānī: [Poona 1917*] (48 pp.).
Kitāb i Ṣubḥī, an autobiographical apologia, composed (so far as pt. i is concerned) ahs 1312/193341 by Faiḍ Allāh. Muhtadī maʿrūf ba-Ṣubḥī, who after some years as a Bahāʾī missionary became private secretary to ʿAbd al-Bahāʾ (d. 28.11.192142) at Ḥaifā and who has much to say about the history of Bahāʾism and its leading personalities: Ṭihrān ahs 1312/1933–4‡ (Daurah i. 216 pp.).
Maṭlaʿ al-anwār, by M. S̲h̲afī K̲h̲ān al-Wazīr [b. ?] ʿAbd al-Bāqī al-S̲h̲arīf al-Bag̲h̲dādī: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1556 (Manāqib) no. 9.
Maẓhar al-ḥaqq (Taḥqīq al-ansāb al-mas̲h̲hūr bi’sm i tārīk̲h̲ī Maẓhar al-ḥaqq [= 1284/1867–8]), on the races and genealogies of Indian Muslims (S̲h̲aik̲h̲s, Saiyids, Mug̲h̲als, Pat’hāns, etc.), by ʿAbd al-Razzāq Kalyānawī: N.K. [Lucknow] 1292/1875°*.
Miftāḥ al-jannah, by Mullā M. al-s̲h̲ah̲ī̲r bah Zanjānī. Edition: 1290/1873 (Āṣafīyah ii p. 1556 (Manāqib) no. 10).
Mirʾāt al-kaunain, by G̲h̲ulām-Nabī Firdausī. Edition: place ? 1312/1894–5 (Āsafīyah i p. 324).
Miʿyār al-faḍāʾil li-k̲h̲ilāfat al-ak̲h̲yār wa-’l-rad̲h̲āʾil “a Persian version of a work (originally written in Arabic) on the exploits of famous Muslim champions” (Arberry), by Maulawi Nasīm Ḥasan: Amrōhah 1334/1917* (308 pp.).
Nasab-nāmah, by Faḍl Allāh S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn b. al-Qāḍī Ḥasan: Cairo p. 529.
Niẓām al-ansāb, written in 1307/1889–90 (vol. i) and 1310/1892–3 (vol. ii) by S. M. Mansur ʿAlī “K̲h̲irad” Naqawī al-Buk̲h̲ārī b. S. Zain al-ʿĀbidīn S̲h̲ikārpūrī: Āṣafīyah iii p. 720 (ah 1307 and 1310).
Qurʾān [sic, possibly for Qirān] al-suʿadā, by M. Ḥusainī Madanī Aurangābādī: Āṣafīyah i p. 322 no. 18 (under the heading Tad̲h̲kirah).
Risālah fī bayān nasl al-mulūk wa’l-as̲h̲rāf min Ādam: Leningrad Univ. 384 (Salemann-Rosen p. 17).
Risālah i d̲h̲ikr i mugh̲anniyān i Hindūstān, composed in Aḥhmad S̲h̲āh’s fifth regnal year (ah 1165–6) by ʿInāyat K̲h̲ān “Rāsik̲h̲” (fl. 1163/1750: see Ethé 411): Bānkīpūr xvii 1734 (15 foll. 19th cent.).
Riyaḍ i laṭīf, Reyaz-i-Latif, or Biographical sketches of the Persian authors for the use of … candidates of the Universities, Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Panjab and Allahabad, by Abū ’l-Munīf M. Laṭīf: Calcutta 1904°* (64 pp.).
Safīnah i Raḥmānī, by Ḥafiẓ ʿAbd al-Raḥmān “Ḥairat”. Edition: place ? 1884 (Āṣaflyah i p. 320).
Saḥāʾif i s̲h̲arāʾif, composed in 1231/1816 by M. ʿAskarī Ḥusainī Bilgrāmī: Āṣafīyah i p. 322 no. 19 (autograph).
S̲h̲ajarah i ṭaiyibah, by G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī “Āzād” Bilgrāmī: see no. 1162 Persian works (12) supra.
S̲h̲ams al-manāqib, by M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Surūsh̲” Iṣfahānī (d. 1285/1868–9: see Majmaʿ al-fuṣaḥāʾ ii pp. 184–95): [Ṭihrān] 1301/1884 (122 foll. See Karatay p. 121).
S̲h̲arḥ i ḥāl i ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Muqaffaʿ, by ʿAbbās Iqbāl (cf. no. 1453 supra): Berlin 1926* (Intis̲h̲arāt i Īransh̲ahr, 15).
S̲h̲arḥ i ḥāl i Kulunil Muhammad Taqī K̲h̲ān (Colonel Mohamed Taghi Khan (Biography of) by some of his friends and admirers [Riḍā-zādah “S̲h̲afaq”43 and others]): Berlin 1927* (Intis̲h̲ārāt i Īrāns̲h̲ahr, 20).
S̲h̲arḥ i ḥāl u āt̲h̲ār i Saiyid Jamāl al-Dīn i Asadābādī44 (French title: Seyed Djemal-ud-Din Afghani. Par son neveu M. Lutfullah Khan [Asadābādī] avec quelques appendices par des savants différents): Berlin 1926* (tom. i. 128 pp. Intish̲ārāt i Īransh̲ahr, 13); Tabrīz ahs 1326/1947–8 (an augmented edition. See Yādgār iv/1–2 p. 127).
S̲h̲arh i ḥāl u iqdāmāt i S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad i K̲h̲iyābānī45 (Cheikh Mohammad Khiabani. Sa biographie et son activité politique et sociale. Par ses amis et ses admirateurs [Riḍā-zādah “S̲h̲afaq”46 and others]. Berlin 1926* (Intis̲h̲ārāt i Īrans̲h̲ahr, 14).
Tad̲h̲kirah i Allāhī, a biography of Muẓaffar ʿAlī S̲h̲āh Allāhī, of Āgrah, by M. Abū ’l-Ḥasan Farīdābādī: Lucknow 1887° (122 pp.).
Tad̲h̲kirat al-ak̲h̲yār, brief notices of Prophets, Imāms, kings and philosophers, by ʿAlī Akbar S̲h̲arīf Gīlānī: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (ah 1224/1809. See ocm. viii/4 (Aug. 1932) p. 45).
Taḥqīq al-ansāb: see Maẓhar al-ḥaqq above.
Tarānah i g̲h̲am, a panegyric in rhymed prose on Maulānā M. ʿAbd al-Rash̲īd, by M. Kalb-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, Nawwāb of Rāmpūr (cf. no. 1622): [Rāmpūr] 1289/1872°*.
Tārīk̲h̲ i jāwīd, short biographical notices and portraits of Persian officers killed on active service: Ṭihrān (Ministry of War) ahs 1325/1946–7 (vol. i, covering the years 1320–5), 1326 (vol. ii, covering the years 1300–26), 1327 (vol. iii, additional biographies for the years 1300–27).
Ṭarīq al-bukāʾ, stories of saints and martyrs, by Mullā M. Ḥusain “Giryān” Sh̲ahrābī: Bombay 1343/1925*.
Yādgār i Hindī, “Poems in Persian entitled Yadgar-i-Hindee, containing a brief account of the great prophets, kings, rulers, and philosophers of the world by Rai Kunhya Lall” i.e. Kanhaiyā Lāl “Hindī” (for whom see no. 861 supra): Lahore 1290/1873°*.
Zindagāni i Mānī, by Malik al-Sh̲uʿaraʾ [“Bahār” presumably. Cf. Additions & Corrections ad 452 (452e (5))17]: Ṭihrān (see Luzac’s O.L. 1938 p. 186).
Zubdat al-ʿulūm, by ʿIwaḍ Ḥiṣārī,47 a collection of legends and traditions of Muḥammad, his Companions, celebrated scholars, saints, etc., with an account of the miracles of ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī and a description of Heaven and Hell: Bodleian 334 (n.d.).

next chapter: Some Miscellaneous Historical Works


^ Back to text1. In the latter place the name, as quoted by Rieu, is S̲h̲arīf M. [b.] Manṣūr [b.] Saʿīd … Qurais̲h̲ī mulaqqab bi-Mubārak-S̲h̲āh maʿrūf bi-Fak̲h̲r i Mudabbir.

^ Back to text2. The title Nāṣir Amīr al-Muʾminīn appended to the name of Īltutmis̲h̲ in the preface (see Rieu ii p. 488a, Ethé col. 1493) would imply, if really a part of the author’s text, that the work was completed late in the reign. Some fifty pages of extracts relating to the G̲h̲aznawids have been published with English translation and prefatory remarks by Miss Iqbāl M. S̲h̲afīʿ in Islamic culture for April 1938.

^ Back to text3. No formal title is given to the work by the author, but he refers to it as īn s̲h̲ajarah (e.g. pp. 688, 698, 732), āns̲h̲ajarah i ansāb (p. 71 penult.), īn s̲h̲ajarah u [sic ?] ansāb (p. 628).

^ Back to text4. As indicated below, F. al-D. M.-S̲h̲. Marwarrūd̲h̲ī seems to be a different person from the author of this work.

^ Back to text5. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr’s words are: wa-fīhā fī S̲h̲awwāl tuwuffiya Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Mubārak S̲h̲āh b. al-Ḥasan al-Marwarrūd̲h̲ī wa-kāna ḥasan al-s̲h̲iʿr bi-’l-Fārisīyah wa-’l-ʿArabīyah wa-lahu manzilah ʿaẓīmah ʿinda G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn al-kabīr ṣāḥib G̲h̲aznah wa-Harāh wa-g̲h̲airihimā wa-kāna lahu dār ḍiyāfah fīhā kutub wa-s̲h̲iṭranj fa-’l-ʿulamāʾ yuṭāliʿūn al-kutub wa-’l-juhhāl yalʿabūn bi-’l-s̲h̲iṭranj.

^ Back to text6. Mubārak-S̲h̲āh Quras̲h̲ī, if a kūdak in 565 (see no. 1644, beginning), cannot have been much more than a child in 551.

^ Back to text7. I have conjecturally emended the text printed by Ross.

^ Back to text8. Fināʾ i suddah i ū maḥaṭṭ i raḥl i afāḍil u marjiʿ u maʾāb i amāt̲h̲il mī būd.

^ Back to text9. In 565, as we have noted above, Mubārak-S̲h̲āh Quras̲h̲ī was a kūdak.

^ Back to text10. Cf. Ḥ. K̲h̲. v p. 472, where the author’s name is corrupted into Mubārak ʿUd̲h̲ī.

^ Back to text11. According to the translator’s statement (see Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 4555, Bodleian col. 193) he had translated half of the work when Salīm died. It will be observed that the two parts extant in manuscript contain 453 of the 865 biographies. At that point presumably the work was discontinued.

^ Back to text12. Kabīr b. Uwais was deported from Tabrīz to Istānbūl by Salīm after the battle of C̲h̲āldirān [in 920/1514] and was granted a stipend of eighty dirhams a day. His account of Salīm’s campaigns of 922–3/1516–17, which included the conquest of Egypt, has already been mentioned (no. 588 supra). In 930/1524 he was put to death at Cairo with Aḥmad Pās̲h̲ā “al-K̲h̲āʾin”. See al-S̲h̲aqāʾiq al-Nuʿmānīyah, Cairo 1310, i p. 506, Rescher’s trans. p. 289; S̲h̲ad̲h̲arāt al-d̲h̲ahab viii p. 173; Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān pp. 249–50; Majālis al-nafāʾis tr. Qazwīnī pp. 396–7.

^ Back to text13. At the beginning of the preface to the Haft iqlīm he calls himself Amīn i Aḥmad i Rāzī. The iḍāfat has commonly been ignored by Orientalists and the name read as Amīn Aḥmad, but we know on Amīn’s own authority that his father’s name was Aḥmad and the presence of the iḍāfat is made clear in the chronogrammatic rubāʿī at the end of the preface. It runs as follows:— Īn nusk̲h̲ah kih hast hamc̲h̲u firdaus nikū Tā mū na-s̲h̲awī darū nah bi-s̲h̲kāfī mū. Gar az tu kasī suʾāl i tārīk̲h̲ kunad, Taṣnīf i Amīn i Aḥmad i Rāzī gū.

^ Back to text14. S̲h̲ahr i Rai kih maulid u mans̲h̲aʾi īn faqīr ast (Bombay Univ. p. 72).

^ Back to text15. Haft iqlīm no. 1117.

^ Back to text16. “Hajrī” (this vocalisation seems more probable than “Hijrī” hitherto favoured by Orientalists) died in 984/1576–7. See Haft iqlīm no. 1114; Mak̲h̲zan al-gh̲arāʾib no. 3051; etc. For his dīwān see Bānkīpūr ii 244 and Ethé 1440.

^ Back to text17. The chronogram indicating this date is quoted in note 1 on p. 1169. As Ethé pointed out (i.o. Cat. col. 498), the mention of Muḥammad iii (acc. 1003/1595) in the list of Ottoman Sultans shows that some parts of the Haft iqlīm are later than 1002, but Browne’s statement (Lit. Hist. iv p. 448) that it was “composed in 1028/1619” is doubtless a mistake.

^ Back to text18. For whom see no. 1493 supra.

^ Back to text19. In the British Museum catalogue the Nāmah i dānis̲h̲warān [vol. i only] is entered under Ḥusain [sic], Ṭaliqānī, to whom also the Lisān al-ʿAjam, a Persian grammar of 172 pp. published at Bombay in 1317/1899°, is there ascribed. According to the Bombay Quarterly Catalogue (1900, 4th quarter) the author of the Lisān al-ʿAjam was Mīrzā Ḥasan b. M. Taqī Ṭālaqānī. The other collaborators in the Nāmah i dānis̲h̲warān are not mentioned by Edwards, but the Āṣafīyah catalogue (i p. 348) gives the four names-Mīrzā Abū ’l-Faḍl Sāwī, Mīrzā Ḥasan Ṭālaqāʾī [sic], Mullā ʿAbd al-Wahhāb Qazwīnī and Mullā M. Mahdī.

^ Back to text20. He died in Muḥarram 1306/Sept. 1888. See al-Maʾat̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ar p. 161; Bīst maqālah i Qazwīnī, pt. 1, p. 5.

^ Back to text21. S̲h̲ams al-ʿUlamāʾ S̲h̲ M. Mahdī Qazwīnī ʿAbd-al-Rabb-ābādī, who died at Ṭihrān on 24 D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1331/24 November 1913. See Bīst maqālah i Qazwīnī, pt. 1, p. 8, and the periodical Yādgār v/3, p. 60.

^ Back to text22. Cf. no. 316 supra.

^ Back to text23. The second volume did not appear until 1312 (see below).

^ Back to text24. Cf. no. 192 supra.

^ Back to text25. Cf. no. 262 supra.

^ Back to text26. A Mālikī who died at Bag̲h̲dad in 393/1003.

^ Back to text27. Cf. Brockelmann i 282, Sptbd. i p. 495. He died in 616/1219.

^ Back to text28. Burnt at Bag̲h̲dād as a heretic in 322/934. Cf. Tusy’s List of Shy’ah books p. 305; S̲h̲ad̲h̲arāt al-d̲h̲ahab ii p. 293; Brockelmann Sptbd i p. 189 n. 1.

^ Back to text29. “Mais le premier qui commença à étudier I’histoire de la Perse d’une manière critique fut Moḥammad b. ʿAbdu ’l-Wahhāb Ḳazwīnī, auteur qui s’acquit une haute autorité scientifique, même parmi les savants de I’Occident. La recherche et l’analyse critique des documents historiques persans (isnād) furent le domaine principal de son activité scientifique … Son hypercriticisme et sa pédanterie ne lui permirent, jusqu’á présent, de composer aucun grand ouvrage digne de lui.” (F. Machalski, Quelques remarques sur l’état actuel de l’historiographie persane, in Rocznik Orientalistyczny xv (1939–49) p. 100.)

^ Back to text30. This is actually the title of Pt i only, Pt. ii being called B. m. az maqālāt i tārīk̲h̲ī u intiqādī u adabī bi-qalam i … Muḥammad K̲h̲ān Qazwīnī.

^ Back to text31. This maqālah is not included in the Bīst maqālah i Qazwīnī.

^ Back to text32. Cf. no. 1485 supra and Bīst maqālah i Qazwīnī ii pp. 102–23 (in an article on the Tatimmat Siwān al-ḥikmah).

^ Back to text33. Including S̲h̲ams al ‘Ulamāʾ M. Ḥusain Qarīb Garakānī.

^ Back to text34. It is highly desirable that these biographies should be published as an independent work, with or without any further biographies for which Qazwīnī may have left materials, especially as the first three volumes of Yādgār seem to be now unprocurable.

^ Back to text35. Unfortunately too late in their arrival to be used adequately in the present survey.

^ Back to text36. See Buckland’s Dictionary of Indian biography p. 223; D.N.B. under Jeejeebhoy; Ency. Brit., 11th ed., ibid.

^ Back to text37. In spite of the British Museum catalogue this person (still alive when the 1917 edition was published) is clearly different from S̲h̲ams al-ʿulamāʾ M. Ḥusain “Azād” b. M. Bāqir (b. Delhi 1827, 1828 or 1830, d. Lahore 22.1.1910), who was Professor of Arabic in the Government College, Lahore (1870 ?-1889), wrote some Persian and Urdu readers for the Panjab Education Department, and whose name is illustrious in the history of Urdu literature. For his life and works (which include Urdu works on Persian literature) see Prāg Narāyan Bhārgava Ṣaḥīfah i zarrīn (in Urdu), Lucknow 1902, Panjab section, p. 8; Civil and military Gazette [a newspaper], Lahore, 23.1.1910, p. 10b; Rām Bābu Saksēna History of Urdu literature pp. 219–22, 274–9, Tārīk̲h̲ i adab i Urdū [Urdu translation of the preceding work], Lucknow [1929], ḥiṣṣah i nat̲h̲r, pp. 46–52 (portrait facing p. 50); Maulana M. Husain Azād [a short Urdu biography, 48 pp.] by Ṭālib Ilāhabādī, Allahabad 1931; T. Grahame Bailey History of Urdu literature pp. 87, 96; Sh̲ams al-‘Ulamaʾ Maulānā M. Ḥusain “Azād”, by Āg̲h̲ā M. Bāqir [his grandson] (in ocm. xv/2 (Feb. 1939), ḍamīmah, pp. 41–118 (portrait facing p. 41)); etc.

^ Back to text38. Vol. iii is described as in the press in a list of Kāvayānī publications at the end of the Berlin ed. of vol. ii.

^ Back to text39. So in the Ṭulūʿ i tamaddun.

^ Back to text40. K̲h̲ān Bahādur Āg̲h̲ā Mīrzā Muḥammad, c.i.e., The Sheikh’s Market, Ashar, Basrah, Iraq, appears in the lists of Members published in the jras. from 1924 to 1932. On the title-page of the Dūstdārān i bas̲h̲ar, vol. ii, are mentioned the titles of nineteen works by him, including Aḥwāl i Kristōfar Kulambas (cf. no. 1631 (2) supra), Ṭuluʿ i tamaddun (cf. no. 193 (a) (16) supra), Insh̲āʾ i aʿlā, Insh̲aʾ i jadīd, Zabān i Ingilīsī, Aḥwal i Gārfild, Tārīk̲h̲ i Almān and Ḍarb al-amthāl i fārsī. His portrait forms the frontispieces to S. Ahmad Kasrawī’s Nāmhā-yi sh̲ahrhā u dīhhā-yi Irān, daftar i (Ṭihrān ahs 1308/1929–30) and daftar ii (Ṭihrān ahs 1309/1930–1). Kasrawī made his acquaintance in the course of his visit to ʿIrāq and K̲h̲ūzistān (cf. no. 489 supra).

^ Back to text41. Five years (p. 44) after the circulation, in 1307/1928 (p. 2, l. 5 from foot), of an attack on his orthodoxy and character.

^ Back to text42. For an obituary notice by E. G. Browne see jras. 1922 pp. 145–6.

^ Back to text43. Dr. Sādiq K̲h̲ān R.-z. “S̲h̲afaq”, Professor of Modern Philosophy in the University of Ṭihrān, was born at Tabrīz in 1310/1892–3 and was in 1328/1910 owner and editor of the Tabrīz weekly newspaper Shafaq (Browne The press and poetry of modern Persia p. 111). Subsequently he studied at Robert College, Istānbūl, and at the University of Berlin. His works include a Tārīk̲h̲i adabīyāt i Irān barāy i dabīristānhā [Ṭihrān ahs 1321/1942] and a Farhang i Sh̲āh-namah (Luzac’s ol. 1942 p. 10). See Ras̲h̲īd Yāsamī Adabīyāt i muʿāṣir p. 59 (portrait); D. J. Irani Poets of the Pahlavi regime pp. 345–348b (portrait); Ishaque Sukhanvarān-i-Irān ii pp. 241–6 (portrait), Modern Persian poetry pp. 10 n. 3, 11, 26; Mahdī Mujtahidī Rijāl i Adh̲arbāyjān pp. 97–99; Tarīk̲h̲ i jarāʾid u majallāt i Irān iii p. 74; Īraj Afsh̲ār Nathr i Fārsi i muʿāṣir pp. 138–44 (portrait).

^ Back to text44. Born 1254/1838–9, died at Istānbūl 9 March 1897. See Zaidān Mas̲h̲āhīr al-sh̲arq ii pp. 54–66, Ta’rīk̲h̲ ādāb al-lug̲h̲at al-ʿarabīyah iv pp. 312–13; Browne The Persian revolution pp. 2–30, etc. (portrait frontispiece); Encyl. Isl. under D̲j̲amāl al–Dīn (Goldziher); Armag̲h̲ān xii (ahs 1310/1931–2) pp. 586–601 (an article by Ṣifāt Allāh Jamālī); Brockelmann Sptbd. iii pp. 311–15; etc. A biography of 96 pp. published at Tihrān is mentioned in Luzac’s OL. 1951 p. 32, where the title is given as “Seyed Jamal Afgani” and the author’s name is not mentioned.

^ Back to text45. Cf. Ḥabīb Allāh Muk̲h̲tārī Tārīk̲h̲ i bīdārī i Īrān p. 54 (portrait); M. Ṣadr Hās̲h̲imī Tarik̲h̲ i jaraʾid u majallāt i Irān ii p. 106 (portrait).

^ Back to text46. Cf. (32) supra.

^ Back to text47. Who was a protégé of a certain K̲h̲wājah Bāqī Jān G̲h̲iyāth al-Millah wa-’l-Dunyā wa-’l-Dīn [ibn ?] ʿImād al-Dīn.

Cite this page
“13.17 Biography: General and Miscellaneous”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 06 December 2023 <>
First published online: 2021

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