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13.2.2 Biography: Saints, Mystics, etc.: Saints, Mystics, etc. (2)
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§ 1321. Sulṭān M. Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh1 “Qādirī”, the eldest son of the Mogul Emperor S̲h̲āh-Jahān (1037–68/1628–58) and Mumtāz-Maḥall, was born at Ajmēr in Ṣafar 1024/March 1615. In S̲h̲aʿbān 1042/Feb. 1633 he married Nādirah Bēgam, the daughter of his uncle, Sulṭān Parwēz. From 1043/1633, when he received his first manṣab (12,000/6,000) and the sarkār of Ḥiṣār as his fief, he was rapidly promoted and eventually reached unprecedented rank (60,000/40,000) in the State Service. He was appointed to several governorships (Allahabad in 1055/1645, the Panjāb in 1057/1647, Gujrāt (Gujarat) in 1059/1649, Multān, and Kābul in 1062/1652), but these provinces were administered for him by deputies, and Lahore was the only provincial capital to which he ever paid a visit of any length. In 1063/1653 he was in command at the unsuccessful siege of Qandahār, which forms the subject of Ras̲h̲īd K̲h̲ān’s Laṭāʾif al-ak̲h̲bār (see no. 733 supra). Although he had been recognized by S̲h̲āh-Jahān as heir to the throne, his claim was disputed in 1067/1657, when S̲h̲āh-Jahān fell ill, by his younger brothers, S̲h̲āh-S̲h̲ujāʿ, Aurangzēb and Murād-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲. He was twice defeated in battle by Aurangzēb, first at Samūgaṛh, near Āgrah, in Ramaḍān 1068/June 1658 and then at Ajmēr in Jumādā ii 1069/March 1659. On 26 D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1069/14 September 1659 he was executed at Delhi by order of Aurangzēb, who had obtained from the ʿulamāʾ a fatwā declaring him to be a kāfir.

Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh and his sister Jahān-ārā were, according to the latter (see ocm. xiii/4 p. 1616–17), the first of Tīmūr’s line to set their feet upon the path of K̲h̲udā-ṭalabī and Ḥaqq-jūʾī. Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh himself says (Sakīnat al-auliyāʾ, Urdu trans. p. 53) that darwīs̲h̲es had always fascinated him and that much of his time had been spent in seeking them out. Then on the 10th,2 or the 29th,3 of D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1049, at the age of twenty-five, he had been admitted to the society of a saint (ēk dōst i K̲h̲udā4 kī ṣuḥbat mēn phunc̲h̲ā) and had been treated by him with great kindness.5 That which others used to obtain after a month he had obtained on the first night, and in a month that for which others needed a year. He had reached immediately and without austerities an aim usually attained only through years of severe discipline (sālhā-sāl kē mujāhadoṅ aur riyāḍatōṅ sē). Of Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh’s works the best known by far is the Safīnat al-auliyāʾ completed in 1049/1640, which may be described as a standard work of reference. Somewhat similar in content, but of narrower scope and much less known is the Sakīnat al-auliyāʾ completed in 1052/1642–3. The Risālah i Ḥaqq-numā, written in 1055/1645, is a small Ṣūfī tract.6 The Ḥasanāt al-ʿārifīn, composed in 1062/1652 is an annotated collection of ecstatic or paradoxical utterances (s̲h̲aṭaḥāt or s̲h̲aṭḥīyāt7) ascribed to various mystics.8 A work entitled Rumūz i taṣawwuf, which is described by Arberry as a catechism of Ṣūfī doctrine, was published with an Urdu translation at Lahore in [1923*]. Whether this is a genuine work of Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh’s and whether it contains a date are matters for investigation. The works of Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh’s last years are a remarkable series resulting from an interest in Hindu mystīcīsm and a desire to reconcile Hinduism and Islām. Apparently the earliest literary outcome of this interest was not actually a work of his but a record of some seventy questions posed by him to the Hindu ascetic Bābā Lāl9 and the answers given by the latter.10 In 1065/1654–5 he completed the Majmaʿ al-baḥrain,11 in the preface12 to which he says that in his intercourse with Hindu faqīrs he had ascertained that their divergence from the Ṣūfīs was merely verbal and that he had written the work with the object of reconciling the two systems. In 1067/1657 was completed at Delhi after six months’ labour the Sirr i akbar or Sirr al-asrār, a translation of 5013 or 5214 Upanishads undertaken by Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh with the help of some pandits of Benares.15 These works were congenial to him because “although he had perused the Pentateuch, the Gospels, the Psalms, and other sacred books, he had nowhere found the doctrine of Tauḥīd, or Pantheism, explicitly taught, but in the Beds (Vedas) and more especially in the Upnikhats (Upanishads), which contain their essence”.16 Another work, the Ṭarīqat al-ḥaqīqah, described by Edwards as a tract in prose and verse on the Vēdānta philosophy, was published at Gūjrānwālah in [1895°*]. An Urdu translation by Aḥmad ʿAlī Batālawī appeared at Lahore in [1923*]. A translation of the Yōgavāsishṭ’ha (Tarjamah i Jōg Bās̲h̲is̲h̲t) made in 1066/1655–6 (by a certain Ḥabīb Allāh according to Ethé 2927) under the auspices of Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh is preserved in several mss.17 There is also a translation of the Bhagavad-gītā, called in some mss. by the title Āb i zindagī,18 which is ascribed on very doubtful authority19 to Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh. According to Qanungo (i p. 139) the Gulzār i ḥāl, Walī Rām’s translation of the Prabōd’ha-c̲h̲andrōdaya (see no. 620 1st par. supra), was written “for the use of Dara Shukoh”. No authority is cited for this statement. In any case the Gulzār i ḥāl was not completed until 1073/1662–3, i.e. more than three years after Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh’s death.

Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh wrote poetry in which he used the tak̲h̲alluṣ “Qādirī”. His dīwān is mentioned by “Sark̲h̲wus̲h̲”, who describes it as short, and also by Kis̲h̲an C̲h̲and “Ik̲h̲lāṣ”. G̲h̲ulām-Sarwar Lāhaurī had seen a copy of it (K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i p. 17415), but it is now extremely rare.20 Finally it may be noted that Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh was a calligraphist. Two pages from an autograph ms. of his Safīnat al-auliyāʾ are reproduced in ocm. x/3, where they face p. 114, and other specimens of his writing are in existence.21

Safīnat al-auliyāʾ, completed on 27 Ramaḍān 1049/21 Jan. 1640 and devoted to short notices22 of holy men, namely the Prophet (p. 17), the first three Caliphs (p. 19), the Twelve Imāms (p. 22), Salmān Fārisī (p. 30), Uwais Qaranī (p. 30), Ḥasan Baṣrī (p. 31), Qāsim b. M. b. Abī Bakr (p. 31), the four Imāms (Abū Ḥanīfah, etc., p. 32), Abū Yūsuf (p. 34), M. S̲h̲aibānī (p. 34), s̲h̲aik̲h̲s of the Qādirī (previously Junaidī) order23 (pp. 35–73, nos. 27–6524) from Maʿrūf Kark̲h̲ī (d. 200/815) to Miyāṅ Mīr (d. 1045/1635), Khwājahs, i.e. Naqshbandīs (previously Ṭaifūrīs) (pp. 73–85, nos. 66–94) from Abū Yazīd Bisṭāmī (d. 261/875) to Ṣāliḥ K̲h̲wājah Dahbīdī (d. 1048/1638 at Balk̲h̲), Chishtīs (pp. 86–102, nos. 95–119) from K̲h̲wājah ʿAbd al-Wāḥid [b.] Zaid (d. 177/793) to S̲h̲. Jalāl T’hānēsarī (d. 989/1582. Cf. no. 25 supra), Kubrawīs (pp. 102–9, nos. 120–39) from Abū Bakr Nassāj to Sulṭān Walad (d. 712/1312), Suhrawardīs (pp. 110–19, nos. 140–59) from Mims̲h̲ād Dīnawarī (d. 299/911–12) to S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam (d. 880/1475 at Aḥmadābād25), miscellaneous s̲h̲aik̲h̲s (mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ i mutafarriqah, pp. 119–99, nos. 160–377) from Mālik [b.] Dīnār (d. 137/754–5) to S̲h̲. Bilāwal Lāhaurī (d. 1046/1637), and holy women (pp. 199–216, nos. 378–411), i.e. the wives and daughters of the Prophet and some female saints from Zāʾidah, ʿUmar’s slave-girl, to Bībī Jamāl K̲h̲ātūn, Miyāṅ Mīr’s sister, who was still alive in 1049 at the time of writing:26 Lahore private library of Dīwān Anand Kumār, Reader in Biology in the Panjāb University (an autograph described by M. S̲h̲afīʿ in ocm. x/3 (May 1934) pp. 109–15), Bānkīpūr viii 673 (revised and corrected by the author), 674 (ah 1108/1697), Lindesiana p. 131 no. 164 (ah 1063/1652–3), no. 193 (ad 1701), Rieu i 356b (17th cent.), iii 976b (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), Blochet i 432 (17th cent.), Ethé 647 (17th cent.), 648 (ah 1120/1709), 649 (ah 1179/1765), Ross and Browne 124 (ah 1151/1738–9), i.o. d.p. 666 (ah 1151/1739), Āṣafīyah i p. 320 no. 24 (4th yr. of Farruk̲h̲-siyar /1127–8/1715–16), no. 101 (ah 1113/1701–2), iii p. 164 no. 118, Ivanow 262 (ah 1137/1724–5 ?), Rehatsek p. 203 no. 54 (ah 1143/1730–1), Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (2 copies dated ah 1153/1740 and Samwat 1896), Berlin 17 (1), 576 (3).

List and epitome of the biographies: Ethé coll. 274–315.

Editions: Āgrah 1269/1853*, Lucknow 1872°, Cawnpore 1884†‡, 1318/1900°.

Sakīnat al-auliyāʾ, an account of the great saint of Lahore, Miyāṅ, or Mīyāṅ27 Mīr28 and some of his disciples, especially Mullā S̲h̲āh,29 completed in 1052/1642–3:30 Bānkīpūr viii 675 (18th cent.), Ivanow Curzon 73 (18th cent.), Rieu i 357 (ah 1276/1859). Urdū translation:31 Urdū tarjamah i kitāb i Sakīnat al-auliyāʾ, Lahore [circ. 1920 ?‡].

[Autobiographical statements (relating mainly to meetings with Ṣūfīs and visits to graves) in the Safīnat al-auliyāʾ (collected by M. S̲h̲afīʿ in ocm. x/3 pp. 110–15) and the Sakīnat al-auliyāʾ; other autobiographical statements in the preface to the Sirr i akbar; Manucci Storia do Mogor, tr. W. Irvine, i pp. 221–7, etc.; the travels of Bernier, Tavernier, etc.; contemporary and later histories of India; Kalimāt al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (Sprenger p. 113); Hamīs̲h̲ah bahār (Sprenger p. 128); Ṣuḥuf i Ibrāhīm; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 2083; Tad̲h̲kirah i k̲h̲wus̲h̲-nawīsān p. 54; Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn pp. 208–9; K̲h̲azīnat ai-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 174–5; Elliot and Dowson History of India vii pp. 220–32, 236–41, 242–6 (extracts from the Muntak̲h̲ab al-lubāb); Facsimiles of several Autographs of Jahángír, Sháhjahán, and Prince Dárá Shikoh, together with Notes on the Literary Character and the Capture and Death of Dárá Shikoh. -By H. Blochmann (in jasb. xxxix, pt. 1 (1870) pp. 271–9); Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under Dárá Shikoh; Ency. Isl. under Dārā S̲h̲ikōh (H. Beveridge); Dārā Shikoh as an author, by Pandit Sheo Narain (in Journal of the Panjab Historical Society, ii (1913–14) pp. 21–38); Court painters of the Grand Moguls, by L. Binyon and T. W. Arnold, London 1921, pp. 25–29 and plates xx–xxii; Un essai de bloc islamo-hindou au xviie siècle: l’humanisme mystique du prince Dârâ, by L. Massignon and A. M. Kassim (in Revue du monde musulman lxiii (1926) pp. 1–14); L’Inde mystique au moyen âge, by Yūsuf Ḥusain, Paris 1929, last chapter; Dara Shukoh. Vol i. Biography. [By] Kalika-Ranjan Qanungo, Calcutta [1935]. For portraits of Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh see Indische historische Porträts by H. Goetz (in Asia Major ii (1925)) p. 238; Court painters of the Grand Moguls by Binyon and Arnold, plates xx-xxii; Rieu ii 780b, 781b, 785b; Ethé 1980 (?); etc.]

§ 1322. Jahān-ārā Bēgam, sometimes called simply Begam Ṣāḥib32 or Bēgam Ṣāḥibah33 by contemporary historians, was the second child of S̲h̲āh-Jahān and Mumtāz-Maḥall. She was born on 21 Ṣafar 1023/23 March 1614, almost exactly a year before her eldest brother, Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh (for whom see no. 1321 supra). Devoted to her father, whom she attended in his captivity, and also to Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh, she shared the latter’s interest in Ṣūfism, and was initiated into the Qādirī order by his pīr, Mullā S̲h̲āh,34 early in 1050/1650, when she and her father were on a visit to Kas̲h̲mīr (ocm. xiii/4 (Aug. 1937) pp. 14–15). “S̲h̲āh’s” opinion of her (“She has attained to so extraordinary a development of mystical knowledge that she is worthy of being my representative”) and her description of one of her own mystical experiences are quoted (from the Nusk̲h̲ah i aḥwāl i S̲h̲āhī) by Macdonald in The religious attitude and life in Islam, p. 205,35 and thence by Qanungo in Dara Shukoh, i pp. 351–2. In spite of her Qādirī connections she had a fondness for the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī order:36 in the preface to the Muʾnis al-arwāḥ she calls herself a votary (murīdah) of Muʿīn al-Dīn C̲h̲is̲h̲tī and on her tomb she is described as a disciple of the saints of C̲h̲is̲h̲t. She died unmarried in Ramaḍān 1092/1681 and was buried at Delhi in a tomb built by herself,37 and still standing, to the south of the tomb of Niẓām al-Dīn Auliyā (for whom see no. 1259 4th footnote supra). “The events of Jahánárá’s life, such as they are, have suffered on the one hand from sentiment which adorns her ʿwith every virtue that a woman possesses’; and on the other by the court-tattle of Bernier which I need not repeat here.”38

Muʾnis al-arwāḥ, a biography of Muʿīn al-Dīn C̲h̲is̲h̲tī.39 with notices of some of his disciples, completed in 1049/1640: Brit. Mus. (a ms. presented by W. Irvine, who believed it to be an autograph),40 Rieu i 357b (17th cent.), 357a (18th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 492 no. 770 (ah 1198/1783–4), no. 237 (ah 1320/1902–3), Ivanow Curzon 74 (18th cent.), Bodleian 372, Eton 38, Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. iii/1 (Nov. 1926) p. 73).

Urdu translation:41 Lahore [1908*].

Ṣāḥibīyah, an account of Mullā S̲h̲āh (see no. 1332 3rd par., footnote infra) written (completed ?) on 27 Ramaḍān 1051/30 December 1641: Aḥmadābād Āpā-Rāō Bhōlā-Nāt’h Library (19 foll.).

Description and Urdu summary: Jahān-ārā Bēgam kī ēk g̲h̲air-maʿrūf taṣnīf: Ṣāḥibīyah, by M. Ibrāhīm (in ocm. xiii/4 (Aug. 1937) pp. 3–19).

[Autobiographical statements (relating almost entirely to the years 1049–50 and especially to her connexions with Mullā S̲h̲āh) at the end of the Ṣāḥibīyah; Pāds̲h̲āh-nāmah i, 1, p. 94 and elsewhere; ʿAmal i Ṣāliḥ i p. 80 and elsewhere; Maʾāt̲h̲ir i ʿĀlamgīrī p. 213; N. Manucci Storia do Mogor, tr. W. Irvine, vol. i, London 1907, p. 217 (see also index); Carr Stephen The archaeology and monumental remains of Delhi, Ludhiana and Calcutta [1876] pp. 108–9; Rieu i 357; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary, 2nd ed., under Jahan Ara Begam; Jahān-ārā (in Urdu), by Maḥbūb al-Raḥmān “Kalīm”, ʿAlīgaṛh 1907* and 2nd ed. [1918*]; Persian letters from Jahān Arā, daughter of Shāh Jahān, … to Raja Budh Parkash of Sirmur, by H. A. Rose (in jasb. 1911 pp. 449–78); Ency. Isl. under D̲j̲ahānārā Bēgam (H. Beveridge); Jahānārā, by G. Yazdani (in Journal of the Panjab Historical Society ii/2 (Calcutta 1914) pp. 152–69, where many references are given); K. R. Qanungo Dara Shukoh, vol. i, biography, Calcutta [1935], p. 10 and elsewhere; the afore-mentioned article by M. Ibrāhīm].

§ 1323. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Badr al-Dīn b. Ibrāhīm Sirhindī became a disciple of the great saint Aḥmad Sirhindī (for whom see no. 1316 (1), 1st footnote supra) in 1018/1609–10, remained in close association with him for seventeen years, and was present when he was washed after death. Among works of his own that he mentions are (1) Wiṣāl i Aḥmadī, on some miracles which occurred just before and after the saint’s death, (2) Karāmāt al-auliyāʾ, in support of the belief that saints can perform miracles after death, (3) Majmaʿ al-auliyāʾ,42 biographies of 1,500 saints completed in 1044/1634–5, (4) a Persian translation of the Futūḥ al-g̲h̲aib of ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī, (5) Maqāmāt i G̲h̲aut̲h̲ al-t̲h̲aqalain, a Persian translation of the Bahjat al-asrār, a life of ʿAbd al-Qādir by ʿAlī b. Yūsuf al-S̲h̲aṭṭanūfī (see no. 1251 supra), (6) a Persian translation of another life of ʿAbd al-Qādir entitled Rauḍat al-nawāẓir, i.e. presumably the Rauḍat al-nāẓir, which Ḥ. K̲h̲. ascribes to al-Fīrūzābādī (see Ahlwardt 10080–1, Brockelmann ii, p. 119, l. 2), (7) an unfinished Persian translation of the ʿArāʾis al-bayān fī ḥaqāʾiq al-Qurʾān, a Ṣūfī tafsīr by Rūzbihān al-Baqlī (for which see Brockelmann i 414, Sptbd. i 735; Catalogue of the Arabic mss. in the Library of the India Office, vol. ii, no. 1106). The last three were undertaken at the request of Sulṭān M. Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh.

Sanawāt al-atqiyāʾ, very brief biographies of distinguished persons, with special reference to the dates of their death, from the time of Adam to 1044/1634–5: i.o. d.p. 672 (ah 1085/1674).
Ḥaḍarāt al-quds, biographies of Naqs̲h̲bandī saints in two daftars, of which the first in one ḥaḍrat begins with Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīq and ends with M. Bāqī (for whom see no. 1316 (1) footnote supra) and the second deals in Ḥaḍarāt ii-xii with Aḥmad Sirhindī, his life, sayings, miracles, children and disciples, completed not earlier than 1053/1643, since Ādam Banūrī’s death, which occurred in that year (cf. no. 1320 2nd par. 3rd footnote supra), is mentioned: i.o. d.p. 630 (Daftar ii only. 17th cent.), Tashkent Univ. 70 (Daftar ii. ah 1248/1832), 70-a (Daftar ii apparently. ah 1257/1841).

Urdu translation: by K̲h̲wājah Aḥmad Ḥusain K̲h̲ān, Lahore 1923*].

§ 1324. Probably soon after 1054/1644–5, the latest date mentioned in the work, an anonymous disciple wrote-

Fātiḥ al-qulūb, an account (32 foll.) of the life and miracles of the saint, calligrapher and poet Mīr ʿAbd Allāh “Waṣfī” b. Mīr Muẓaffar Ḥusainī Tirmid̲h̲ī, who received from Akbar or Jahāngīr the title of Mus̲h̲kīn-qalam and who died in 1025/1616 or 1035/1626:43 Ethé 650.

§ 1325. Ilāh-diyah,44 or Allāh-diyah, b. S̲h̲. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. S̲h̲. Bīnā Ḥakīm C̲h̲is̲h̲tī ʿUt̲h̲mānī, a descendant of S̲h̲. Jalāl al-Dīn Pānīpatī,45 was a disciple of S̲h̲āh Aʿlā Pānīpatī46 and lived at Kairānah,47 near Pānīpat. His grandfather, S̲h̲. Bīnā, or Bhīnā,48 was a noted surgeon of Akbar’s time, and his paternal uncle, Muqarrab K̲h̲ān,49 Jahāngīr’s surgeon and friend (cf. no. 246 supra), was Governor of Gujrāt, Bihār and Āgrah in Jahāngīr’s reign and on his retirement in S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s reign was given the parganah of Kairānah, his birthplace, as a jāgīr. Ilāh-diyah and his two brothers, S̲h̲. Qāsim and S̲h̲. Fuḍail, took part in S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s march towards Kābul.

Siyar al-aqṭāb, begun in 1036/1626–7 completed in 1056/1646–7 and devoted to the lives of twenty-seven persons from ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib to S̲h̲āh Aʿlā Pānīpatī, who form the author’s spiritual pedigree and each of whom, according to the C̲h̲is̲h̲tīs, became Quṭb al-aqṭāb: Rieu i 358b (17th cent.), i.o. d.p. 669 (ah 1019/1610 [!], perhaps a mistake for 1119/1707), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 60 no. 15 (ad 1867).

Editions: Lucknow 1877°*, 1881†, 1889†.

List of the saints: Rieu i p. 359.

§ 1326. Abū ’l-ʿAbbās M. Ṭālib.

Maṭlab al-ṭālibīn, a history of the Jūybārī s̲h̲aik̲h̲s written about 1056/1646: Tashkent A. A. Semenov’s private library (ah 1235/1819–20. See Semenov Kurzer Abriss p. 6).

§ 1327. In 1060/1650 was written—

Ḥikāyat50 al-ṣāliḥīn, anecdotes of famous saints, stated to be a translation from the Arabic: Browne Suppt. 407 (ah 1217/1802–3. Corpus 2286), Blochet iv 2134 (ah 1228/1813).

§ 1328. Mīr Muḥammad Fāḍil, called (al-madʿū bi-) Maẓhar al-Ḥaqq, b. S. Aḥmad b. S. Ḥasan al-Ḥusainī al-Tirmid̲h̲ī al-Akbarābādī died in Rabīʿ ii ah 1106/Nov.-Dec. 1694 (according to the chronograms given by his nephew at the end of the Muk̲h̲bir al-wāṣilīn). One of the opening sections of the Muk̲h̲bir al-wāṣilīn is in praise of S̲h̲āh-Jahān, who was on the throne when he began the work.

Muk̲h̲bir al-wāṣilīn (a chronogram = 1060/1650, the date of inception), a series of chronogrammatic poems containing the dates of the death of the Prophet, the first four Caliphs, the Twelve Imāms, numerous saints and a few other persons from the first century of Islām to ah 1105/1693–4 (often with the place of burial but usually little else except laudatory phrases): Āṣafīyah i p. 252 no. 756 (ah 1140/1727–8), no. 405, Ivanow 759 (ah 1151/1738–9), Ivanow Curzon 268 (19th cent.), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 16 no. 83, Rieu iii 1035b (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850).

Editions: Calcutta 1249/1833–4*, Lucknow (Muṣṭafāʾī Press) 1265/1849 (see Sprenger p. 489).

§ 1329. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd al-Rasūl b. Qāsim b. S̲h̲āh Bud’h ʿAbbāsī ʿAlawī C̲h̲is̲h̲tī was a descendant of the saint Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Rudaulawī,51 and succeeded in 1032/1622, on his brother’s death, to the headship of a local branch of the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī order at Rudaulī.52 According to the Mirʾāt al-ʿālam, the author of which was a personal acquaintance, he lived at D’hanītī,53 a village in the sarkār of Lucknow, and died there in 1094/1683 (see Rieu iii p. 973a). Among his works were (1) Mirʾāt al-mak̲h̲lūqāt, a translation and Islamising explanation, written in 1041/1631–2, of a Sanskrit verse treatise on Hindu cosmogony in the form of a dialogue between Mahādēv and Pārbatī handed down by the Munī Bās̲h̲is̲h̲t (Vāsishṭ’ha) (mss.: Rieu iii 1034a, Āṣafīyah ii p. 1386, Bodleian 1823), (2) Mirʾāt al-ḥaqāʾiq, an abridged translation and Islamising explanation of the Bhagavad-gītā (mss.: Rieu iii 1034b, Bombay Univ. p. 134, Āṣafīyah ii p. 1356), (3) Nafas i Raḥmānī (Edition: place ? 1307/1889–90. See Āṣafīyah i p. 494), (4) Aurād i C̲h̲is̲h̲tīyah (ms.: Āṣafīyah iii p. 24),

Mirʾāt al-asrār, biographies of numerous saints from the early days of Islām to Ḥusām al-Dīn Mānikpūrī (d. 853/1449), begun in 1045/1635–6, completed in 1065/1654 and divided into a preface (on Ṣūfism, the degrees of spiritual knowledge, the origin and contents of the work), a muqaddimah (on the k̲h̲irqah i k̲h̲ilāfat, the four Pīrs, Ḥasan, Ḥusain, Kumail, Ḥasan Baṣrī, the fourteen k̲h̲ānawādahs, and twelve of the forty derivative orders or silsilahs) and twenty-three ṭabaqāt devoted to successive generations of s̲h̲aik̲h̲s: Ivanow 264 (ah 1088/1677–8), Lindesiana p. 118 no. 196 (circ. ad 1750), Rieu i 359b (ah 1189/1775), iii 973b (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850), Bānkīpūr viii 676 (ah 1220/1806), Suppt. ii 2074 (Muqaddimah only. 19th cent.), Būhār 89 (probably transcribed from Bānkīpūr viii 676. B.S. 1301/1894), Āṣafīyah iii p. 166 no. 167 (ah 1309/1891–2).

List and epitome of the biographies: Bānkīpūr viii pp. 55–63.

Mirʾāt i Madārī, a life of the saint of Makanpūr,54 Badīʿ al-Dīn surnamed Quṭb al-Madār and commonly called S̲h̲āh Madār,55 written in 1064/1654 at Makanpūr and based mainly on the Īmān i Maḥmūdī, a biography by the saint’s k̲h̲alīfah, Qāḍī Maḥmūd Kintūrī,56 and the Laṭāʾif i As̲h̲rafī (see Rieu iii 1042a, Ivanow 1214, etc.), whose author was a friend of S̲h̲āh Madār’s: Ivanow 263 (ah 1146/1733–4), Rieu i 361a (18th cent.), iii 973a (19th cent.), Bānkīpūr viii 677 (18th cent.), i.o. d.p. 657(c), Būhār 88 (transcribed from the Bānkīpūr ms. in 1304/1886).

Urdū translation: T̲h̲awāqib al-anwār li-maṭāliʿ Quṭb al-Madār, by M. ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd Ẓuhūr al-Islām, Farruk̲h̲ābād 1328/1910*.

Mirʾāt i Masʿūdī, a life of the legendary hero and martyr Sulṭān al-S̲h̲uhadāʾ Sālār Masʿūd G̲h̲āzī,57 said to be based on a contemporary history by Mullā M. G̲h̲aznawī, a servant of Sulṭān Maḥmūd: Ivanow Curzon 103 (ah 1233/1818), Rieu iii 1029a ( 1850), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 59 no. 6.

Abridged English translation by B. W. Chapman: b.m. ms. Add. 30776.

Extracts from Chapman’s translation: Elliot and Dowson History of India ii pp. 513–49.

Abridged Urdu translation: Kh̲ulāṣah i tawārīkh i Masʿūdī, by Akbar ʿAlī b. M.-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲, [Lucknow ?] 1288/1871°.

Abridgment by the author himself: Qiṣṣah i Sālār Masʿūd i Gh̲āzī: Rieu iii 1042b (circ. ad 1850).

[Autobiographical statements in Mirʾāt al-asrār (summarized by Rieu and ʿAbd al-Muqtadir) and Mirʾāt i Madārī; Sawāṭiʿ al-anwār no. 29 (Ethé col. 33622).]

§ 1330. ʿAlāʾ al-Din M. C̲h̲is̲h̲tī Barnāwī.58

C̲h̲is̲h̲tīyah i bihis̲h̲tīyah, or Firdausīyah i qudsīyah,59 a large work on the saints of the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī order completed perhaps in 1066/1655–6, the date of Prof. Maḥmūd S̲h̲ērānī’s ms. (such dates as 1069/1658–9, 1071/1660–1 and 1076/1665–6, which occur in Ivanow-Curzon 78, being presumably later insertions), and divided into a muqaddimah, twenty-eight d̲h̲ikrs (of which the first twenty-one are short notices of the early saints, etc., from the Prophet to Naṣīr al-Dīn C̲h̲irāg̲h̲ i Dihlī (cf. no. 1259 1st par. last footnote supra), while the twenty-second to the twenty-eighth are much longer notices of the local saints of Barnāwah and Rāprī,60 namely Badr al-Dīn b. S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Anṣārī (d. 788/1386), Naṣīr al-Dīn i Buzurg (d. 855/1452), ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn i Buzurg (d. 875/1471), Pīr Būd’han (d. 29 S̲h̲aʿbān in an unspecified year), Badr al-Dīn i T̲h̲ānī (d. 949/1543), Farīd al-Dīn b. Bāyazīd b. Pīr Būd’han (d. 987/1579), Bahāʾ al-Dīn b. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn,61 grandson of the preceding (d. 1038/1628), whose biography occupies more than half the work), a k̲h̲ātimah (additional information concerning descendants of the foregoing s̲h̲aik̲h̲s), and a waṣl al-k̲h̲ātimah, (eulogies of the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī order): Lahore Prof. Maḥmūd S̲h̲ērānī’s private library (ah 1066/1655–6, possibly autograph), Ivanow Curzon 78 (ah 1209/1795), Āṣafīyah i p. 412 no. 562 (ah 1258/1842).

§ 1331. Niẓām al-Dīn Aḥmad b. M. Ṣāliḥ Ṣiddīqī Ḥusainī lived in the time of S̲h̲āh-Jahān and composed in 1060/1650 a work on poetical figures entitled Majmaʿ al-ṣanāʾiʿ.62

Karāmāt al-auliyāʾ, on the miracles of saints in all periods of the history of Islam, completed in 1068/1658: Ivanow 265 (18th cent.), Rieu iii 974a (circ. 1850).

§ 1332. Tawakkul Bēg Kūlālī63 was a son of the Qūs̲h̲-bēgī to Iʿtiqād K̲h̲ān, Governor of Kas̲h̲mīr. At the age of sixteen64 he became a disciple of the Qādirī saint, Mullā S̲h̲āh Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ī,65 who was then resident in Kas̲h̲mīr, and he kept in touch with him, visiting him at intervals, until 1071/1660–1, when he saw his master for the last time. For a period anterior to 1053/1643–4 he was in the service of S̲h̲āh-S̲h̲ujāʿ, Governor of Bengal. In 1054/1644 he went with a letter of introduction from Mullā S̲h̲āh to Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh (see no. 1321 supra), who gave him the rank of dū-ṣadī and subsequently on several occasions sent him with messages to Mullā S̲h̲āh. After Aurangzēb’s accession in 1069/1659 he obtained a post in the government service at Kāngrah.

It seems likely that he is identical with Tawakkul Bēg b. Tūlak Beg,66 who in S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s 26th regnal year, a.h. 1063/1653, was sent by Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh, at that time Ṣūbah-dār of Kābul, to G̲h̲aznīn as Amīn and Waqāʾiʿ-nawīs and who at the request of S̲h̲ams̲h̲ēr K̲h̲ān Tarīn, the T’hānah-dār of G̲h̲aznīn, wrote the Shams̲h̲ēr-K̲h̲anī, an abridgment of Firdausī’s Shāh-nāmah (see Rieu ii 539–40, Ethé 883–90, etc.).

Nusk̲h̲ah i aḥwāl i S̲h̲āhī (a chronogram = 1077/1666–7), an account of Mullā S̲h̲āh67 and his teachings: Rieu Suppt. 130 (early 19th cent.), Āṣafīyah iii p. 56 no. 349.

French summary: Mollâ-Shâh et le spiritualisme oriental, par M. A. de Kremer (in Journal Asiatique, vie série, tome xiii (1869), pp. 105–59).

[Autobiographical statements in the Nusk̲h̲ah i aḥwāl i Shāhī (see Rieu and Journal asiatique, loc. cit.)]

§ 1333. ʿAbd Allāh68 K̲h̲wēs̲h̲gī69 Qaṣūrī,70 i.e. G̲h̲ulām-Muʿīn al-Dīn ʿAbd Allāh known as al-K̲h̲alīfah al-K̲h̲wēs̲h̲gī al-C̲h̲is̲h̲tī (Ross-Browne 56), or “ ʿAbdallâh, known as ʿUbaid-allâh, with the epithet Khalîfah Ḥayy [read K̲h̲alīfah-jī]71 bin ʿAbd-alḥaḳḳ (known as ʿAbd-alḳâdir al-khwîshî [sic ?] alćishtî)” (Ethé 1271), or “ʿAbdu’l-lah Khalīfa-jī b. ʿAbdi’l-Ḥaqq, known as ʿAbdu’l-Qādir Khwīshagī” (Ivanow 273), or “ʿAbdu’l-lah Khwīshagī Chis̲h̲tī, surnamed Khalīfah, of Qaṣūr” (Ivanow 1294), or ʿUbaid Allāh known as (al-maʿrūf bah) ʿAbd Allāh al-K̲h̲wēs̲h̲gī al-C̲h̲is̲h̲tī, who used the tak̲h̲alluṣ “ʿUbaidī” (ocm. iii/4 p. 21), was born at Qaṣūr (Ross-Browne 56) and it was there that in S̲h̲āh-Jahān’s reign after finishing his studies (taḥṣīl i ʿulūm sē farāg̲h̲at pā-kar, ocm. iii/4 p. 231) he completed the first volume of his first commentary on Ḥāfiẓ, the Baḥr al-firāsah, which he had begun while still a student. The second and final volume was completed long afterwards at Bījāpūr (ocm. iii/4 p. 233). From the preface to his second commentary, the K̲h̲ulāṣat al-baḥr, also a production of his early life, it appears that “he was for a time attached to the Shaikh Maulânâ ʿAbd-alrashîd (known as Muḥammad Rashîd) Yuwânjî and afterwards in the service of72 Shaikh Pîr Muḥammad of Lakhnau” (Ethé 1271). In 1077/1666–7 he was at Aurangābād, where he had gone in the service of Dilēr K̲h̲ān,73 and it was there that he wrote the Ak̲h̲bār al-auliyāʾ (Islamic culture iii/3 p. 453). In 1133/1720–1, Muḥammad S̲h̲ah’s second regnal year, he was again at Qaṣūr, evidently towards the end of a long life, and there he wrote his Asrār i Mat̲h̲nawī at the instigation of two K̲h̲wēs̲h̲gī chiefs, Ḥasan [Ḥusain ?] K̲h̲ān and Saʿīd K̲h̲ān (Ross-Browne 56). In the preface to his Asrār i Mat̲h̲nawī u anwār i maʿnawī, a commentary on the first daftar of Rūmī’s Mat̲h̲nawī completed in 1133/1720–1 (mss.: Ross-Browne 56 (ah 1133/1721, perhaps autograph), Sprenger 373 (Mōtī Maḥall)) he gives a list of his earlier works, which is quoted verbatim by Sprenger. These are firstly three commentaries on the dīwān of Ḥāfiẓ, (1) Baḥr al-firāsah[in the preface of which S̲h̲āh-Jahān (ah 1037–68/1628–58) is praised. mss.: Kapūrt’halah 123 (see ocm. iii/4 p. 21), Peshawar 1028], (2) K̲h̲ulāṣat al-baḥr fī ’ltiqāṭ al-durar, a larger commentary (mss.: Āṣafīyah (transcribed by Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh, “who was a disciple of Sayyid Ādam Rasūl74 of Māwarāʾ al-Nahr as would appear from the colophon.” See Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 129), Ethé 1271), (3) Jāmiʿ al-baḥrain (no mss. recorded), then (4)Rāḥat al-as̲h̲bāḥ, a commentary on the Nuzhat al-arwāḥ [of Ḥusain b. ʿĀlim al-Ḥusainī] (no mss. recorded), (5) Mak̲h̲zan al-ḥaqāʾiq, a commentary on the Kanz al-daqāʾiq, (6) S̲h̲arḥ i ḤRF [sic ?] ʿāliyāt, and (7) Maʿārij al-wilāyatkih dar bayān i mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ i Hindūstān-ast.” In this list he mentions neither the Ak̲h̲bār al-auliyāʾ nor the two Ṣūfī works Taḥqīq al-muḥaqqiqīn fī tadqīq al-mudaqqiqīn (Ivanow 1294 (1)) and Fawāʾid al-ʿās̲h̲iqīn (Ivanow 1294 (2)).

Ak̲h̲bār al-auliyāʾ min lisān al-aṣfiyāʾ, an account of K̲h̲wēs̲h̲gī and other saints written in 1077/1666–7 at Aurangābād and divided into six bābs ((1) dar bayān i aḥwāl i K̲h̲wēs̲h̲giyān, (2) dar bayān i mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ i sāʾir i Afg̲h̲ānān, (3) dar bayān i aḥwāl i nisāʾ i ʿārifāt, (4) dar nasab i Afg̲h̲ānān u sabab i āmadan az Bait al-Maqdis ba-Kūhistān, (5) dar aḥwāl i mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ i Qaṣūr u nawāḥī i ān, (6) dar aḥwāl i īn aḥqar i ʿibād Allāh (ʿAbd Allāh K̲h̲wēs̲h̲gī C̲h̲is̲h̲tī): Ivanow 273 (a.h. 1294/1877, transcribed at Qaṣūr for H. Blochmann).

This work is one of the sources of M. S̲h̲afīʿ’s article An Afghan colony at Qasur I. in Islamic culture iii/3 (July 1929) pp. 452–73.

Maʿārij al-wilāyat (dar bayān i mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ i Hindūstān), mentioned by the author in the above-mentioned list of his own works and often quoted in the K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ but not yet recorded in any published catalogue.

[Autobiography (without exact dates according to Ivanow p. 620) in Bāb 6 of the Ak̲h̲bār al-auliyāʾ (a biography based on this chapter was to be included in Part ii of M. S̲h̲afīʿ’s article mentioned above, but no such second part seems to be traceable in Islamic culture from 1929 to 1937).

§ 1334. Ḥāfiẓ M. Saʿīd b. Ḥāfiẓ [sic ?] began the Rāḥat al-arwāḥ in Rajab 1084/October 1673 and completed it in 1085/1674–5.

Rāḥat al-arwāḥ, a biography of S̲h̲. ʿAzīz Allāh, who was born at Lahore on 3 Jumādā ii 1047/23 Oct. 1637 and died on 20 S̲h̲awwāl 1084/28 Jan. 1674: Ethé 651 (ah 1108/1696).

§ 1335. S. Zindah ʿAlī al-Muftī wrote towards the end of the eleventh/seventeenth century.

T̲h̲amarāt al-mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲, on Central Asian s̲h̲aik̲h̲s of various orders: Buk̲h̲ārā Central Library (ah 1277/1860–1. See Semenov Kurzer Abriss p. 7).

§ 1336. For S̲h̲. Ḥusain b. S̲h̲. Abdāl Zāhidī’s Silsilat al-nasab i Ṣafawīyah, which was dedicated to S̲h̲āh Sulaimān (reigned 1077–1105/1667–94) and which deals mainly with Ṣafī al-Dīn Isḥāq (cf. no. 1257 1st par. supra) and mystics descended from him, see no. 396 supra.

§ 1337. For M. Baqā “Baqā” Sahāranpūrī (b. 1037/1627–8, d. 1094/1683) and Bak̲h̲tāwar K̲h̲ān (d. 1096/1685) see no. 151 supra. Another of the works written by the former but by a “courteous fiction” ascribed to the latter is the Riyāḍ, al-auliyāʾ.

Riyāḍ al-auliyāʾ (a chronogram = 1090/1679–80, the date of completion), lives of saints, etc., in four c̲h̲amans ((1) the first four Caliphs, (2) the Imāms, (3) saints, (4) Indian saints): Rieu iii 975a (ad 1851), Āṣafīyah i p. 320 no. 115, Browne Suppt. 728 (Corpus 126).

§ 1338. In the only recorded copy of the Ad̲h̲kār al-aḥrār all of the preface except the last 6½ lines is missing and the name of the author does not appear. He was, however, a disciple of Mīr Abū ’l-ʿUlā Naqs̲h̲bandī Akbarābādī, and he completed his biography in Safar 1093/1682.

Ad̲h̲kār al-aḥrār, an account of the saint Amīr Abū ’l-ʿUlā ibn Amīr Abī-Wafāʾ ibn Amīr ʿAbd al-Salām, or as he is called in the K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ (i p. 636) Mīr Abū ’l-ʿUlā Naqs̲h̲bandī Akbarābādī, who was born in 990/1582 at Nārēlah near Delhi and who died on 9 Ṣafar 1061/1651 and was buried at Akbarābād (i.e. Āgrah): i.o. d.p. 576a (defective at beginning. 11th year of M. S̲h̲āh = ah 1142/1730).

§ 1339. M. Ṣādiq S̲h̲ihābī Saʿdī Qādirī wrote the Manāqib i G̲h̲aut̲h̲īyah at the request of his murs̲h̲id, S. ʿAbd al-Qādir b. S. ʿAbd al-Jalīl al-Ḥasanī al-Ḥusainī G̲h̲arīb Allāh, who was a descendant and k̲h̲alīfah of ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī at Aḥmadābād. The work cannot have been written earlier than the 17th century, since the Takmīl al-īmān of ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Dihlawī, who died in 1052/1642 (cf. no. 243 supra), is mentioned in the preface, nor later than 1160/1747, the date of Ivanow-Curzon 76.

Manāqib i G̲h̲aut̲h̲īyah, an account of ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī, called al-G̲h̲aut̲h̲ al-aʿẓam (for whom see no. 1251 2nd par. footnote supra), divided into a muqaddimah and fifty or more75 manqabahs and dealing with manāqib not contained in such well-known works as the Bahjat al-asrār (see no. 1251 supra) and the Takmilah of al-Yāfiʿī (see no. 1254 ii supra): Ivanow Curzon (ah 1160/1747), Ivanow 268–70 (all 18th cent.), Āṣafīyah i p. 490 nos. 813 (ah 1179/1765–6), 428 (ah 1260/1844–5), ii p. 1556 no. 52, p. 1558 no. 43, i.o. d.p. 751B (a) (ah 1211/1797), 751A (ah 1248/1832), Ethé 1799, Bānkīpūr xvii 1589 (ah 1253/1837–8), Būhār 181 (19th cent.), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. iii/1 p. 69), Peshawar 1014.

Edition: Bombay 1886†.

Urdu translation: M. i G̲h̲., Lucknow 1907* (2nd ed.).

§ 1340. In 1109/1697–8 an anonymous author wrote-

K̲h̲awāriq al-sālikīn (a chronogram), some anecdotes of early Ṣūfīs of Kas̲h̲mīr, etc.: Ivanow Curzon 79 (4) (foll. 106–15. Mid 19th cent.).

§ 1341. M. Būlāq b. S̲h̲. Abū M. K̲h̲ālidī Dihlawī b. S̲h̲. ʿAlī Akbar was a descendant of the great saint Niẓām al-Dīn Auliyā (for whom see no. 1259 1st par. 4th footnote supra).

Maṭlūb al-ṭālibīn, a detailed biography of Niẓām al-Dīn Auliyā with short accounts of his relations, disciples and spiritual descendants and of the other C̲h̲is̲h̲tī pīrs and the different branches of the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī order, divided into seventeen maṭlabs and completed in 1111/1699–1700: Ethé 653 (ah 1137/1724–5).

Urdu translation: S̲h̲awāhid i Niẓāmī (a chronogram = 1317/1899–1900), by M. Dāmin ʿAlī, Delhi 1900°.

List of the saints: Ethé coll. 318–26.

Probably identical with the above-mentioned M. Būlāq is M. Bulāq76 (spelt without wāw), who wrote the Rauḍah i aqṭāb).

Rauḍah i aqṭāb (a chronogram = 1124/1712), biographies of Quṭb al-Dīn Bak̲h̲tyār Us̲h̲ī Kākī (for whom see no. 1259 2nd par. 4th footnote supra) and some saints buried near him: Rieu iii 974a (extracts only. Circ. ad 1850).

Editions: Delhi 1304/1887°, Lahore 1890†.

Urdu translation: Rauḍah i aqṭāb, Delhi 1892*.

§ 1342. S̲h̲. Manṣūr b. S̲h̲āh C̲h̲ānd Muḥammad b. S̲h̲āh M. Mīr b. S̲h̲āh Ḥāmid b. S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-Qawī b. S̲h̲āh C̲h̲ānd M. b. S̲h̲āh Ḥamīd al-Dīn known as S̲h̲aik̲h̲ C̲h̲ā’ildah was forty years old in 1119/1707–8, when he wrote the Tuḥfat al-qāriʾ.

Tuḥfat al-qāriʾ, biographies of saints in three parts ((1) Ḥaḍrat i ʿAbbās, (2) S̲h̲āh ʿAlī Sarmast and how he settled in Gujrāt, (3) S̲h̲āh C̲h̲ā’ildah (d. 7 Ṣafar 911/1515) and Qāḍī Maḥmūd Maḥbūb Allāh (d. 941/1534–5) and his sons) and two appendices ((1) S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām S̲h̲āh Lār Muḥammad, (2) S̲h̲āh Jamāl Muḥammad (d. 985/1577–8)): Bombay Fyzee 16 (ah 1261/1845).

§ 1343. S. Aḥmad b. S. Ḥusain Akbarābādī.

Maqāmāt i ḥaḍrat i S̲h̲āh Naqs̲h̲bandi, written in 1119/1707–8: Brelvi and Dhabhar p. xliii no. 7 (defective at beginning).

§ 1344. At the beginning of his notice of S̲h̲. Saʿdī Lāhaurī the author of the K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ mentions a certain S̲h̲. M. ʿUmar Pas̲h̲āwarī who was a disciple and friend of S̲h̲. Saʿdī and who wrote under the title Jawāhir al-asrār a biography of his master extending from his birth to the date of his death. Probably this S̲h̲. M. ʿUmar Pas̲h̲āwarī is identical with M. ʿUmar b. Ibrāhīm al-Nīs̲h̲āpūrī [sic ?], who wrote the Ẓawāhir al-sarāʾir. Doubtless the work was written in the first half of the eighteenth century.

Ẓawāhir al-sarāsir [sic, for al-sarāʾir presumably], on the lives and teachings of Saʿdī Lāhaurī,77 ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Sulamī Nīs̲h̲āpūrī, and S. Ādam Banūrī:78 Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 40 (S̲h̲āh M. Muḥaddit̲h̲’s library, Rāmpūr).

§ 1345. For Kāmwar K̲h̲ān’s Haft guls̲h̲an i Muḥammad-S̲h̲āhī, a history of India which extends to 1132/1719–20 and of which the seventh guls̲h̲an is devoted to Indian saints, see no. 625 supra.

§ 1346. S̲h̲. Abū ’l-Faiyāḍ Qamar al-Ḥaqq79 G̲h̲ulām-Ras̲h̲īd, born on 8 Rabīʿ al-Awwal 1096/12 Feb. 1685, was the son [?80], disciple and successor (sajjādah-nis̲h̲īn) of S̲h̲. Badr al-Ḥaqq M. Ars̲h̲ad b. M. Ras̲h̲īd ʿUt̲h̲mānī Jaunpūrī. In 1147/1734–5 his discourses were attended by G̲h̲ulām-S̲h̲araf al-Dīn b. Imām al-Dīn, who has given an account of his life and teachings in the Ganj i Faiyāḍī (see no. 1354 infra). He died at Jaunpūr on 5 Ṣafar 1167/2 Dec. 1753. Among his works were an Arabic commentary on [his father’s [?] Arabic grammar] the Hidāyat al-naḥw81 and a Persian commentary on the Qaṣīdah i G̲h̲aut̲h̲īyah.82

Ganj i Ars̲h̲adī, an account of the life and sayings of the above-mentioned Badr al-Ḥaqq M. Ars̲h̲ad b. M. Ras̲h̲īd ʿUt̲h̲mānī Jaunpūrī,83 compiled in 1134–5/1721–3 from rough notes written by S̲h̲. S̲h̲ukr Allāh: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 19 no. 19, Rieu iii 1013b (preface, table of contents and extracts only. Circ. a.d. 1850).

[Tajallī i nūr i p. 74 (from the Baḥr i zak̲h̲k̲h̲ār).]

§ 1347. Mullā Niẓām al-Dīn M. Sihālawī84 was the third son of Mullā Quṭb al-Dīn Sihālawī, a celebrated teacher who was murdered in 1103/1692 (cf. no. 1401 2nd par. 2nd footnote infra). Having studied under G̲h̲ulām-Naqs̲h̲band Lak’hnawī (cf. Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 611, Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 158) and others, he, like his father, became famous in India as a teacher. He died in Jumādā i 1161/May 1748, and the scholarly tradition of the family was carried on by his son, Mullā ʿAbd al-ʿAlī M. Baḥr al-ʿulūm Lak’hnawī (for whom see Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 122, Ency. Isl. under Baḥr al-ʿulūm, Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 624). His works, nearly all commentaries or ḥawās̲h̲ī on standard text-books, include (1) annotations on Ṣadrā’s commentary on al-Abharī’s Hidāyat al-ḥikmah (see Brockelmann Sptbd. i p. 840 antepenult.), (2) a commentary on Muḥibb Allāh al-Bihārī’s Musallam al-t̲h̲ubūt (see Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 623, 1. 5 ab infra), (3) Ṣubḥ i ṣādiq, a commentary on Ḥāfiẓ al-Dīn al-Nasafī’s Manār al-anwār (see Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 264, l. 4 ab infra), (4) annotations on the S̲h̲ams i bāzig̲h̲ah of Maḥmūd Jaunpūrī (see Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 621), (5) annotations on Jalāl al-Dīn Dawānī’s commentary (ʿAqāʾid i Jalālī) on the ʿAqāʾid of ʿAḍud al-Dīn al-Ījī (see Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 29212).

Manāqib al-Razzāqīyah, a life of the author’s pīr, the Qādirī saint, S. ʿAbd al-Razzāq Bānsawī, who died on 6 S̲h̲awwāl 1136/1724 at Bānsī in the Bastī District of the United Provinces:85 Bānkīpūr xvii 1592, i.o. d.p. 729.

Edition: Lucknow 1896° (pp. 20).

[Malfūẓ i Razzāqī pp. 148–59; Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-kirām p. 220; Subḥat al-marjān pp. 94–5; Ḥadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah p. 445; Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 241; Alṭāf al-Raḥmān Aḥwāl i ʿulamāʾ i Farangī Maḥall (in Urdu), Lucknow [1907*] p. 77; Bānkīpūr xvii p. 78.]

§ 1348. Bahāʾ al-Ḥaqq al-Qādirī cannot have lived earlier than the 17th century, since he several times quotes ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Dihlawī, who died in 1052/1642. If the Rāmpūr ms. is correctly described by Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad as an autograph, he was living in 1138/1725–6.

Anīs al-Qādirīyah, an account of ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī with brief notices of some earlier saints: Rāmpūr (a.h. 1138/1725–6, autograph. See Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 31), i.o. d.p. 577 (18th cent.).

§ 1349. M. Ḥabīb Allāh b. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Jahān Akbarābādī Dihlawī was born at Akbarābād [i.e. Agrah] in 1082/1671–2. At the age of twelve he left his maktab and entered the madrasah of Malik al-ʿUlamāʾ S̲h̲. ʿAṭāʾ Allāh,86 with whom he read the Arabic ʿulūm until the age of twenty.87 He then married and spent five years in straitened circumstances as a teacher at Delhi. Having entered the service of Zēb al-Nisāʾ, Aurangzēb’s daughter [who died in 1114/1702],88 he was for a time engaged in translating the Fatāwī i ʿĀlamgīrī.89 Later in association with Muḥammad-Yār K̲h̲ān, the Governor of Delhi, he compiled a lexicographical work or works.90 At the same time he wrote annotations (ḥās̲h̲iyah) on the Qāmūs.91 Having composed a work entitled Muzīl al-ag̲h̲lāṭ he submitted it to the K̲h̲ān i K̲h̲ānān,92 and was taken into the service of Bahādur S̲h̲āh (1119–24/1707–12) with a manṣab of 150. An advantageous intimacy with the Wazīr al-Mulk [i.e. the K̲h̲ān i K̲h̲ānān] ensued.93 After receiving the appointments of Lecturer to the Emperor and Librarian to the K̲h̲ān i K̲h̲ānān,94 he accompanied the Imperial army to Ḥaidarābād [in the campaign of 1120/1708–9 against Kām-bak̲h̲s̲h̲, Bahādur S̲h̲āh’s brother]. When they reached the Narbadā on the return journey, he wrote a risālah i ḥurūf i sabʿah [so d.p. 594, but for sabʿah d.p. 634 has ṣīg̲h̲ah (?)] and submitted it to the Emperor, who rewarded him with a k̲h̲ilʿat, a present of 1,000 rupees, promotion to a manṣab of 400, and a jāgīr. In the reign of the S̲h̲ahīd i marḥūm [i.e. Farruk̲h̲-siyar, 1124–31/1713–19] he became Keeper of the Treasury at Delhi and also Superintendent of the Holy Shrines95 At this time, he says, he undertook and completed his translation of the Bahjat al-asrār (for which see no. 1251 supra, where it has been recorded that in the work itself the date of completion is given as 1133). At the beginning of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh’s reign (1131–61/1719–48) he was appointed wakīl i s̲h̲arʿī to the king and received the title of K̲h̲ān.96 At the time of writing the D̲h̲ikr i jamīʿ i auliyāʾ i Dihlī he was hoping to resign his manṣab and go on a ḥajj. In 1147/1735 he completed and dedicated to Muḥammad S̲h̲āh a Persian translation of the Qāmūs to which he gave the title Qābūs (mss.: Āṣafīyah iii p. 618 nos. 373–4, Bodleian 1674, Būhār 253–4, Calcutta Madrasah 157–60, Rieu ii 511a, 511b). According to the Tārīk̲h̲ i Muḥammadī (cited by Rieu. iii 1089a) he died at Delhi in 1160/1747.

D̲h̲ikr i jamīʿ i auliyāʾ i Dihlī (a chronogram = 1140/1727–8), lives of the saints of Delhi arranged according to the dates of their aʿrās: i.o. d.p. 594 (18th cent.), 634 (ah 1242/1827), Rieu iii 975b (circ. a.d. 1850) and probably also Āṣafīyah i p. 316 ult. (Tad̲h̲kirah i j. i a. i D. Author not stated, a.h. 1180/1766–7).

[Autobiography in the k̲h̲ātimah to the D̲h̲. i j. i a. i D.]

§ 1350. M. Akram b. S̲h̲. M. ʿAlī b. S̲h̲. Ilāh-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ al-Ḥanafī al-Barāsawī,97 a disciple of S̲h̲. Saund’hā Safīdūnī,98 by whom he was invested with the k̲h̲irqah i k̲h̲i̲lāfat in 1111/1699–1700, began his Sawāṭiʿ al-anwār at Delhi in 1135/1722–3 and completed it in Muḥarram 1142/July-August 1729.

Sawāṭiʿ al-anwār, or Iqtibās al-anwār,99 a large work on the saints of the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī order in four chapters called iqtibās ((1) Muḥammad, the first four Caliphs and the Imāms, (2) from Ḥasan Baṣrī to ʿUt̲h̲mān Hārūnī, (3) from Muʿīn al-Dīn C̲h̲is̲h̲tī to M. b. ʿĀrif b. Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Rudaulawī,100 (4) from ʿAbd al-Quddūs Gangōhī (cf. no. 1279 supra) to the author’s father), these chapters being subdivided into sections called nūr and, in the case of the third iqtibās, into subsections called sāṭiʿ, lāmiʿ, and s̲h̲uʿāʿ: Ethé 654, i.o. d.p. 667.

Edition: Iqtibās al-anwār, Lahore 1895°* (pp. 349).

List and epitome of the biographies: Ethé coll. 327–39.

§ 1351. M. ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd b. Nad̲h̲r-Muḥammad Qādirī Kairā-nawī was a disciple of Ḥājjī S̲h̲āh Fatḥ-Muḥammad Qādirī Kairānawī, called Miyān-jīw.101 The latter, who was both the maternal uncle and the father-in-law of Nad̲h̲r-Muḥammad, ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd’s father, was born at Anbālah (i.e. Ambala in the Panjāb), received the k̲h̲irqah i k̲h̲ilāfat from S̲h̲. Muḥyī ’l-Dīn (so Rieu), or S̲h̲. Yaḥyā (so ʿAbd al-Muqtadir), Madanī at al-Madīnah, settled at Kairānah102 and died there on 29 Rabīʿ al-Awwal 1130/2 March 1718.

Taḥāʾif i Ras̲h̲īdīyah, biographies (each headed Tuḥfah) of thirty-seven persons from the Prophet to S̲h̲āh Fatḥ-Muḥammad, who form the author’s spiritual pedigree in the Qādirī order, begun in 1137/1724–5 and completed in 1143/1730–1: Rieu i 361b (ah 1146/1733).

List of the biographies: Rieu i p. 362a.

Tarīk̲h̲ i Qādirīyah, a shorter work on the lives of the same persons, written in 1150/1737: Rāmpūr (ah 1193/1779. See Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 74), Bānkīpūr viii 678 (18th cent.).

List of the biographies: Bānkīpūr viii p. 67.

§ 1352. Quṭb al-Dīn Aḥmad, known as (al-maʿrūf bi-) Walī Allāh, b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. Wajīh al-Dīn i S̲h̲ahīd b. Muʿaẓẓam b. Manṣūr al-ʿUmarī al-Naqs̲h̲bandī al-Muḥaddit̲h̲ al-Dihlawī, who was born in 1114/1703 and died in 1176/1762–3, has already been mentioned as the author of the Fatḥ al-Raḥmān (no. 35 (1) supra), al-Fauz al-kabīr (no. 35 (2) supra), the Surūr al-maḥzūn (no. 222 supra, Persian translation of the abridgment) and the Qurrat al-ʿainain (no. 285 supra). Twenty of his works are mentioned by Brockelmann, and Hidāyat Ḥusain’s list, which includes only “the most important” and omits “many pamphlets on religious subjects”, enumerates seventeen. His life, spent in teaching and writing, was uneventful, but he exercised great influence in India as a theologian.

Anfās al-ʿārifīn, on the lives, sayings and miracles of the author’s kinsmen, teachers, etc., in three qisms, namely (1) Bawāriq al-wilāyah, on the author’s father, ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Dihlawī (d. 1131/1719. See Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 119), (2) S̲h̲awāriq al-maʿrifah, on the author’s paternal uncle, Abū ’l-Riḍā Muḥammad,(3) in five separately-titled and detachable faṣls, of which the first is Imdād fī maʾāt̲h̲ir al-ajdād, the second al-Nubd̲h̲at al-ibrīzah [al-ibrīzīyah ?] fī ’l-laṭīfat al-g̲h̲arīzah [al-g̲h̲arīzīyah ?] (dar nas̲h̲r i aḥwāl i S̲h̲aik̲h̲ ʿAbd al-Azīz Dihlawī u aslāf u ak̲h̲lāf i īs̲h̲ān), the third al-ʿAṭīyat al-Ṣamadīyah fī [’l-?] anfās al-Muḥammadīyah (dar d̲h̲ikr i manāqib … i ḥaḍrat i S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad al-PHLTĪ), the fourth Insān al-ʿain fi mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ al-Ḥaramain, and the fifth al-Juzʾ al-laṭīf fī tarjamat al-ʿabd al-ḍaʿīf, a brief autobiography extending to 14 Rajab 1145/31 Dec. 1732, the date of the author’s return home from his pilgrimage to Mecca:103 i.o. 3985 (only the Imdād. Circ. ad 1895).

Edition: Anfās al-ʿārifīn, Delhi 1315/1897* (pp. 196).

Edition and English translation of Qism iii, faṣl 5: The Persian autobiography of Shāh Walīullah bin ʿAbd al-Raḥīm al-Dihlavī: its English translation and a list of his works. By Mawlavi M. Hidayat Husain (in jasb. N.S. viii (1912) pp. 161–75).

Edition of Qism III, fasl 5: Saṭaʿāt maʿahJuzʾ al-laṭīf [Delhi 1890°].

al-Intibāh fī salāsil auliyāʾ Allāh, an enumeration of the spiritual pedigrees of the author with incidental expositions of Ṣūfī practices and other matters, divided (in the i.o. ms.) under the headings Muqaddimah fol. 1b, Silsilah i Ṣūfīyah i ʿulamāʾ fol. 7b, Silsilah i bis̲h̲ārah fol. 8b, Silsilah i K̲h̲wājah [sic] i Qādirīyah fol. 10b, Ṭarīqah i Naqs̲h̲bandīyah fol. 21a, Ṭarīqah i C̲h̲is̲h̲tīyah fol. 42a, Ṭarīqah i Kubrawīyah fol. 55a, Ṭarīqah i Madyanīyah fol. 58a, Ṭarīqah i S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīyah fol. 61a, Ṭarīqah i S̲h̲aṭṭārīyah fol. 62a: Āṣafīyah i p. 402 no. 584 (ah 1174/1760–1), i.o. d.p. 776 (late 18th cent.).

Edition: Delhi 1311/1893–4 (see jasb. 1912 p. 168).

[To the biographical sources mentioned on p. 22 may be added K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ ii p. 373; Ḥayāt i Walī (in Urdu. 360 pp.), by M. Raḥīm-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲, Delhi 1319/1901–2*; Bānkīpūr xiv pp. 134–5; Brockelmann Sptbd. ii pp. 614–5. For an anonymous work defending Walī Allāh against the charge that he had insufficient respect for the Imāms, see Bānkīpūr xvii 1619.]

§ 1353. For the Burhān al-futūḥ, which was composed in 1148/1736–7 by M. ʿAlī b. M. Ṣādiq Ḥusainī Nīs̲h̲āpūrī Najafī Burhān-pūrī, and of which the fifteenth bāb is devoted to notices of ṣūfīs, see no. 164 supra.

§ 1354. G̲h̲ulām-S̲h̲araf al-Dīn104 b. S̲h̲. Imām al-Dīn b. S̲h̲. Karīm al-Dīn was the son of a daughter of Hidāyat Allāh Qādirī Ras̲h̲īdī Ars̲h̲adī Faiyāḍī Manērī. He was a disciple of S̲h̲. Abū ’l-Faiyāḍ G̲h̲ulām-Ras̲h̲īd (see no. 1346 supra), whose discourses he attended and noted down from 11 Muḥarram to 12 Ramaḍān 1147/13 June 1734 to 5 February 1735.

Ganj i Faiyāḍī, a biography of the above-mentioned S̲h̲. Abū ’l-Faiyāḍ G̲h̲ulām-Ras̲h̲īd with a collection of his letters and sayings: Browne Pers. Cat. 111 (ah 1150/1738), Ivanow Curzon 80 (18th cent.).

§ 1355. M. b. Yār-Muḥammad105 b. Rājī Kamman Kōlawī tells us that he was born on 2 D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1098/9 October 1697.

As̲h̲jār al-jamāl or alternatively Ak̲h̲bār al-jamāl, short notices of prophets and saints including some Ṣūfīs of Kōl (i.e. ʿAlīgaṛh), completed in 1151/1738: Ivanow Curzon 81 (defective. Late 18th cent.) = Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 57.

§ 1356. M. Qiyām al-Dīn, commonly called (ʿurf) Qaḍī K̲h̲ān, b. Abū ’l-Ḥasan C̲h̲is̲h̲tī Fārūqī.

Ḥaqāʾiq al-auliyāʾ, written in 1154/1741–2: Āṣafīyah iii p. 100 no. 1293 (Precise subject not stated, ah 1154/1741–2).

§ 1357. M. Najīb Qādirī Nāgaurī Ajmērī wrote his Mak̲h̲zan al-aʿrās in 1155/1742 and 1156/1743 (and possibly subsequent years) on the basis of a work by S̲h̲araf al-Dīn b. Qāḍī S̲h̲aik̲h̲ M. Nahrawālī106

Mak̲h̲zan al-aʿrās, dates of the deaths of saints arrayed under the months: Ivanow 1631 (slightly defective at end. Late 18th cent.), 1632 (late 18th or early 19th cent.), Ivanow 1st Spt. 869 (early 19th cent.).

Edition (presumably of this work): Kitāb i aʿrās, by M. Najīb Qādirī Nāgaurī, [Āgrah] 1300/1883°.

§ 1358. Miyāṅ Aḥmad b. Maḥmūd Uwaisī C̲h̲anābī.

Laṭāʾif i nafīsīyah107 dar faḍāʾil i Uwaisīyah, anecdotes of Uwais al-Qaranī,108 written in 1156/1743: Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (see ocm. viii/4 p. 42).

Edition: Delhi 1314/1896°.

Urdu translation: Nasīm i Yaman fī ḥālāt i Uwais i Qaran, by S. M. Is̲h̲fāq109 Ḥusain S̲h̲āh Razzāqī, Lahore 1328/1910*.

§ 1359. Abū ’l-Faiḍ Kamāl al-Dīn M. Iḥsān b. Ḥasan Aḥmad (d. 1149/1736) b. M. Hādī b. M. ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad Mujaddid i Alf i T̲h̲ānī was a great-great-grandson of the celebrated Naqs̲h̲bandī saint Aḥmad Sirhindī and was apparently a k̲h̲alīfah of the saint in Oudh or Bengal.

Rauḍat al-qaiyūmīyah, begun before 1152/1739 but then interrupted until about 1154/1741 and containing in the concluding lines a reference to the reigning sovereign Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (d. 1161/1748), though some later dates (e.g. 1164/1751) occur in the narrative, a detailed account of the lives (narrated laudably year by year) and miracles, etc., of the great saint Aḥmad Fārūqī Sirhindī, called here the first qaiyūm (qaiyūm i awwal i īn ummat), who died in 1034/1624 (see no. 1316 (1), 1st footnote supra), and his first three successors (the second, third and fourth qaiyūm), namely, his (third) son, M. Maʿṣūm called ʿUrwat al-wut̲h̲qā (b. 1007/1599, d. 1079/1668),110 M. Naqs̲h̲band Ḥujjat Allāh (b. 1034/1625, d. 1114/1702), the son of the preceding, and M. Zubair (b. 1093/1682, d. 1152/1740), with an enormous number (probably more than two thousand) of short notices of their descendants and disciples, interspersed with incidental references to historical events, e.g. Nādir S̲h̲āh’s invasion, which the author, an eye-witness, describes at some length: Ivanow Curzon 82 (ah 1218/1804).

§ 1360. M. Amān b. M. Yūsuf b. M. Raḥīm seems to have followed the army of Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Jāh to Arcot [in 1156/1743]. He had visited the shrines of saints at Aurangābād, Gwalior and elsewhere.

Safīnat al-ʿārifīn, notices of numerous holy men, mostly Indian, from the first four Caliphs to the end of the eleventh century of the Hijrah, the latest date being 1103/1692, the year of the death of S. Ḥasan Rasūl-numā:111 Rieu i 362b (18th cent.).

§ 1361. For the Wāqiʿāt i Kas̲h̲mīr, begun by M. Aʿẓam in 1148/1735–6, completed in 1160/1747, and devoted largely to the lives of Kas̲h̲mīrī saints, see no. 880 (1) supra.

§ 1362. Mir G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī “Āzād” Bilgrāmī, who was born at Bilgrām in 1116/1704 and died, doubtless at Aurangābād, in 1200/1786, has already been mentioned (no. 1162 supra) as the author of the K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah and other works.

Raudat al-auliyāʾ, lives of ten saints buried at Rauḍah (“Rauza”, “Roza”, “Raoza”), or K̲h̲uldābād (cf. no. 1162, 4th par., 2nd footnote supra), namely Burhān al-Dīn M, called al-G̲h̲arīb al-Hānsawī112 (p. 4), Muntajab al-Dīn Zarzarī Zar-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ (p. 14), Ḥasan Dihlawī (p. 16), Rājū Qattāl (p. 18), Gēsū-darāz (p. 19), Farīd al-Dīn Adīb (p. 25), Khwājah Ḥusain b. Maḥmūd S̲h̲īrāzī (p. 26), Zain al-Dīn Dāwud b. K̲h̲wājah Ḥusain S̲h̲īrāzī (p. 26), S̲h̲āh Jalāl Ganj i Rawān (p. 41), S̲h̲āh K̲h̲āksār (p. 42), followed by brief notices of three rulers buried there (Aurangzēb, Niẓām al-Mulk Burhān S̲h̲āh, Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Jāh) and an autobiography of the author, who wrote the work in 1161/1748: Āṣafīyah iii p. 164 no. 148 (ah 1167/1753–4), i p. 320 no. 22 (ah 1232/1816–17), Ethē 655.

Edition: Aurangābād 1310/1892–3*.

Urdu translation by Saif Allāh Qādirī: Tarjamah i R. al-a., Ḥaidarābād (see Ḥaidarābād Coll. p. 52, where neither the date of publication nor the name of the original author is mentioned).

Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-kirām tārīk̲h̲ i Bilgrām, completed in 1166/1752–3 and divided into two faṣls, namely (1) lives of about eighty fuqarāʾ, i.e. saints and mystics, firstly those of Bilgrām and its neighbourhood and secondly those incidentally mentioned in the preceding biographies, (2) lives of about seventy fuḍalāʾ, i.e. learned men, firstly those of India and secondly those of Oudh and Bilgrām: Āṣafīyah i p. 348 no. 105 (ah 1180/1766–7), Ethé 682 (sent by the author to Richard Johnson in 1785), i.o. 3923 (circ. ad 1880 ?), Bānkīpūr viii 723 (early 19th cent.), Rieu iii 971a (ah 1266/1850), Berlin 603 (Faṣl 2 only).

Edition: Ḥaidarābād 1910 (with introduction by ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq. See ocm. iii/2 (Feb. 1927) p. 33 footnote).

List of the biographies in Faṣl 2: Berlin pp. 567–8.

The Sarw i āzād, which is the second volume of this work, though for all practical purposes it may be regarded as independent, has already been dealt with (no. 1162 (16) supra).

§ 1363. Ḥanīf al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Qādir b. Qāḍī S. M. S̲h̲arīf b. Qāḍī S. M. Ḥanīf Kintūrī113 Nīs̲h̲āpurī died in 1204/1789–90 (according to the Āṣafīyah catalogue).

Kuḥl al-jawāhir fī manāqib ʿAbd al-Qādir, written in 1167/1753–4: Āṣafīyah i p. 460 no. 633.

§ 1364. For the C̲h̲ahār guls̲h̲an of Rāy C̲h̲aturman, which was completed in 1173/1759–60 and of which the fourth guls̲h̲an is devoted to Muslim and Hindu saints, see no. 631 supra.

§ 1365. For the Mirʾāt i Aḥmadī, which was completed by ʿAlī Muḥammad K̲h̲ān in 1175/1761, and of which the k̲h̲ātimah contains inter alia accounts of the saints and Saiyids buried in, or near, Aḥmadābād, see no. 984 supra.

§ 1366. M. Ṣādiq Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī.

Tad̲h̲kirah i K̲h̲wājagān, or Tad̲h̲kirah i ʿAzīzān, a Turkī work on the lives of certain saints of Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar, written in 1182/1768–9: Leningrad Institut (see Manuscrits turcs de l’Institut des Langues Orientales décrits par W. D. Smirnow (St. Petersburg 1897) pp. 156–60. Cf. Semenov Ukazatel p. 15, where no mss. are mentioned).

English epitome: The history of the K̲h̲ojas of Eastern-Turkistān summarized from the Tazkira-i-K̲h̲wājagān of Muḥammad Ṣādiq Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, by the late Robert Barkley Shaw … Edited with introduction and notes by N. Elias. Calcutta 1897 (Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. lxvi, part 1, extra no.).

Persian version (?):114 mss. ?

§ 1367. M. ʿĀbid.

Ḥālāt i Saiyid Sālār Masʿūd G̲h̲āzī, an account, written in 1188/1774–5, [presumably of the Saiyid who is said to have founded G̲h̲āzīpūr (cf. no. 1411 (64) footnote infra) rather than of the legendary hero who has already been mentioned (no. 1329 (7) supra) as the subject of the Mirʾāt i Masʿūdī]: Āṣafīyah iii p. 362 no. 251 (ad 1831).

§ 1368. S. G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain K̲h̲ān b. Hidāyat-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān b. S. ʿAlīm Allāh b. S. Faiḍ Allāh115 Ṭabāṭabāʾī Ḥasanī, who was born at Delhi in 1140/1727–8, has already been mentioned (pp. 625–40) as the author of the Siyar al-mutaʾak̲h̲k̲h̲irīn, which he began in 1194/1780 and completed in 1195/1781.

Bis̲h̲ārat al-imāmah, a mat̲h̲nawī, written before the Siyar al-mutaʾak̲h̲k̲h̲irīn,116 on the lives of the author’s ancestors, especially the miracles of his great-grandfather, S. Faiḍ Allāh Ṭabāṭabāʾī, and his grandfather S. ʿAlīm Allāh Ṭabāṭabā, the latter of whom died at ʿAẓīmābād (i.e. Patna) in S̲h̲aʿbān 1156/1743:117 Bānkīpūr Suppt. i 1991 (ah 1277/1860).

§ 1369. “From various incidental allusions in his book it is possible to conclude that” a certain Sabzawārī (k̲h̲āk-sār i Sabzawārī, as he calls himself) “wrote shortly after 1188/1774” (Ivanow). S. Qamar al-Dīn Aurangābādī (d. 1193/1779 or 1195/1781: cf. no. 36 supra), the subject of the 26th sāniḥah, and Mīr G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī “Āzād” (d. 1200/1786: cf. no. 1162, 4th par. supra), the subject of the 27th, were still alive at the time of writing.

(Sawāniḥ), a work in 31 sāniḥahs on the saints buried or still living in or near Aurangābād (the first being Burhān al-Dīn G̲h̲arīb, who died in 738/1337, the last Miyāṅ G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain, still living), with descriptions of their graves and of the city: Ivanow 285 (late 18th cent.), possibly also Rehatsek p. 197 no. 43 (“Resáláh Sowáneh … This little ms. contains the legends of the saints who lived during the time of Aurung-zyb, who amounted to about a dozen or so; it contains also a description of the city of Aurangábád, which he restored and looked upon with peculiar favour, and of the mausoleum of one of his Begums; it was composed during his lifetime,118 but bears no date”).

List of the biographies, etc.: Ivanow pp. 122–3.

§ 1370. M. Aʿẓam T’hattawī.

Tuḥfat al-ṭāhirīn, an account of the saints buried at Tattah and on Maklī hill (no. 1373 (2) footnote infra), written in 1194/1780: Rieu iii 1061b (extracts only).

§ 1371. It was at the request of Ṭīpū Sulṭān (ruler of Mysore 1197–1213/1782–99: cf. no. 1070) that a certain M. S̲h̲arīf compiled the Ṣahīfat al-aʿrās.

Ṣaḥīfat al-aʿrās, or Tarīk̲h̲ i wafāt i buzurgān, an almanac giving the names of the holy personages who died on each day of the Muḥammadan year: Ethé 2733, Ivanow 1634.

§ 1372. Mīr S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn119 “Niẓām”, entitled ʿImād al-Mulk120 G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn K̲h̲ān Fīrōz-Jang [iii], was a son of the Amīr al-umarāʾ G̲h̲āzī al-Din K̲h̲ān Fīrōz-Jang [ii, i.e. Mīr M. Panāh, d. 1165/1752121] and a grandson of Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Jāh122 His mother was a daughter of Iʿtimād al-Daulah Qamar al-Dīn K̲h̲ān,123 who became Wazīr to Muḥammad S̲h̲āh in 1136/1724 and died in 1161/1748. In the reign of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh (1161–7/1748–54) he was Mīr Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī (Quartermaster General124) and subsequently Wazīr. He directed the military operations against Ṣafdar-Jang125 and, with Marāṭ’hā help, against Sūraj Mal, the Jāṭ. In 1167/1754 he deposed Aḥmad S̲h̲āh and placed ʿĀlamgīr ii upon the throne. In 1169/1755 Mīr Muʿīn al-Mulk, Governor of the Panjāb,126 who had perforce submitted to Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Abdālī, died, and his widow and her favourite Ādīnah Bēg K̲h̲ān127 seized the reins of government. ʿImād al-Mulk, desiring to restore the province to the empire, captured Lahore, where he left Ādīnah Bēg K̲h̲ān in charge, removed Mug̲h̲ulānī Bēgam to Delhi and married her daughter. Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Abdālī at once marched on Lahore (ah 1170/1756), expelled Ādīnah Bēg K̲h̲ān, and went on to Delhi, which he entered victoriously with ʿĀlamgīr ii and ʿImād al-Mulk in his train. ʿImād al-Mulk then took part on behalf of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Abdālī in the operations of Jahān K̲h̲ān against Sūraj Mal and in unsuccessful hostilities against S̲h̲ujāʿ al-Daulah of Oudh. Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Abdālī, displeased with ʿImād al-Mulk, appointed Najīb al-Daulah Amīr al-Umarāʾ and left for Lahore. ʿImād al-Mulk marched from Farruk̲h̲ābād against Najīb al-Daulah and with Marāṭ’hā help besieged him and ʿĀlamgīr ii in Delhi. In 1174/1760 the growing power of the Sik’hs and Marāṭ’hās brought Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Abdālī for the fourth time to India, and the Marāṭ’hās were defeated at Pānīpat. ʿImād al-Mulk, knowing that ʿĀlamgīr ii desired an Abdālī victory, had murdered him [8 Rabīʿ ii 1173/29 Nov. 1759] on Aḥmad S̲h̲āh’s approach.

The days of ʿImād al-Mulk’s power were now over. For a time he stayed with Sūraj Mal [who died in 1177/1763], then with Aḥmad K̲h̲ān Bangas̲h̲ [d. 1185/1771] at Farruk̲h̲ābād, and he fought on the side of S̲h̲ujāʿ al-Daulah of Oudh against the British. In 1187/1773 he went to the Deccan and received some land in Mālwah from the Marāṭ’hās. Then after living for a time at Sūrat he went on a pilgrimage to Mecca. In 1195/1781 according to the Gulzār i Ibrāhīm, (cited in Sprenger p. 273) he was in Sind. Subsequently he was at the court of Tīmūr S̲h̲āh Abdālī (who reigned 1187–1207/1773–93), and in 1211/1797, when Zamān S̲h̲āh (1207–16/1793–1801) invaded the Panjāb, ʿImād al-Mulk is said to have been in his service. He died at Kālpī on 10 Rabīʿ ii 1215/1 September 1800.128

ʿImād al-Mulk, who originally used the tak̲h̲alluṣ “Āṣaf” but abandoned it later for “Niẓām”, wrote poetry in Persian, Urdu, Arabic and Turkī. His Persian dīwān, of which there are mss. in the British Museum (Rieu ii 719b) and at Leningrad (Romaskewicz p. 9), was published in 1301/1883–4 (see Āṣafīyah iii p. 296, where the place of publication (presumably Ḥaidarābād) is not mentioned). A poem in praise of ʿAlī (Manqabat i Niẓām dar madḥ i ʿAlī) and a qaṣīdah are preserved in ms. (autograph ?) at ʿAlīgaṛh (Subḥ. mss. p. 37 nos. 7, 8). His mat̲h̲nawīs included one on the miracles of Maulānā Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn (Fak̲h̲rīyat al-Niẓām), but no mss. seem to be recorded.

Manāqib i Fak̲h̲rīyah, a biography of Maulānā M. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn called Muḥibb al-Nabī Dihlawī,129 written in 1201/1786–7: i.o. d.p. 728 (ah 1227/1812), Lindesiana p. 158 no. 741 (ah 1240/1824–5), Āṣafīyah i p. 490 no. 342 (ah 1312/1894–5).

Edition: Delhi 1315/1897*.

[K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah pp. 50–4; Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ ii pp. 847–56; Gulzār i Ibrāhīm; Muṣhafī Tad̲h̲kirah i Hindī; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 2922; Majmūʿah i nag̲h̲z ii pp. 277–80; Tad̲h̲kirah i Sarwar; Tad̲h̲kirah i k̲h̲wus̲h̲-nawīsān p. 76; ʿIyār al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ; Guls̲h̲an i bī-k̲h̲ār; Tārīk̲h̲ ʿImād al-Mulk (see no. 797 supra); Nag̲h̲mah i ʿandalīb; Sprenger p. 273; Garcin de Tassy ii pp. 476–7; W. Irvine The Bangash Nawábs of Farrukhábád (in jasb. xlviii/l (1879)) pp. 128–30; Rieu ii 719–20, iii 1092b; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under Ghazi-uddin Khan iii.]

§ 1373. Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲ēr “Qāniʿ” Tattawī, who was born in 1140/1727–8 and was still alive in 1202/1787–8, has already been mentioned (no. 828 supra) as the author of the Tuḥfat al-kirām and other works.

Miʿyar i sālikān i ṭarīqat (a chronogram = 1202/1787–8), lives of saints from the time of Muḥammad to the close of the twelfth century of the Hijrah in twelve miʿyārs each devoted to a century: Rieu ii 847b (ah 1246/1830), i.o. 4396 (circ. ad 1852 probably).
Maklī-nāmah, accounts of the saints buried on Maklī hill130 (beside Tattah): Rieu iii 1061b (extracts only).

§ 1374. Autobiographical statements in the text of the Baḥr i zak̲h̲k̲h̲ār show that the author, Wajīh al-Dīn As̲h̲raf, lived at Lucknow and that he was writing the work in 1203/1788–9.

Baḥr i zak̲h̲k̲h̲ār (beginning: Ḥamd i bī-ḥadd Qadīmī rā), a “vast compilation” (595 foll, in the very imperfect b.m. ms.) devoted to the lives of saints and mystics, mostly Indian and many contemporary with the author, divided into eight lujjahs, which are subdivided into nahrs and again into maujs (viz.131 (1) Muḥammad’s children and wives, the Caliphs and the Companions, (2) ʿAlī, Fāṭimah, the Imāms, the Tābiʿīn, traditionists, jurists and Qurʾān-readers, (3) (a) Ḥasan Baṣrī132 and his disciples, (b) C̲h̲irāg̲h̲ i Dihlī (cf. no. 1259 1st par. last footnote supra) and his disciples, (c) Sirāj al-Dīn ʿUt̲h̲mān133 and his order, (d) ʿAlī Ṣabīr,134 etc., (4) (a) Maʿrūf Kark̲h̲ī,135 etc., (b) ʿAbd al-Qādir Gīlānī (cf. no. 1251 2nd par. footnote supra), and the Qādirīs, (c) Abū Najīb Suhrawardī,136 etc., (d) Najm al-Dīn Kubrā,137 (5) (a) saints of the Mag̲h̲rib, (b) Qalandarīs, (c) martyrs, (d) Bāyazīd Bisṭāmī;138 Bahāʾ al-Dīn Naqs̲h̲band (cf. no. 1263 2nd par. 1st footnote supra); S̲h̲aṭṭārīs; S̲h̲āh Madār (cf. no. 1329 (6) supra), (e) Wais [i.e. Uwais] Qaranī (cf. no. 1358 supra), (6). saints of unknown affiliation, (7) ecstatics (majd̲h̲ūbān), (8) female saints): Rieu iii 976b (Lujjahs 1–3 and first two sections of Lujjah 4, defective at end. Circ. ad 1850).

Edition of the portion relating to the Ṣābirīs: S̲h̲uʿbah [= Mauj ?] i siwum az nahr i duwum139 i lujjah i siwum i kitāb i Baḥr i zak̲h̲k̲h̲ār, Allahabad 1313/1895* (51 pp.).

§ 1375. M. Naʿīm Allāh Bahrāʾic̲h̲ī Ḥanafī Naqs̲h̲bandī, born in 1153/1740–1, doubtless at Bahra’ic̲h̲ (65 miles north-east of Lucknow), was the son of G̲h̲ulām-Quṭb al-Dīn, commonly called (ʿurf) Malik Kālī (or Kālē ?). b. Malik G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad. In 1171/1757–8 he went to Lucknow and pursued Arabic studies there. Subsequently he studied at S̲h̲āhjahānpūr, Bareilly, Delhi, Murādābād and elsewhere. In 1186/1772–3 he was initiated into the Naqs̲h̲bandī order by M. Jamīl, one of Mīrzā Jān-i-Jānān “Maẓhar’s” k̲h̲alīfahs, who had come from Delhi to Lucknow. Not long afterwards he visited “Maẓhar” at Delhi and spent four months there. In 1189/1775–6 he returned to Delhi and remained in constant association with “Maẓhar” for four years, receiving from him the k̲h̲irqah and his ijāzat as a member of the Naqs̲h̲bandī, Qādirī, C̲h̲is̲h̲tī and Suhrawardī orders. Thenceforward he lived mainly in Lucknow. When he wrote his autobiography in 1208/1793–4, he had visited Delhi four times, the bilād i Afāg̲h̲inah (i.e. probably Rohilkhand) several times and Pānīpat twice. He died at Bahrā’ic̲h̲ in 1218/1803–4.

Bis̲h̲ārāt i Maẓharīyah dar faḍāʾil i ḥadarāt i ṭarīqah i Mujaddidīyah140 (beginning: al-Ḥ. l. ’llad̲h̲ī aẓhara fī Mirʾāt al-ḥudūt̲h̲ anwār al-qidam), a life of the saint and poet Mirzā “Maẓhar”,141 founder of the S̲h̲amsīyah Maẓharīyah branch of the Naqs̲h̲bandī order, with accounts of twelve other Naqs̲h̲bandī s̲h̲aik̲h̲s (the first Aḥmad Sirhindī, the last M. ʿĀbid Sunāmī142) and some forty-five of “Maẓhar’s” k̲h̲ulafāʾ (the first T̲h̲anāʾ Allāh Pānīpatī (cf. K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i p. 689, Raḥman ʿAlī p. 38, etc.) the last Nūr-Muḥammad Qandahārī), written in 1204/1789–90 at the suggestion of Mīr M. Māh Bahrāʾic̲h̲ī and divided into a muqaddimah, two maqṣads (subdivided into five and six bābs respectively), and a k̲h̲ātimah: Rieu i 363a (ah 1207/1792), i.o. 4431 (late 18th cent.).
Maʿmūlāt i Maẓharīyah, “an account of the Maẓharī sect of Ṣūfīs with special reference to the doctrines of its founder Maẓhar Jān-jānān” (Arberry). Editions: Cawnpore 1284/1867*, Lahore 1893† (in both of these editions the M. i M. is followed by Maḥbūb i ʿārifīn, “a short tract on the duties of the mystic” (Arberry), by ʿAlī Rāstīnī).
(Aḥwāl i Naʿīm Allāh Bahrāʾic̲h̲ī), a brief autobiography (beginning: Baʿd i ḥamd u ṣalāt az faqīr Naʿīm Allāh ʿufiya ʿanhu birādar i girāmī-qadr Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ Allāh wa-g̲h̲airah birādarān zāda qadruhum daryāband kih …) written in 1208/1793–4 at the age of fifty-six: i.o. 4431 foll. 142b–145b (late 18th cent.).

[Autobiography mentioned above; statements, in the Bis̲h̲ārāt i Maẓharīyah (summarized by Rieu); Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 243.]

§ 1376. S̲h̲āh ʿAbd Allāh, commonly called (al-mas̲h̲hūr bi-) G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī,. b. S. ʿAbd al-Laṭīf Mujaddidī ʿAlawī Dihlawī was born in 1158/1745 at Baṭālah in the Gūrdāspūr District of the Panjāb. At the age of thirteen he went to Delhi and associated with well-known Ṣūfīs like Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Fak̲h̲r i Jahān (cf. no. 1372, 4th par., footnote supra) and K̲h̲wājah Mīr “Dard”. In 1180/1766–7 at the age of twenty-two he became a disciple of Mīrzā “Maẓhar” (cf. no. 1375 (1), 2nd footnote supra) and in due course received from him the k̲h̲irqah i k̲h̲ilāfat of the four main orders. After “Maẓhar’s” death G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī succeeded him as superior of his community (jā-nis̲h̲īn u ṣāḥib-sajjādah i īs̲h̲ān s̲h̲ud). He died on 22 Ṣafar 1240/1824. Collections of his letters (Makātīb i s̲h̲arīfah. Edition: Madras 1334/1916*) and of his utterances (Durr al-maʿārif.143 Edition: Delhi [1927*]) were made by his disciple S̲h̲āh Raʾūf Aḥmad Muṣṭafā-ābādī (for whom see K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i p. 703, Ḥadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah p. 472, Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 66). The former is presumably the work dar bāb i maktūbāt u maqāmāt i ān-janāb referred to in the K̲h̲azīnah i p. 703 antepenult.

Maqāmāt i Maẓharī, or Laṭāʾif i k̲h̲amsah, “memoirs, with some letters, of Shams ul-Dīn Habīb Ullāh Maẓharī” [sic, but read Maẓhar]: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 18 no. 10 (?) (Risālah dar ḥālāt i … Mirzā Jān i Jānān wa-g̲h̲airah, by S̲h̲āh G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī).

Edition: Delhi 1309/1892°, probably also [Delhi] Aḥmadī Press, 1269/1853* (a biography of “Maẓhar” epitomized from Maulawī Naʿīm Allāh’s work (see no. 1375 (1) supra) by G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī Mujaddidī ʿAlawī, without title-page but beginning with the words Īn risālah i s̲h̲arīfah dar bayān i ḥālāt u maqāmāt i ḥaḍrat i S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Ḥabīb Allāh …).

Probably this author is the same as ʿAbd Allāh maʿrūf bah G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī who wrote

Karāmāt u irs̲h̲ādāt i Mujaddid i Alf i T̲h̲ānī:144 Āṣafīyah i p. 460 no. 288.

[K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 693–700; Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 155.]

§ 1377. Mullā M. Ṣādiq Yārkandī.

Majmaʿ al-muḥaqqiqīn, a history of the K̲h̲wājahs of Kās̲h̲ghar to 1208/1793–4: no mss. recorded ?

Eastern-Turkish translation by Mullā M. Sātqīn: ms. in private possession (see Semenov Ukazatel’ p. 24, where a reference is given to Validov Vostochnye rukopisi v Ferganskoi oblasti (Zapiski Vostochn. Otd. Imp. Russ. Arkheol. Obshchestva xxii) p. 304).

§ 1378. Turāb ʿAlī b. M. Kāẓim Qalandarī ʿAlawī Kākōrawī,145 a descendant of Niẓām al-Dīn Qārī known as S̲h̲. Bhīkan Kākōrawī,146 was born in 1181/1767–8 and died on 5 Jumādā i 1275/11 December 1858. Among his works were a dīwān (described by Raḥmān ʿAlī as mas̲h̲hūr), Maṭālib i ras̲h̲īdī (on ethics and Ṣūfism. Editions: Lucknow 1280/1863°, 1875°*, 1896†) and S̲h̲arāʾiṭ al-wasāʾiṭ (“on the duties and observances of Ṣūfī instructors and their disciples”. Edition: Lucknow 1293/1876*). Of the Maktūbāt i S̲h̲āh Mujtabā Lāharpūrī,147 compiled by him in 1224/1809, there is a ms. at Ḥaidarābād (Āṣafīyah i p. 484). To the south-east of the town of Kākōrī are the dargāhs of S̲h̲āh M. Kāẓim148 and S̲h̲āh Abū Turāb, “in whose memory annual festivals are celebrated and a great fair is held, attended by large numbers of people from Lucknow and the neighbouring villages” (Lucknow: a gazetteer, by H. R. Nevill, Allahabad 1904, p. 191).

Kas̲h̲f al-mutawārī fī ḥāl i Niẓām al-Dīn i Qārī, a biography of the afore-mentioned S̲h̲. Bhīkan. Edition: Lucknow 1318/1901°.
Uṣūl al-maqṣūd, accounts of twelve Qalandarī s̲h̲aik̲h̲s, the spiritual ancestors of the author,149 written in 1225–6/1810–11 and divided into twelve chapters called aṣl: Ivanow Curzon 83 (ah 1275/1858), Bānkīpūr viii 679 (latter half of 19th cent.).

Edition: place ? 1312/1894–5 (see Āṣafīyah i p. 316).

Lists of the biographies: (1) Ivanow-Curzon p. 88, (2) Bānkīpūr viii p. 69.

[al-Rauḍ al-azhar p. 190 onwards; Mawāhib al-qalandar p. 258; Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 36.]

§ 1379. A certain “Girāmī” appears to be the author of the Riyāḍ al-wāṣilīn.

Riyāḍ al-wāṣilīn (a chronogram = 1229/1814), or Tad̲h̲kirah i wāṣilān, a metrical account of famous saints composed by order of M. Raḥīm K̲h̲ān, of K̲h̲īwah (who reigned 1221–41/1806–25): Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (see Mélanges asiatiques vii (St. Petersburg 1876) p. 402).

§ 1380. Gul Muḥammad Maʿrūfī Kark̲h̲ī150 C̲h̲is̲h̲tī Aḥmadpūrī is described in a marginal note on p. 1 of the Delhi edition of his D̲h̲ikr al-aṣfiyāʾ as the eldest son of Ḥakīm Allāh-Yār Maʿrūfī Kark̲h̲ī and as a resident of Aḥmadpūr S̲h̲arqīyah in the State of Bahāwalpūr. He is mentioned in the Bahāwalpūr State Gazetteer (p. 179) as a disciple and k̲h̲alīfah of K̲h̲wājah M. ʿĀqil, a saint buried at Kōṭ Miṭ’han151 in the D̤ērah G̲h̲āzī K̲h̲ān District. According to the list of aʿrās printed at the end of the D̲h̲ikr al-aṣfiyāʾ (p. 226) he died on 9 Muḥarram 1243/3 August 1827.

D̲h̲ikr al-aṣfiyāʾ fī takmilat Siyar al-auliyāʾ dar manqabat i S̲h̲ams al-Hudā,152 a continuation of the Siyar al-auliyāʾ of S. M. Kirmānī (see no. 1259 supra) divided into a muqaddimah (on the ḥilyah of the Prophet and the dates of the death of the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī saints down to C̲h̲irāg̲h̲ i Dihlī),153 two bābs (on the lives of Kamāl al-Dīn ʿAllāmah,154 Sirāj al-Dīn b. Kamāl al-Dīn,155 ʿAlam al-Dīn M.,156 S̲h̲. Rājan,157 S̲h̲. jmn (Jumman ?),158 S̲h̲. Ḥasan M.,159 S̲h̲. M. b. Ḥasan M.,160 Muḥyī ’l-Dīn Yaḥyā Madanī,161 Kalīm Allāh Jahānābādī,162 Niẓām al-Dīn Aurangābādī,163 Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn b. Niẓām al-Dīn Aurangābādī,164 Nūr-M. Mahārawī,165 M. ʿĀqil,166 and their disciples) and a k̲h̲ātimah (on the aʿrās). Edition: Delhi 1312/1894°*.

[D̲h̲ikr al-aṣfiyāʾ p. 208 foll.]

§ 1381. Qāḍī M. Irtaḍā ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “K̲h̲wus̲h̲nūd” Gōpāmawī167 was born in 1198/1783–4. He was a pupil of Maulawī Ḥaidar ʿAlī Sandīlī168 and Maulawī M. Ibrāhīm Bilgrāmī. In 1225/1810–11 he went to Madrās, where his father, Muṣṭafā ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, was Qāḍī, and after his father’s death he himself became Qāḍī of Madrās. He died in 1251/1835–6. Of his works Raḥmān ʿAlī mentions (1) commentaries or ḥawās̲h̲ī on Ṣadrā,169 Mīr Zāhid Mullā Jalāl170 and other text-books, (2) Nafāʾis i Irtaḍāʾīyah, (3) Nuqūd al-ḥisāb, (4) risālah i Farāʾiḍ,171 (5) S̲h̲arḥ i qaṣīdah i Burdah. For a ms. of his Fatāwā see Āṣafīyah ii p. 1062 no. 97.

Fawāʾid i Saʿdīyah, lives of famous saints and Ṣūfīs.” Edition: Lucknow 1885°.
Tuḥfah i Aʿẓamīyah,172 catalogued under the heading Tad̲h̲kirah i Fārisī, but whether it is a tad̲h̲kirah of poets or saints is not stated: Āṣafīyah i p. 316 no. 96 (ah 1235/1819–20).

[Is̲h̲ārāt i Bīnis̲h̲; Ṣubḥ i waṭan pp. 65–8; Ḥadīqat al-marām p. 4; S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman p. 145; Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 21; Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 854.]

§ 1382. Imām al-Dīn K̲h̲ān b. G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain K̲h̲ān b. G̲h̲ulām-Gīlānī K̲h̲ān was a dependent of M. Amīr K̲h̲ān [Nawwāb of Tōnk 1817–34: cf. no. 898 supra].

Majmaʿ al-karāmat (sing.), a life of S̲h̲āh Dargāhī Naqs̲h̲bandī,173 of Rāmpūr: Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 91 (ah 1236/1820–1. Ḥāfiẓ Aḥmad ʿAlī K̲h̲ān’s library, Rāmpūr).

§ 1383. Niẓām al-Dīn Balk̲h̲ī Mazārī b. Mīr M.ʿAzīz Anṣārī Mutawallī174 was born on 1 Ramaḍān 1195/21 August 1781. At Balk̲h̲ in 1213/1798–9 he met for the first time S̲h̲āh Faḍl i Aḥmad Maʿṣūmī, a Naqs̲h̲bandī s̲h̲aik̲h̲, one of whose k̲h̲ulafāʾ he subsequently became. Among his writings were a dīwān and a biographical work entitled Aḥsan al-tawārīk̲h̲ fī d̲h̲ikr al-ʿulamāʾ wa-’l-fuqarāʾ wa-’l-mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲. No copies of these works seem to be recorded. His Tuḥfat al-murs̲h̲id was completed at Balk̲h̲ in S̲h̲awwāl 1240/May-June 1825.

Tuḥfat al-murs̲h̲id, on the life, sayings and devotional practices of S̲h̲āh Faḍl i Aḥmad Maʿṣūmī, known as Ḥaḍrat-jīw175 Ṣāḥib, who was born in 1151/1738–9 and died at Peshawar in 1231/1815–16 or 1232/1816–17. Edition: Lahore[1912*].

[Autobiography in Tuḥfat al-murs̲h̲id, pp. 175–84.]

§ 1384. M. Abū ’l-Ḥayāt Qādirī P’hulwārī176 Bihārī wrote the Tad̲h̲kirat al-kirām in 1249/1833–4.

Tad̲h̲kirat al-kirām, biographies of forty-five Bihārī s̲h̲aik̲h̲s, mostly of the 18th and early 19th century, the first being M. Wārit̲h̲ Rasūl-numā (b. 1084/1673, d. 1166/1753), the thirty-fifth M. ʿAlī Akbar (d. 1247/1832) and the last Burhān al-Dīn (d. 1107/1696): Ivanow 1st Suppt. 772 (19th cent.), Bānkīpūr Suppt. i 1783 (19th cent.).

Edition: Lucknow[1880°].

Lists of the biographies: (1) Ivanow 1st Suppt. pp. 12–13, (2) Bānkīpūr Suppt. i pp. 46–7.

§ 1385. Āqā Taqī, of K̲h̲ōy, the author of the Ādāb al-musāfirīn, is doubtless identical with Taqī b. M., who in the Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān (p. 87) is described as one of the well known ʿurafāʾ of K̲h̲ōy and is there stated to have written at S̲h̲īrāz in 1257/1841 a metrical commentary entitled Nuqṭah i asrār in about two thousand verses on the first verse of Rūmī’s Mat̲h̲nawī.

Ādāb al-musāfirīn, notices of Ṣūfī saints: Browne Suppt. 7 (a.h. 1256/1840–1).

§ 1386. For the Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn, completed by Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān “Hidāyat” in 1260/1844 and devoted to notices of saints who were also poets, see no. 1225 (19) supra.

§ 1387. The author of the Mak̲h̲zan i Aḥmadī was “Sayyid Muḥammad ʿAlî” according to the Bānkīpūr Catalogue, “Muhammad ʿAlī, called177 ʿAlī” according to the Catalogue of Persian printed books in the British Museum. “A faithful disciple of Aḥmad S̲h̲âh,” he “spent most of his time in the company of his Pîr”.178

Mak̲h̲zan i Aḥmadī, completed in 1261/1845 and dedicated to Wazīr al-Daulah,179 a life of S. Aḥmad S̲h̲āh180 from his birth at Rāy Barēlī181 in Ṣafar182 1201/Nov.-Dec. 1786 to his return thither from Mecca in 1239/1823: Bānkīpūr xvi 1415 (ah 1263/1847).

Edition: Āgrah 1299/1882°.

§ 1388. Miyāṅ K̲h̲air Muḥammad Muns̲h̲ī̲, by whom the ms. referred to below is signed at the end, may be the author of the biography.

(Aḥwāl i S̲h̲āh Gul183 Imām C̲h̲ū184 walad i Saiyid Aḥmad ʿAlī S̲h̲āh C̲h̲ū) (beg. S̲h̲āh-ṣāḥib S. A. ʿA. S̲h̲āh C̲h̲ū walad i S̲h̲āh Fatḥ Nūr S̲h̲āh), a notice of S̲h̲āh Gul Imām, a Saiyid and faqīr of great sanctity, who settled at Ūc̲h̲h (now in the state of Bahāwalpūr) and in Samwat 1810 (ad 1754) erected various buildings there, together with an account of his family extending to the death of his successor, S. Gul M. S̲h̲āh, in 1209/1794–5: Rieu iii 977a (foll. 9. ah 1267/1850).

§ 1389. ʿAbd al-ʿAlīm Naṣr Allāh K̲h̲ān Aḥmadī K̲h̲wēs̲h̲gī K̲h̲ūrjawī, who died in 1299/1881, has already been mentioned as the author of the Tārīk̲h̲ i Dakan (no. 1043 supra) and the Guls̲h̲an i hamīs̲h̲ah-bahār (no. 1219).

Bayāḍ i dil-gus̲h̲ā (probably intended to be a chronogram for 1268/1851–2 (though actually amounting to 1168), like four alternative titles (e.g. Maʿlūmāt i K̲h̲wājagān), which do in fact come to 1268), a detailed biography of the author’s pīr, S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-ʿAlīm (b. Āk̲h̲ūnd Jān Muḥammad, B. i d.-g. p. 21s) Lōhārawī185 (d. 13 Muḥarram 1266/29 Nov. 1849: see B. i d.-g. p. 219 antepenult.) with shorter accounts of the latter’s pīr, S̲h̲āh Iḥsān-ʿAlī Pāk-Pattanī, and of Ṣūfīs associated with them.

Edition: Kōl [i.e. ʿAlīgaṛh. Probably a.h. 1268/1851–2 or 1269/1852–3].186

§ 1390. Faḍl Allāh b. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Mulūk enjoyed the patronage of Mīr Ṭahmāsp b. Daulat-S̲h̲āh b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, Governor of Fārs. Shortly after reaching S̲h̲īrāz from ʿIrāq in 1272/1855–6 he wrote his Ḍiyāʾ al-ʿārifīn.

Ḍiyāʾ al-ʿārifīn, on the lives and sayings of 96 ʿurafāʾ who flourished in the first four centuries of Islām: Rieu Suppt. 102.

§ 1391. Muftī M. G̲h̲ulām-Sarwar b. Muftī G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad b. Muftī Raḥīm Allāh Qurais̲h̲ī Asadī al-Hās̲h̲imī al-Lāhaurī wrote the Urdu works Guldastah i karāmāt, on the life of ʿAbd al-Qādir Jīlānī (Delhi 1867*, Lucknow 1875*, Lahore 1878*), Ak̲h̲lāq i Sarwarī (Lahore 1288/1871°*, Lucknow 1878°), Mak̲h̲zan i ḥikmat, moral tales and sayings (Lahore 1871°* [Lucknow] 1878°), Dīwān i Sarwarī, verses in praise of ʿAbd al-Qādir Jīlānī (Lahore 1872°*, 1873*, 1292/1876°), Naʿt i Sarwarī, verses in praise of Muḥammad (Lahore 1290/1873°*, 1877*, Lucknow 1878°, 1880°), Guls̲h̲an i Sarwarī, ethics in verse (Lahore 1874*, Lucknow 1295/1878°), Ḥadīqat al-auliyāʾ (Lahore 1875*, Cawnpore 1877*, 1889*), Bahāristān i tārīk̲h̲ or Gulzār i s̲h̲āhī, a history of India followed by a sketch of English history (Lucknow 1877°*), Tārīk̲h̲ i Mak̲h̲zan i Panjāb, a gazetteer of the Panjāb (Lucknow 1877°*), Zubdat al-lug̲h̲āt or Lug̲h̲āt i Sarwarī, a dictionary of Arabic, Persian and other foreign words explained in Urdu (Lucknow 1294/1877°*), and Dīwān i ḥamd i Īzadī (Lucknow 1881°).

K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ (a chronogram = 1280), biographical notices of saints begun in 1280/1863–4, completed in 1281/1864–5 (but with some later additions) and divided into seven mak̲h̲zans ((1) the Prophet, the first four Caliphs and the Imāms, not only the Twelve but also Abū Ḥanīfah, Mālik, Abū Yūsuf, S̲h̲aibānī, S̲h̲āfiʿī and Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, vol. i p. 4,187 (2) Qādirīs, vol. i p. 76, (3) C̲h̲is̲h̲tīs, vol. i p. 222, (4) Naqs̲h̲bandīs, vol. i p. 516, (5) Suhrawardīs, vol. ii p. 2, (6) miscellaneous orders, vol. ii p. 118, (7) in four ḥiṣṣahs (a) the Prophet’s wives, vol. ii p. 397, (b) his daughters, vol. ii p. 404, (c) saintly women, vol. ii p. 406, (d) deranged saints (majānīn u majād̲h̲īb), vol. ii p. 428).

Editions: Lahore 1284/1867–8 (pp. 1072, 18. See jasb. xxxix, pt. 1 (1870), p. 274 n.); Lucknow (T̲h̲amar i Hind Pr.) 1873*; Cawnpore (N.K.) 1312/1894*; 1902°; 1914‡.

Ganjīnah i Sarwarī, or, chronogrammatically, Ganj i tārīk̲h̲ (= 1284), chronograms for the birth and death of famous Muslims.

Editions: Lahore 1285/1868*, Lucknow (N.K.) 1877°*, 1307/1889*.

§ 1392. M. Ḥusain b. M. Masʿūd C̲h̲is̲h̲tī Ṣābirī188 Quddūsī189 Murādābādī, a disciple of S. Amānat ʿAlī Ḥusainī C̲h̲is̲h̲tī,190 completed his Anwār al-ʿārifīn in 1286/1870.

Anwār al-ʿārifīn, lives of numerous ancient and modern saints, especially of the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī, Qādirī and Naqs̲h̲bandī orders, including a number buried at Murādābād. Editions: Barēlī (“Bareilly”) 1290/1873*, Lucknow 1876°*.

§ 1393. G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad K̲h̲ān Jhajjarī became a disciple of K̲h̲wājah M. Sulaimān C̲h̲is̲h̲tī Taunsawī191 in 1255/1839.

Manāqib i Sulaimānī, a life of K̲h̲wājah M. Sulaimān C̲h̲is̲h̲tī Taunsawī, written in 1255/1839–40, with a continuation (takmilah) to the time of the saint’s death, written in 1287/1870–1.

Editions: Delhi [1871*], Jhajjar 1897†.

§ 1394. Ḥāfiẓ Aḥmad Yār, a resident of Pākpattan, wrote a biography of K̲h̲wājah M. Sulaimān Taunsawī (cf. no. 1393 1st par. supra) entitled Manāqib i Sulaimānīyah192 An abridgement of this, containing some additional information but devoted mainly to the saint’s utterances (malfūẓāt), was made by Yār-Muḥammad b. Tāj-Muḥammad, who was himself one of the saint’s associates.

Intik̲h̲āb i Manāqib i Sulaimānīyah. Edition: Lahore 1325/1907°*.

§ 1395. Aḥmad ʿAlī K̲h̲airābādī was a disciple of S̲h̲āh Sulaimān Taunsawī (for whom see no. 1393 1st par. supra).

Qaṣr i ʿārifān, notices of C̲h̲is̲h̲tī, Qādirī, Suhrawardī and Naqs̲h̲bandī saints to the time of S̲h̲āh Sulaimān Taunsawī: Lahore Panjab Univ. Lib. (ah 1291/1874, copied from an autograph. See ocm. iii/1 p. 73).

§ 1396. Najm al-Dīn Nāgaurī is mentioned among the k̲h̲ulafāʾ of K̲h̲wājah M. Sulaimān Taunsawī (for whom see no. 1393 1st par. supra) on p. 84 of G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad K̲h̲ān’s Manāqib i Sulaimānī, where he is called Najm al-Dīn Jhunjhunuwī and described as a descendant of Sulṭān al-tārikīn Ḥamīd al-Dīn Nāgaurī (for whom see no. 9, 4th par. supra) resident at Jhunjhunū193

Manāqib al-maḥbūbain, lives of Nūr-Muḥammad Mahārawī,194 his k̲h̲alīfah, S̲h̲āh Sulaimān Taunsawī, and other C̲h̲is̲h̲tī saints, followed by a short life of the author. Editions: [Rāmpūr, 1890?°], Lahore 1312/1895°.

§ 1397. S̲h̲āh Ḍiyāʾ Allāh Fak̲h̲rī Qādirī Ḥanafī died in 1292/1875–6 and was buried at Lahore.

Maktūb i Ḍiyāʾī (a chronogram = 1289/1872–3), or, as on the title-page but not in the preface, Nasab-nāmah i kalān, pedigrees of the Prophet and of fourteen Ṣūfī “families” with short biographical notes, followed by an account of the seventy-two Islāmic sects derived from the G̲h̲unyat al-ṭālibīn of ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (cf. Brockelmann i p. 435). Editions: Lahore 1289/1872°, 1293/1876*, 1296/1879*, 1309/1891°.

§ 1398. Maulawī Abū Muḥammad Ḥasan “S̲h̲iʿrī” Qādirī b. Ṣadr al-Dīn M., or K̲h̲wājah Ḥasan Kaul [or Kōl ?] “S̲h̲iʿrī”, as he is called in the Taḥāʾif al-abrār, was a Kas̲h̲mīrī but spent most of his life as a trader in the Panjāb and Hindūstān. He died in 1298/1881 and was buried at Amritsar. He is the author of (1) a dīwān entitled Dīwān i S̲h̲iʿrī or Mīrʾāt al-k̲h̲ayāl (Edition: Amritsar 1304/1887°), (2) a cosmography entitled Zubdat al-ak̲h̲bār (Edition: Amritsar 1282/1865°) and (3) a metrical C̲h̲ār darwīs̲h̲.

Gulzār i K̲h̲alīl, a life of the Kas̲h̲mīrī saint K̲h̲wājah M. K̲h̲alīl b. ʿAbd al-G̲h̲afūr Qādirī (b. 1175/1761, d. 1242/1827) followed by an account of the author’s ancestors, completed in 1290/1873. Edition: Lahore 1291/1874*.

[Gulzār i K̲h̲alīl pp. 35–6; Taḥāʾif al-abrār p. 351.]

§ 1399. Maulawī S̲h̲āh Taqī ʿAlī Qalandar Kākōrawī was the younger son of S̲h̲āh Turāb ʿAlī Qalandar Kākōrawī (for whom see no. 1378 supra). He was born in 1213/1798–9 and after a life devoted to teaching at Kākōrī died on 17 Rajab 1290/10 September 1873.

al-Rauḍ al-azhar fī maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Qalandar, or Laṭāʾif al-ad̲h̲kār fī manāqib ʿumdat al-ak̲h̲yār, a detailed biography of the author’s father, S̲h̲āh Turāb ʿAlī, with some account of his spiritual ancestors, the Qalandarī order and other matters, divided into a muqaddimah (in three faṣls, of which the third is dar taʿrīf i ahl i sulūk az firaq i Ṣūfīyah i Malāmatīyah u ḥikāyāt u kalimāt u iṣṭilāhātas̲h̲ān) and ten laṭīfahs ((1) on the Prophet, his parents, ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib etc., (2) on the meaning of the word qalandar, etc., biography of ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Makkī, (3) biographies of ten s̲h̲aik̲h̲s from K̲h̲iḍr Rūmī to Bāsiṭ ʿAlī Ilāhābādī [the same ten as in the Uṣūl al-maqṣūd, no. 1378 (2) supra], (4) biographies of Masʿūd ʿAlī Ilāhābādī and the author’s grandfather M. Kāẓim (cf. no. 1378, 1st par., end), (5) on S̲h̲āh Turāb ʿAlī and his ʿAlawī pedigree, M. b. al-Ḥanafīyah, the meaning of the expression Āl i Nabī, etc., (6) dar d̲h̲ikr i mabādī i ḥāl i ān-ḥaḍrat, (7) dar bayān i maslak i ḥaḍrat i īs̲h̲ān dar uṣūl wa-g̲h̲air i ān, (8) dar d̲h̲ikr i maslak i ḥaḍrat i walī-niʿmat dar taʾabbud u tanassuk etc., (9) dar d̲h̲ikr i samāʿ i g̲h̲inā, and (10) [supplied after the author’s death by ʿAlī Anwar Qalandar] dar bayān i ʿis̲h̲q u maḥabbat). Edition: Rāmpūr and Lucknow 1331–6/1913–18[-19*] (with an introduction, Mawāhib al-qalandar li-man yuṭāliʿ al-Rauḍ al-azhar, on the life of Taqī ʿAlī etc., completed in 1333/1915 by S̲h̲āh Ḥabīb Ḥaidar Qalandar, and a continuation, Ḥauḍ al-Kaut̲h̲ar fī takmilat Rauḍ [sic] al-azhar, completed in 1291/1874 by ʿAlī Anwar Qalandar).

[Mawāhib al-qalandar p. 11 ult.-22; al-Rauḍ al-azhar pp. 707 ff.; Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 37.]

§ 1400. ʿAlī Anwar Qalandar b. ʿAlī Akbar b. Ḥaidar ʿAlī, who was born in 1269/1853, completed in 1291/1874 the Ḥauḍ al-Kaut̲h̲ar fī takmilat Rauḍ [sic] al-azhar, which has been mentioned above (no. 1399 2nd par., end).

Intiṣāḥ ʿan d̲h̲ikr ahl al-ṣalāḥ, biographies of famous Ṣūfīs with some account of the Ṣūfī orders: [Lahore] Majmaʿ al-ʿulūm Pr. [1877*] (pp. 120); Lucknow 1327/1910* (with a continuation (p. 164 onwards) entitled al-Īḍāḥ fī tatimmat al-Intiṣāḥ by M. Ḥabīb Ḥaidar. Pp. 214).
Taḥrīr al-Anwar fī tafsīr al-Qalandar, an account of the Qalandars: [Lucknow] ʿAlawī Pr. 1290/1873°* (pp. 32).

[Mawāhib al-qalandar (cf. no. 1399, last par. supra) pp. 20 ult., 22.]

§ 1401. Maulawī Walī Allāh b. Mullā Ḥabīb Allāh b. Mullā Muḥibb Allāh Anṣārī Lak’hnawī Farangī-Maḥallī, one of the well-known family of ʿulamāʾ who have taught for several generations at Farangī Maḥall,195 Lucknow, died on 10 Ṣafar 1270/12 November 1853. Among his works were ʿUmdat al-wasāʾil, on the manāqib of the saint S. ʿAbd al-Razzāq Bānsawī (cf. no. 1347 2nd par. supra), a commentary on the Qurʾān entitled Maʿdin al-jawāhir, as well as commentaries and ḥawās̲h̲ī on several standard text-books.

al-Ag̲h̲ṣān al-arbaʿah li-l-s̲h̲ajarat al-ṭaiyibah, a life of the saintly Mullā Aḥmad Anwār al-Ḥaqq Farangī-Maḥallī196 and other descendants of the celebrated teacher Quṭb al-Dīn Sihālawī,197 the ancestor of the ʿulamāʾ of Farangī Maḥall, Lucknow, in a muqaddimah (on the genealogy of Quṭb al-Dīn) and four aṣls devoted to the lives and descendants of Quṭb al-Dīn’s four sons,198 with additions by the author’s son, M. Inʿām Allāh, Deputy Collector, bringing the information down to 1296/1879.

Edition: Lucknow 1298/1881*.

[Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 252; Alṭāf al-Raḥmān Aḥwāl i ʿulamāʾ i Farangī Maḥall (in Urdu), Lucknow [1907*], p. 80.]

§ 1402. Ḥājjī Mullā M. Bāqir b. M. Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm b. M. Bāqir Māzandarānī Kujūrī (aṣlan) Ṭihrānī (maulidan wa-maskinan).

Jannat al-naʿīm wa-’l-ʿais̲h̲ al-salīm fī aḥwāl Maulānā ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm (so in the Arabic preface p. 3 ult., but J. al-n. fī a. ʿA. al-ʿA. ʿalaihi ’l-salām wa-’l-takrīm, in the Persian preface p. 102), an account, written in 1296/1879 (see p. 615), of the Imām-zādah ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥasanī (b. ʿAlī b. Ḥasan b. Zaid b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. Cf. J. al-n. p. 479 antepenult.; Rauḍāt al-jannāt p. 356; Muntahā ’l-maqāl p. 179; etc.), who is said to have died at Raiy about ah 250/864 and whose shrine is at the place called after him S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm, five or six miles south of Ṭihrān (cf. Browne A year amongst the Persians pp. 82, 158–61, etc.), together with notices of his ancestors and of some holy, learned or pious persons buried near Ṭihrān.

Edition: [Ṭihrān] 1296–8/1879–81* (pp. 548. Portrait of the author at end).

§ 1403. G̲h̲ulām-Naqī b. M. Fatḥ-ʿAlī Bilgrāmī C̲h̲is̲h̲tī Ṣābirī199 was born on 17 Ramaḍān 1231/11 August 1816.

Manbahāt [Munabbihāt ?] fī ʿilm al-amwāt, biographies of well-known Indian saints, chiefly C̲h̲is̲h̲tīs, and of a few poets, princes and noblemen, completed at the Jāmiʿ Masjid Madrasah, Ḥaidarābād, in 1298/1881: Ivanow Curzon 84 (autograph ?).

§ 1404. Amīn Aḥmad “T̲h̲abāt” Firdausī.

Gul i bihis̲h̲tī, a metrical account of some C̲h̲is̲h̲tī saints: [Lucknow] 1881° (242 pp.).
Gul i firdaus, a metrical biography of S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā Munyarī,200 with interwoven notices of other C̲h̲is̲h̲tī saints: Lucknow 1884° (266 pp.).
Rauḍat al-naʿīm, metrical biographies of ʿAbd al-Qādir Jīlānī and other saints: S̲h̲araf al-ak̲h̲bār Pr. [Lucknow ?] 1301/1883–4*.

§ 1405. M. Ḍiyāʾ al-Raḥmān S̲h̲āhqulīpūrī was a disciple of S. S̲h̲āh ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Qādir S̲h̲ams al-Qādirī called Murs̲h̲id ʿAlī Qādirī Bag̲h̲dādī (aṣlan) Mēdnīpūrī (maulidan), who was himself (see p. 13, 1. 7 from foot) a disciple of S. Ṭufail ʿAlī Qādirī Razzāqī D̲h̲ākirī (d. 1251/1836: see p. 1873), the nephew (birādar-zādah, p. 1528), son-in-law and successor of S. S̲h̲āh D̲h̲ākir ʿAlī.

Mud̲h̲ākarah i Quṭb al-ʿālamīn, or Madārij i sanīyah i D̲h̲ākirīyah, or Ad̲h̲kār i baiyinah i Qādirīyah (all chronograms = 1309/1891–2), a life of S. S̲h̲āh Abū ’l-Ḥasan M. D̲h̲ākir ʿAlī Qādirī Razzāqī Bag̲h̲dādī, called G̲h̲aut̲h̲ i T̲h̲ānī, a son of S. S̲h̲āh Abū M. ʿAbd Allāh al-Qādirī al-Bag̲h̲dādī and a descendant of ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī, who was born at Bag̲h̲dād in 1111/1699–1700 (see p. 193), migrated to India in 1180/1766–7, settled at Mangalkōṭ, north of Bardwān in Bengal, and died there in 1192/1778, based on the Risālah i D̲h̲ākirīyah (a chronogram = 1232/1817) of an unnamed disciple of the s̲h̲aik̲h̲: Cawnpore (Aḥmadī Press) 1310/1893‡.

§ 1406. Qāḍī S. Imām al-Dīn Ḥasan K̲h̲ān, Deputy Collector at Ajmēr, may be presumed to have written his Muʿīn al-auliyāʾ shortly before publication.

Muʿīn al-auliyāʾ, a life of Muʿīn al-Dīn Chis̲h̲tī Ajmērī,201 his successors and his spiritual descendants: Ajmēr [1894°. Pp. 308].202

§ 1407. Ṣāḥib-zādah M. Ḥasan b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Mujaddidī Naqs̲h̲bandī, a descendant of Aḥmad Sirhindī (for whom see no. 1316 (1) 1st footnote supra), was resident at Amritsar in 1910.

Anīs al-murīdīn, a life of the author’s father, Pīr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd al-Qaiyūm (b. 1244/1828–9, d. 1315/1897), written in 1316/1898–9. Edition: Amritsar 1328/1910*.

§ 1408. Maʿṣūm ʿAlī b. Raḥmat-ʿAlī Niʿmat-Allāhī al-S̲h̲īrāzī (see Ṭarāʾiq al-ḥaqāʾiq, author’s preface, 1. 2), or Āqā-yi Ḥājjī Mīrzā Maʿṣūm203 Nāʾib al-Ṣadr, as “Furūg̲h̲ī” calls him in his prefixed taqrīẓ (so also on the title-page of Vol i), or al-Ḥājj Maʿṣūm ʿAlī S̲h̲āh al-Niʿmat-Allāhī al-S̲h̲īrāzī, as he is called on the other title-pages, was the son of Ḥājjī Zain al-ʿĀbidīn known as (maʿrūf bi-) Ḥājjī Mīrzā Kūc̲h̲ak Nāʾib al-Ṣadr and surnamed (mulaqqab bi-) Raḥmat-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh (see “Furūg̲h̲ī’s” taqrīẓ p. 58). He was born at S̲h̲īrāz on 14 Rabīʿ al-Awwal 1270/15 Dec. 1853. In the course of extensive travels he visited various parts of Persia, ʿIrāq, India, Turkistān and Turkey, meeting numerous men of learning and piety. His visit to Mecca and al-Madīnah he described in a safar-nāmah entitled Tuḥfat al-Ḥaramain.

Ṭarāʾiq al-ḥaqāʾiq, biographical notices of saints and mystics completed at Ṭihrān in Ṣafar 1318/1900 and divided into a muqaddimah (on Ṣūfism, etc.), six waṣls (1) companions of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, vol. ii pp. 2–27, (2) the silsilah of Ḥasan i Baṣrī, vol. ii pp. 27–39, (3) the silsilah of Kumail b. Ziyād, vol. ii pp. 39–51, (4) the silsilah of Ibrāhīm b. Adham, vol. ii pp. 51–68, (5) the silsilah of Bāyazīd i Bisṭāmī, vol. ii pp. 68–114, (6) the silsilah of Maʿrūf i Kark̲h̲ī and its fourteen branches including the Niʿmat-Allāhī s̲h̲aik̲h̲s, whose biographies are the primary concern of the work, vol. ii pp. 114–311, vol. iii pp. 2–220) and a k̲h̲ātimah (an account of the author and some of his contemporaries, vol. iii pp. 220–354).

Edition: Ṭihrān 1316–19/1898–1901‡ (cf. Mas̲h̲had iii p. 137).

[Autobiography in k̲h̲ātimah to Ṭarāʾiq al-ḥaqāʾiq: taqrīẓ by M. Ḥusain “Furūg̲h̲ī” Iṣfahānī prefixed to vol. i: portrait following the taqrīẓ.]

§ 1409. Ḥājjī Abū Muḥammad Muḥyī ’l-Dīn “Miskīn” b. Mullā M. S̲h̲āh Aḥmadī Kubrawī Ḥanafī Naqs̲h̲bandī was born in 1282/1865–6. He was a pupil of Ḥajjī M. Yaḥyā, whom he accompanied in 1307/1889–90 on a pilgrimage to Mecca. In 1309/1891–2 he wrote a work entitled ʿAin al-jārī s̲h̲arḥ Arbaʿīn al-Qārī. When he wrote the preface to his Taḥāʾif al-abrār he was resident in the district of Amīrākadal.

Taḥāʾif al-abrār [so in the author’s preface, but on the title-page Tārīk̲h̲ i kabīr i Kas̲h̲mīr al-mausūm bah T. al. a. fī d̲h̲ikr al-auliyāʾ al-ak̲h̲yār], a mainly biographical work on Kas̲h̲mīr begun in 1310/1892–3, completed in 1321/1903–4 and divided into ten taḥāʾif ((1) Saiyids, (2) rīs̲h̲īs, i.e. anchorites [cf. no. 1312 supra], (3) mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ u ṣāliḥān, (4) scholars, (5) majd̲h̲ūbān, (6) poets, (7) sacred relics, (8) sulṭāns, (9) geography, (10) on the permissibility of certain foods and drugs).

Edition: Amritsar 1321–2/1905°* (only the first seven taḥāʾif, being the first of the two volumes).

[Taḥāʾif al-abrār pp. 363–4.]

§ 1410. Maulawī S. M. Amīr Ḥasan Madārī Fanṣūrī204 b. Saiyid S̲h̲āh Āk̲h̲ūn is described on the title-page of the Tad̲h̲kirat al-muttaqīn as a (still-living) raʾīs of Makanpūr205

Tad̲h̲kirat al-muttaqīn (the title-page adds fī aḥwāl k̲h̲ulafāʾ Saiyid Badīʿ al-Dīn), biographies of S̲h̲āh Madār (for whom see no. 1329 (6) 2nd footnote supra), his k̲h̲ulafāʾ and prominent members of his order down to the author’s time. Edition: Cawnpore 1315/1898* (vol. i) and 1322–3/1905* (vol. ii).

§ 1411. Appendix

Ad̲h̲kār al-ad̲h̲kiyāʾ fī bayān manāqib mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ al-ṭuruq (beg.: Aʿlāʾ i ajnās i ḥamd u sipās): Cairo p. 498 (ah 1126/1714).
(Aḥwāl Ibn al-K̲h̲afīf), an Arabic biography of Abū ʿAbd Allāh M. b. al-K̲h̲afīf al-S̲h̲īrāzī,206 by his pupil Abū ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. M. al-Dailamī (cf. Brockelmann Sptbd. i p. 359 and R. Walzer in jras 1939 pp. 407–22): no mss. recorded.

Persian translation in thirteen bābs prepared by Rukn al-Dīn Yaḥyā b. Burhān al-Dīn b. Junaid at the request of an unnamed Atābak described as Atābak i sāʿīd i marḥūm i s̲h̲ahīd: Berlin 605 (breaks off in Bāb x. 62 foll. Old), Köprülü 1589 foll. 379a–406b.

Extracts: Massignon Recueil de textes inédits p. 81.

Aḥwāl u aqwāl i ḥaḍrat i Saiyidnā ʿAbd al-Qādir i Jīlānī: Āṣafīyah i p. 396 no. 876 (ah 1232/1816–17).
Anecdotes of saints in the first three Islāmic centuries (beginning: al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā. T̲h̲anā u sitāyis̲h̲ mar K̲h̲uday rā kih āfrīdgār i jahānast u āfrīdgār i hamah i jānwarān ast) divided according to subject into twenty bābs (I. Andar k̲h̲wurdan i ḥalāl, etc.) and written apparently in the fifth/eleventh century: Rieu Suppt. 393 (defective at end. 13th cent.).
(Ansāb i mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ i Kas̲h̲mīr), genealogical tables and chains of spiritual succession relating to prophets and other holy persons, especially Kas̲h̲mīrī saints, with occasional dates (of which 1101/1690 and 1128/1716 seem to be the latest): Ivanow Curzon 79 (3).
Anwār al-Raḥmān li-tanwīr al-janān, the life and teachings of S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, by M. Nūr Allāh. Edition: Lucknow 1321/1903°*.
Aʿrās i buzurgān (beginning, without preface, S̲h̲ahr i Rabīʿ al-Awwal 1.Wafāt yāft Saiyid al-Mursalīn) the Persian version of an Arabic obituary calendar relating to holy persons from the first Islāmic century onwards, especially to members of the Bā-ʿAlawī family (about whom particulars are given mainly on the authority of ʿIqd al-jawāhir wa-’l-durar (Brockelmann ii p. 383, Sptbd. ii p. 516), al-Nūr al-sāfir (Brockelmann ii p. 419, Sptbd. ii p. 617) and similar works), composed evidently in India207 and doubtless soon after 1160/1747 (the date of the latest death recorded, that of S. M. b. Ḥāmid b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī Bā-ʿAlawī, of Malabar, p. 34, 27th Rajab) apparently by a son of S. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ b. ʿAlawī b. ʿAbd Allāh Bā-ʿAbbūd Bā-ʿAlawī (who on p. 28 is called al-Saiyid al-jalīl al-ʿallāmah al-wālid208), probably S. ʿAlawī b. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Bā-ʿAbbūd Bā-ʿAlawī, who is mentioned on p. 74 ult. as the author of the preceding biography and whose name occurs also on pp. 79 and 347 (as the subject of statements in the third person, however).

Edition: The Á’aras-i-bozorgán, being an obituary of pious and learned Moslims from the beginning of Islám to the middle of the twelfth century of the Hijrah. Edited [from a MS., containing also, it seems, the Arabic original, in the Library of the College of Fort William]209 by W. Nassau Lees, and Mawlawi Kabir al-Dín Ahmad. Published by W. N. Lees. [Calcutta] 1855°* (pp. 91).

Asrār al-mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲, by Bahāʾ al-Dīn b. Maḥmūd b. Mak̲h̲dūm Qāḍī Ḥamīd al-Dīn Nāgaurī210 al-maʿrūf bah Rājah: Āṣafīyah iii p. 362 no. 192 (ah 1077/1666–7).
Badāʾiʿ al-āt̲h̲ār, an account of the visit of ʿAbd al-Bahāʾ to the United States in 1912, by Maḥmūd Zarqānī: Bombay 1332/1914°* (Vol i only ?).
Bhagat-māl: see Bhakta-māla.
Bhagat-nāmah: see Bhakta-māla.
Bhakta-māla, translations of Nābhājī’s Hindī biographies of Vaishnava saints, (1) Srī Bhagat-māl, with introduction, marginal notes, and glossary, Meerut 1269/1853* (pp. 12, 6, 468,50), (2) Gangā-sāgar ʿurf Bhagat-nāmah, a metrical translation by Nat’han Lāl from Tulasī-Rāma’s Urdu version, Delhi 1897° (18 pts.).
Dār al-asrār fī k̲h̲awāriq Badīʿ al-Dīn S̲h̲āh Madār:211 Peshawar 1957 (9).
D̲h̲ikr i K̲h̲wājah ʿAbd al-K̲h̲āliq i G̲h̲ujduwānī:212 Leyden v p. 232 no. 2641 (22 foll. ah 900/1494–5).

The same saint, who died in 575/1179–80, is the subject of Rieu ii 862a i (beginning Az ān s̲h̲aik̲h̲ i rabbānī. 18th cent.) and Ethé 1923 (1) (D̲h̲ikr i K̲h̲wājah i K̲h̲wājahā K̲h̲wājah i jahān ʿAbd al-K̲h̲āliq i G̲h̲ujduwānī, beginning Ān s̲h̲aik̲h̲ i ʿalā ’l-iṭlāq).

D̲h̲ikr i maqāmāt i Imām i Aʿẓam (i.e. presumably Abū Ḥanīfah): Āṣafīyah ii p. 1556 no. 44.
Ḍiyāʾ al-qulūb, “a treatise on Ṣūfī orders,” by Imdād Allāh Fārūqī: Delhi [1877 ?°*]; place ? 1914 (Āṣafīyah iii p. 200); and in the Kullīyāt i Imdādīyah, Cawnpore 1315/1898°, pp. 127–81.
Durr al-dārain fī manāqib G̲h̲aut̲h̲ al-T̲h̲aqalain,213 by S. G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī Qādirī Mūsawī: Āṣafīyah iii p. 662 (author’s name given as ʿAlī al-Mūsawī).

Edition: place ? 1308/1890–1 (Āṣaf. ii p. 1556 nos. 16–17).

Gangā-sāgar: see Bhakta-māla.
Genealogies of S̲h̲īʿite and Ṣūfī families: Lindesiana p. 142 no. 789 (circ. ad 1750).
Ḥālāt i ḥaḍrat i S̲h̲āh Balāwal i Lāhaurī214 (in Persian ?): no mss. recorded. Urdu translation: Urdū tar-jamah i kitāb i Ḥ. i ḥ. S̲h̲. B. L., Lahore [1923*].
Ḥālāt i Saiyid Muḥammad i Jaunpūrī, a life of S. M. b. S. Bud’h Uwaisī Jaunpūrī, who claimed to be the Mahdī, founded a sect in Gujrāt215 and died in 910/1504–5:216 Āṣafīyah ii p. 848 no. 34 (ah 1267/1850–1).
Mat̲h̲nawī i Ḥālāt i s̲h̲ahādat i Muḥammad G̲h̲aut̲h̲ Qādirī: Āṣafīyah i p. 468 no. 679 (ah 1240/1824–5).
Ḥālāt u karāmāt i ḥaḍrat i S̲h̲āh Ṣafī u S̲h̲āh Miyān u S̲h̲āh Ilhām-Allāh u S̲h̲āh Qudrat-Allāh, by S̲h̲āh Faiḍ Allāh: Āṣafīyah iii p. 196 no. 1454.
Risālah i ḥasab u nasab i ḥaḍrat i Ḥāfiẓ M. ʿAlī-S̲h̲āh K̲h̲airābādī,217 an autobiography: Āṣafīyah iii p. 362 no. 208 (ah 1310/1892–3).
Risālah i ḥasab u nasab i Mak̲h̲dūm Abū ’l-Fatḥ b. S. Niẓām al-Dīn S̲h̲anūzānī (?) al-MLKI al-K̲h̲urāsānī, apparently an autobiography: Āṣafīyah iii p. 362 no. 208 (ah 1310/1892–3).
Ḥikāyāt al-ṣāliḥīn, anecdotes in twenty bābs each containing ten ḥikāyāt, by ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿUmar called Kahf: Ḥ. K̲h̲. iii p. 81 (beginning not quoted).

Arabic translation: Lahore 1298/1881° (pp. 108).

Ḥikāyāt i auliyā i ṣāliḥīn: Āṣafīyah i p. 416 no. 639.
Intik̲h̲āb i tawārīk̲h̲ al-Ag̲h̲yār, notices of S. M. Jaunpūrī (see no. (21) above) and his followers (called G̲h̲air-mahdī by their enemies: see Ency. Religion and Ethics vi p. 189). Edition: place ? date ? (Peshawar no. 1549).
ʿIqd al-laʾāliʾ, on the life and merits of S̲h̲āh Abū ’l-Maʿālī,218 by Maulawī Mus̲h̲tāq Aḥmad Ṣābirī:219 Sād’haurah 1331/1913*.
Kanz al-ansāb, the genealogy of eminent saints and other famous men, by ʿAbd al-Razzāq ʿAṭā Ḥusain: Bombay 1883° (pp. 344).
Karāmāt al-auliyāʾ: Āṣafīyah i p. 460 nos. 706 (ah 1236/1820–1), 894.
Karāmāt i Qādir Walī, in verse, by M. Najīb b. Aḥmad ʿAlī. Edition: place ? 1267/1851 (Āṣafīyah ii p. 850).
K̲h̲ulāṣat al-ʿārifīn: Āṣafīyah i p. 416 (2 copies).
Lamʿat al-s̲h̲ams, a metrical account of S̲h̲ams al-Dīn [Tabrīzī ?] and of Niʿmat Allāh Walī (presumably N. A. W. Kirmānī. Cf. no. 1269 (1), footnote supra), by ?: Āṣafīyah ii p. 850 no. 50.
Maḥāmid i Ḥammādīyah, a life of S. S̲h̲āh G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad Qādirī al-muk̲h̲āṭab min ʿind Rasūl Allāh bah Ḥammād i T̲h̲ānī, by Maulawī S. M. Burhān al-Dīn K̲h̲ān. Edition: place ? 1308/1890–1 (Āṣafīyah iii p. 202 no. 1494).
Majmūʿah i fawāʾid i ʿUt̲h̲mānī, life, letters, and sayings of M. ʿUt̲h̲mān Damānī, by M. Akbar ʿAlī S̲h̲āh Dihlawī: Delhi 1316/1899°.
Mak̲h̲zan i ʿirfānī, “the life, sayings and writings of the Peshawari saint S. Amīr called Ḥaḍrat-jī,” by Sulṭān M. Ajnālawī: Amritsar [1920*].
Malfūẓ i asrār al-mak̲h̲dūmīn, sayings of S̲h̲āh Karak Karawī and anecdotes concerning him, compiled by Karīm-Yār, Raʾīs of Yuhan: Fatḥpūr 1893°.
Malfūẓ i Razzāqī, the life and sayings of ʿAbd al-Razzāq Bānsawī (cf. no. 1347 2nd par. supra), by M. K̲h̲ān Razzāqī, edited by S. G̲h̲ulām-Jīlānī: Lucknow 1896°, [1905*].
Malfūẓāt i Ḥājjī Wārit̲h̲ ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, life and sayings of W. ʿA. S̲h̲., by K̲h̲udā-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ “S̲h̲āʾiq”:220 Anwār i Muḥammadī Press [Lucknow] 1293/1876*.
Malfūẓāt i S̲h̲āh Mīnā: see Tuḥfat al-Saʿdīyah below.
Malfūẓāt i S̲h̲arīfī, life and sayings of S̲h̲arīf al-Dīn M. C̲h̲is̲h̲tī: Ambala 1917* (with preface by Mus̲h̲tāq Aḥmad C̲h̲is̲h̲tī).
Manāqib al-aṣfiyāʾ, lives of famous saints, by S̲h̲āh S̲h̲uʿaib Firdausī: Calcutta 1895° (152 pp.).
Manāqib i Amīr Kulāl:221 Peshawar 1003.
(Manāqib i auliyā i kirām), short lives of saints (Luqmān i Ḥakīm, Jaʿfar i Ṣādiq, Uwais i Qaranī, etc.): Berlin 589 (69 foll.).
Manāqib i G̲h̲aut̲h̲īyah,222 Peshawar 1094 (1).
Manāqib i ḥaḍrat i S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Jīw K̲h̲unuk [?], by ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm: Āṣafīyah i p. 490 (ah 1177/1763–4).
Manāqib i Ḥāfiẓīyah, a life of M. ʿAlī K̲h̲airābādī,223 by G̲h̲ulām M. Hādī ʿAlī K̲h̲ān C̲h̲is̲h̲tī Kas̲h̲mīrī: Cawnpore 1305/1888° (256 pp.).
Manāqib i mazārāt i Buk̲h̲ārā-yi s̲h̲arīf: Leningrad Univ. 390 (Salemann-Rosen p. 17), possibly also Peshawar 999A (Risālah i mazārāt i Buk̲h̲ārā s̲h̲arīf).
Manāqib i Qādirīyah: Peshawar 995.
Maqāmāt i Amīr Kulāl:224 Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 54, Lahore Panjāb Univ. Lib. (defective at end and disarranged. See Oriental College Magazine, vol. iii, no. 1 (Lahore, Nov. 1936) p. 70).
Maʿqūlāt [sic] i auliyāʾ Allāh, sayings and biographies of saints (beginning Wa-ʿan Abī ’l-Dardāʾ): Ethé 1895 (1).
Mazārāt i Buk̲h̲ārā: see Manāqib i mazārāt i Buk̲h̲ārā (no. 49 above).
Mis̲h̲kāt al-nubuwwah, an account of the saints of Ḥaidarābād, etc., by S. ʿAlī: Āṣafīyah iii p. 166 no. 194.
Muk̲h̲bir al-auliyāʾ, an account of C̲h̲is̲h̲tī and other saints, most of them buried at Aḥmadābād, by Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Maudūd Lālā [?] b. S̲h̲. Aḥmad C̲h̲is̲h̲tī al-Fārūqī b. S̲h̲. Ḥusām al-Dīn M. Farruk̲h̲ al-Ṣūfī al-C̲h̲is̲h̲tī, who was a native of Aḥmadābād and whose spiritual guide was S. M. Aḥsan al-Sijzī, the head of the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī order: Bombay Fyzee 14 (19th cent.).
Munājāt i K̲h̲ākī, a metrical Naqs̲h̲bandī pedigree, by Ḥakīm Qamar al-Dīn Siyālkōtī: Lahore [1911*].
Nāfiʿ al-sālikīn, a life of M. Sikandar “Wāṣil” K̲h̲āliṣ-pūrī, by S̲h̲. Dāwud Pūtrīk: Bombay 1310/1893° (appended to M. Sikandar’s Tuḥfat al-ʿulamāʾ, for which see Ellis).
Nasab-nāmah i ḥaḍrat i S. S̲h̲āh Ismā‘īl i Buk̲h̲ārī: Āṣafīyah i p. 494 no. 123.
Nasab-nāmah i nāmī i s̲h̲aik̲h̲-zādagān, “genealogies of certain noted saints”: Lucknow 1876*.
Nasab-nāmah i S̲h̲āh Wajīh al-Dīn,225 by S. Yaḥyā b. S. Ḥusain: Bombay Fyzee 15 (incomplete).
Nasāʾim i G̲h̲aut̲h̲īyah, a life of ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (cf. no. 1251 2nd par. footnote supra) in eleven nasīms: Ivanow 271 (18th cent.), Ethé 1801 (n.d.). Abridgment: Nasāʾim al-Qādirīyah, likewise in eleven nasīms:: Ethé 1802 (ah 1154/1741), probably also Āṣafīyah ii p. 882 no. 79.
Nasāʾim al-Qādirīyah: see under Nasāʾim i G̲h̲aut̲h̲īyah above.
Nawādir al-safar, notices of 22 C̲h̲is̲h̲tī saints with descriptions of their shrines, by Farīd al-Dīn: Ivanow 272 (defective at end ?. 18th cent.).
Qiṣṣah (Ḥālāt) i Sālār Masʿūd i G̲h̲āzī,226 “a fiction of the wildest character” (Rieu), being one form of the legend of Sālār Masʿūd (cf. no. 1329 (7) supra): Ivanow 322 (early 19th cent.), Rieu iii 1015a (ad 1850).
Rauḍat al-abrār, lives of Kas̲h̲mīrī saints, by Abū ’l-Ḥasan M., known as Muḥammad al-Dīn Qādirī Lāhaurī: Jēlam [i.e. Jihlam, Jehlam, or “Jhelum”] 1302/1885° (80 pp.).
Rauḍat al-auliyāʾ, tad̲h̲kirah i auliyāʾ i Bījāpūr, by M. Ibrāhīm: Āṣafīyah iii p. 164 no. 169 (ah 1310/1892–3).
Rauḍat al-auliyāʾ fī aḥwāl al-aṣfiyāʾ, a life of Muḥammad and brief notices of Naqs̲h̲bandī saints, by M. Ḥusain b. M. Riḍā. Edition: Amritsar 1333/1915*.
Risālah i amīrīyah, a life of Bahāʾ Allāh, by M. Muṣṭafā al-Bag̲h̲dādī: see no. (73) below.
Risālah i Bahāʾīyah fī maqāmāt i ḥaḍrat i K̲h̲wājah Bahāʾ al-Dīn, by Abū ’l-Qāsim b. M. b. Masʿūd: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 12 no. 11 (ah 1062/1652).
Risālah i buzurgān i Samarqand: Buk̲h̲ārā Semenov 71.
Risālah dar ḥālāt i S̲h̲āh Pīr Muḥammad, by Maulawī ʿAẓamat Allāh: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 62 no. 41.
Risālah i Quṭbīyah i ʿis̲h̲qīyah, a panegyric in honour of the anonymous author’s spiritual guide, Mihr ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, followed by a metrical silsilah of C̲h̲is̲h̲tī saints; Lahore [1916*].
al-Risālat al-tisʿ-ʿas̲h̲arīyah, a life of Bahāʾ Allāh, by Aḥmad Suhrāb, preceded by biographies of S̲h̲. Aḥmad al-Aḥsāʾī and S. Kāẓim al-Ras̲h̲tī and followed (p. 103) by the Risālah i amīrīyah of M. Muṣṭafā al-Bag̲h̲dādī on the life of Bahāʾ Allāh: Cairo 1338/1919* (128 pp.).
Riyāḍ al-nūr maʿrūf bah Gulzār i surūr, chronograms on the births and deaths of Muslim celebrities, especially Ṣūfīs, by M. Imām al-Dīn: Lahore 1333/1915*.
Sālik i ṭarīqat, a list of famous s̲h̲aik̲h̲s of various orders: Lucknow 1300/1883° (the first work in a Majmūʿah i rasāʾil (50 pp.) containing also (2) Rauḍat al-ʿibrat, (3) Ḥadīqat al-masāʾil, and (4) Ṣirāṭ al-jannah).
Sawāniḥ i muk̲h̲taṣar i S̲h̲āh Wājid ʿAlī Qalandar, by Maulawī M. Ikrām ʿAlī Qalandar: Calcutta 1919* (with an Urdu translation entitled Lawāʾiḥ i naẓar).
Sawāniḥ i S̲h̲āh Niʿmat Allāh Walī (beg. Bar ḍamīr i k̲h̲wurs̲h̲īd-iqtibās), by Ṣunʿ Allāh Niʿmat-Allāhī, abridged, according to Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad, from the Jāmiʿ i Mufīdī (see no. 461 supra) and therefore later than 1090/1679: Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 87 (W. Ivanow’s collection, ah 1281/1864), perhaps also Āṣafīyah i p. 442 no. 815 (“Silsilat al-ʿārifīn,” author not named. Defective). Edition (?): Sawāniḥ al-aiyām fī mus̲h̲āhadāt al-aʿwām mausūm ba-Silsilat al-ʿārifīn: Bombay 1307/1890°.
Sayings and miracles of K̲h̲wājah ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār:227 Rieu ii 862b (18th cent.).
S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Aḥmad Bībī-K̲h̲ānī, a metrical biography by G̲h̲ulām-Muḥyī ’l-Dīn “Sanjī”: Lahore 1924* (18 pp.).
S̲h̲ajarah i ʿāliyah i Naqs̲h̲bandīyah, a metrical Naqs̲h̲bandī pedigree, by Ḥabīb Allāh Naqs̲h̲bandī: Ludhiana 1888°.
S̲h̲ajarah i ʿāliyah i ṭarīqah i Qādirīyah i Mujaddidīyah, a metrical pedigree down to M. S̲h̲ēr, the author’s pīr, by M. Yūsuf ʿAlī Qādirī: Agrah 1322/1904*.
S̲h̲ajarah i ansāb i pīrān i ṭarīqah i Naqs̲h̲bandī i Mujaddidī k̲h̲ānadān i Maulānā [Raḥīm-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ called] M. Masʿūd S̲h̲āh, in prose and verse: Ḥasanī Press [Delhi 1869*].
S̲h̲ajarah i C̲h̲is̲h̲tī u Qādirī u Qalandarī u Ṣābirī, prose and verse pedigrees of the author, G̲h̲ulām-Bhīk,228 in several orders, with a panegyric on Maulawī Qādir-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ Sahāranpūrī: Murādābād [1912*].
S̲h̲ajarah i k̲h̲ānadān i Naqs̲h̲bandīyah, followed by S̲h̲ajarah i k̲h̲ānadān i Qādirīyah, metrical pedigrees by Abū ’l-Ḥasan Ṣiddīqī Nānautawī: Agrah 1873*.
S̲h̲ajarah i k̲h̲ānadān i Qādirīyah: see no. (84) above.
S̲h̲ajarah i mubārakah i C̲h̲is̲h̲tīyah i Ṣābirīyah i Quddūsīyah i Muḥibbīyah i Muḥammadīyah, followed (p. 20) by S̲h̲ajarah i s̲h̲arīfah i manẓūmah i Qādirīyah, a metrical pedigree by S̲h̲āh Ḥabīb Allāh T̲h̲ānī Muḥibb-Allāhī: Allahabad [1926*].
S̲h̲ajarah i mutabarrakah i manẓūmah: see no. (90) below.
S̲h̲ajarah i Naqs̲h̲bandīyah, a metrical pedigree of S. Imām ʿAlī: Fārūqī Press [Delhi 1874*].
S̲h̲ajarah i Qādirī, prose and verse pedigrees of S̲h̲āh Mardān, by G̲h̲ulām-Nabī: Lahore 1330/1912*.
S̲h̲ajarah i Qādirīyah, “a genealogy of the Qādirī order,” followed (p. 5) by S̲h̲ajarah i mutabarrakah i manẓūmah, “a metrical genealogy of certain saints of the same order, and (p. 10) by a similar work in Panjabi verse by Raḥīm-bak̲h̲s̲h̲”: Lahore [1879*].
S̲h̲ajarah i s̲h̲arīfah i manẓūmah i Qādirīyah, by S̲h̲āh Ḥabīb Allāh T̲h̲ānī Muḥibb-Allāhī: see no. (86) above.
S̲h̲ajarah i ṭaiyibah (on title-page: … S̲h̲ajarah i ʿāliyah i Naqs̲h̲bandīyah), “a genealogy of certain branches of the Naqs̲h̲bandī order,” by Ḥusain Allāh G̲h̲aznawī. Followed (p. 5) by Munājāt, prayers of S̲h̲āh ʿAbd Allāh Abū ’l-K̲h̲air (p. 6), an account of his death (p. 7), Naʿt i nūrānī, metrical devotions by S̲h̲āh Ḥusainī: Ludhiana [1923*].
S̲h̲ajarah i ṭaiyibah i k̲h̲ānadān i C̲h̲is̲h̲tīyah, “genealogies of various branches of the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī order: Niẓāmīyah, Ṣafawīyah, K̲h̲ādimīyah. and K̲h̲alīlīyah”: Lucknow 1920*.
S̲h̲ajarah i ṭaiyibah i Qādirīyah, pedigree of S̲h̲āh ʿAlī M. Lāhaurī: Lahore [1904*].
S̲h̲ajarah i ṭaiyibah i silsilah i ʿāliyah i Naqs̲h̲- bandīyah: Lahore [1889°].
S̲h̲ajarah i ṭaiyibah i silsilah i ʿalīyah i Suhrawardīyah i ḥaḍarāt i Rafīqīyah, “succession list of the Shaikhs of the Rafīkī order of Ṣūfīs, in verse, with a genealogical table of the posterity of Abū M. Shihāb ul-Dīn Kilīj down to the author,” ʿAbd al-Salām Rafīqī Nūrpūrī: Lahore [1899°].
S̲h̲ajarahā-yi salāsil i Qādirīyah u C̲h̲is̲h̲tīyah wa-g̲h̲airah, metrical pedigrees, by M. Asad Allāh K̲h̲ān and M. Ḥāfiẓ Allāh: Jhajjar [1897°].
S̲h̲ajarat al-ʿārifīn, a brief metrical account of the family of S̲h̲āh M. Rafīʿ al-Zamān Ilāhābādī, by M. ʿAlī “Ulfat”: Allahabad 1297/1880° (followed by selections from the dīwān of S̲h̲āh M. Ḥasan “As̲h̲raf” Ilāhābādī229).
S̲h̲ams al-ansāb, on the genealogy of ʿAbd al-Qādir Jīlānī, by M. Maʿṣūm S̲h̲arīf Iṣfahānī: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1778 no. 110.
S̲h̲arḥ i ḥāl i auliyā: Lindesiana p. 116 no. 790 (circ. ad 1650).
Silsilah i ʿāliyah, “an account of the Shaikhs of Kanbuh,” by ʿInāyat Ḥusain b. Fatḥ Allāh, with supplements by Faiḍ Aḥmad b. Dildār Aḥmad: Meerut 1306/1889° (196 pp.).
Silsilah i ʿalīyah, a genealogy of K̲h̲wājah ʿUbaid Allāh Aḥrār (see no. 1277 3rd par. footnote n. 3 supra) and his family, by ʿAbd al-Ḥaiy b. Abū ’l-Fatḥ al-Ḥusainī, a descendant of K̲h̲wājah Aḥrār: Tashkent Univ. 74 (5).
Silsilah i ʿāliyah i C̲h̲is̲h̲tīyah i Fak̲h̲rīyah i Niẓāmīyah i Sulaimānīyah, the spiritual pedigree of the author, M. Sulaimān: Lahore 1870*.
Silsilah i ʿalīyah i C̲h̲is̲h̲tīyah i Niẓāmīyah i Fak̲h̲rīyah i Sulaimānīyah i Laṭīfīyah, the spiritual pedigree of the author, S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-Laṭīf, successor of M. Sulaimān: Tippera 1917*.
Silsilah i Qādirīyah, the spiritual pedigree of the author, ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq S̲h̲āh: Fīrōzpūr [1918]*.
Silsilah i ṭarīqah i Naqs̲h̲bandīyah, by Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲ālid al-Mujaddidī al-Bag̲h̲dādi: Cairo p. 415 (ah 1276/1860).
Silsilat al-laʾāliʾ, spiritual genealogies of the Naqs̲h̲bandī, Qādirī, C̲h̲is̲h̲tī and Suhrawardī orders, by Muʿīn al-Din “T̲h̲abāt”: Lucknow [1883°].
Sketch of the life of ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (cf. no. 1251, 2nd par., footnote supra) written by Muḥsin at the request of S̲h̲. M. b. S̲h̲. M. As̲h̲raf Lāhaurī: Tashkent Univ. 18 (3).
Spiritual pedigrees of Ṣūfic s̲h̲aik̲h̲s of Kas̲h̲mīr: Ivanow Curzon 79.
Sulṭānī, a metrical biography of Sulṭān al-ʿārifīn Ḥamzah Mak̲h̲dūmī230 and his descendants, by Mullā Bahāʾ al-Dīn mtw Kas̲h̲mīrī: Lahore [1933*].
Ṭabaqāt i mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ i Naqs̲h̲bandīyah i Buk̲h̲ārā: Leningrad Univ. no. 854 (Salemann-Rosen p. 17).
Tad̲h̲akkur al-mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲, biographies of a few s̲h̲aik̲h̲s, beginning with the affiliation of Nūr al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. M. al-Isfarāyinī (d. 639), by an anonymous Kubrawī darwīs̲h̲: Blochet i 159 (10) (ah 877/1472).
Tad̲h̲kirah i ḥaḍrat i k̲h̲wājah Muʿīn al-Dīn C̲h̲is̲h̲tī:231 Āṣafīyah ii p. 848.
Tad̲h̲kirah i K̲h̲wājagān i Naqs̲h̲bandīyah: Peshawar 1015.
Tad̲h̲kirah i Ṣūfīyah, by Ras̲h̲kī b. Dīwān Mannū Lāl Falsafī: Āṣafīyah i p. 318 no. 100 (defective at end).
Tad̲h̲kirat al-auliyāʾ, lives of Aḥmad Zain al-Dīn Aḥsāʾī,232 Kāẓim b. Qāsim Ras̲h̲tī,233 and M. Karīm K̲h̲ān Kirmānī,234 by Niʿmat Allāh Riḍawī: Bombay 1313/1896° (pp. 143).
(fī Tārīk̲h̲ i ajdād u farzandān u aṣḥāb i ḥaḍrat i Maulānā Jalāl al-Millah wa-’l-Dīn Muḥammad i Rūmī): Leyden v p. 232 no. 2640 (22 foll. a.h. 900/1494–5).
Tarjamat Ibn al-K̲h̲afīf: see Aḥwāl Ibn al-K̲h̲afīf.
T̲h̲amarāt al-quds, biographies of saints and pious women, mostly of the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī order, by Laʿl Bēg: Rāmpūr (defective. See Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 84).
Tuḥfaḥ i Akmalīyah, on the life and sayings of Akmal al-Dīn Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ī and his successors, by Abū M. Ḥasan b. Ḥāfiẓ Walī Allāh Kubrawī Kas̲h̲mīrī: Lahore 1350/1932* (appended to the same author’s mystical mīmīyah entitled Muk̲h̲bir al-asrār).
Tuḥfah i nāznīn, a biography in prose and verse of M. Saif al-Dīn Qādirī, by S. Bahāʾ al-Dīn M. Naqs̲h̲bandī Kas̲h̲mīrī: Lahore [1920*].
Tuḥfat al-auliyāʾ, a biography of S. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb Ṣābirī called Ak̲h̲ūn Panjū, by Maulawī Mīr Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Riḍwānī Pas̲h̲āwarī: Lahore 1321/1903*.
Tuḥfat al-Saʿdīyah235 or (Malfūẓāt i S̲h̲āh Mīnā), on the life and teachings of S̲h̲āh Mīnā,236 by Muḥyī ’l-Dīn b. Ḥusain Riḍawī Ḥusainī: Ivanow Curzon 70 (defective and damaged. Early 19th cent.), Rāmpūr (see Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 76).

Edition: Malfūẓāt i … Mīnā, Hardoi (1900°].

Waqāʾiʿ i S̲h̲āh Muʿīn al-Dīn i C̲h̲is̲h̲tī,237 by Bābū Lāl. Editions: Lucknow 1879°, 1881†, 1883† (cf. Āṣafīyah ii p. 850).
Ẓafar al-Islām, a life of Muʿīn al-Dīn C̲h̲is̲h̲tī (cf. no. 1259 2nd par. 3rd footnote supra), by S. Ẓafar ʿAlī “Ẓafar”: Delhi [1904*].

next chapter: 13.3 Ambassadors


^ Back to text1. The words Dārā and S̲h̲ukōh in this name form a compound idea (“Majestic as Dārā,” the ancient Persian king), and the second element is not, strictly speaking, separable from the first, but Manucci, Bernier and other Europeans speak of “Prince Dara”. Contemporary Indians may possibly have done the same in conversation.

^ Back to text2. So Bānkīpūr viii p. 49.

^ Back to text3. So Urdu trans. p. 511.

^ Back to text4. So in the Urdu translation, but apparently not in the Persian original, since Rieu speaks of an “eminent master” and ʿAbd al-Muqtadir of the “great master”.

^ Back to text5. The unnamed saint was of course Mullā S̲h̲āh. Rieu interprets Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh’s statements in this place as meaning that “he had received the initiation to the Ḳādirī order in ah 1049”, but this is not expressly stated in the text (at any rate not in the Urdu translation). His admission to the Qādirī order seems to have occurred before this month with Mullā S̲h̲āh, since in the Safīnat al-auliyāʾ completed in Ramadān 1049 he already describes himself as M. Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh Ḥanafī Qādirī. According to his sister (Ṣāḥibīyah, Urdu trans. in ocm. xiii/4 p. 1417) he was a murīd of Miyāṅ Mīr (Mērē bhā’ī ḥaḍrat Miyāṅ-jīw sē nisbat i irādat rak’htē haiṅ). In the Safīnat al-auliyāʾ he says only that he had visited Miyāṅ Mīr twice (p. 7212: īn faqīr dū bār ba-mulāzamat i īs̲h̲ān rasīdah) and that one of these occasions was when at the age of twenty he was taken to the saint by S̲h̲āh-Jahān and through his intercession was cured of an illness which had baffled the physicians.

^ Back to text6. Editions: Lucknow 1881°, l883†, 1888†. English translation: The Compass of Truth; or, Risala-i-Haqnuma. By Muhammad Dara Shikoh … Rendered into English by Rai Bahadur Śriśa Chandra Vasu, Allahabad 1912°*. mss.: Āṣafīyah i p. 416, Bānkīpūr xvi 1398, Ivanow Curzon 444 ii, 462 xix, Lahore Panjāb Univ. (ocm. viii/4 p. 40). Description: Qanungo i pp. 141–3

^ Back to text7. Cf. Dozy and Ency. Isl. under S̲h̲aṭḥ.

^ Back to text8. Edition: Delhi 1309/1892°. mss.: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ mss. p. 18, Āṣafīyah i p. 414 nos. 553, 685, 875, Berlin 1022, Būhār 179, Ivanow 1270, Ivanow Curzon 441 i, Lahore Panjāb Univ. (ocm. viii/4 p. 42), Princeton 111, 130 (4). Urdu translation: Lahore [1921*]. Description: Qanungo i pp. 154–8.

^ Back to text9. Bābā Lāl (spelt also Laʿl), or Lāl Dās, or Lāl Dayāl, as he is variously called in different mss., is said by Huart and Massignon (p. 287) on the authority of the Urdu translation of the S̲h̲aṭaḥāt, i.e. the Ḥasanāt al-ʿārifīn, (p. 44) to have been a Kabīr-pant’hī. Qanungo (i p. 336) doubts whether he was “a Kabirpanthi out and out”. For information concerning him see H. H. Wilson’s article, Sketch of the religious sects of the Hindus, in Asiatic Researches xvii (Calcutta 1832) pp. 294–8, Garcin de Tassy (mainly dependent on Wilson) i pp. 273–4, Qanungo i pp. 332–3, Garcin de Tassy Mémoire sur les particularités de la religion musulmane dans l’Inde, 2nd ed., Paris 1869, pp. 100–1 and Sujān Rāy K̲h̲ulāṣat al-tawārīk̲h̲ pp. 68–9 (under D’hyānpūr).The text of these questions and answers translated from the “Hinduwī” by C̲h̲andarbhān “Barahman” (cf. no. 730 2nd par., end supra) and headed in the mss. by various titles or quasi-titles, such as Suʾāl n jawāb i Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh u Bābā Lāl, Jawāb u suʾāl i Bābā Laʿl-Dās u Dārā-S̲h̲ukoh, Nādir al-nikāt, etc., has been published with a French translation by Cl. Huart and L. Massignon under the title Les entretiens de Lahore [entre le prince impérial Dârâ Shikûh et l’ascète hindou Baba Laʿl Das] in the Journal asiatique, tome ccix (July–Dec. 1926) pp. 285–334. An edition (undated ?) is mentioned in the Āṣafīyah catalogue, i p. 444. For mss., which show some differences of recension and some of which are only abstracts, see ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 14, Āṣafīyah i p. 444, Bānkīpūr xvi 1454, Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2267, Berlin 1081(2), Bodleian 1241(14), 1821, Brelvi-Dhabhar p. 73 no. 3, Browne Suppt. 776 (King’s 141), Rieu ii 841b, iii 1034a. According to Garcin de Tassy, i p. 274, there is an Urdu translation entitled Risālah i aswilah u ajwibah i Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh u Bābā Lāl. An English translation of some extracts is given by Qanungo (i pp. 337–47).

^ Back to text10. An indication of date is provided by the opening words quoted by Massignon (op. cit. p. 333) from a ms. acquired by W. Ivanow in 1926. According to Massignon they run as follows: Suʾālāt i Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh i s̲h̲āh-zādah jawāb i Gōsā’īṅ [sic lege] Bābā Lāl sākin i kytl [read Kait’hal ?] mḥrān [read Muḥarrirān?] Ray C̲h̲andarbhān i Barahman muns̲h̲ī i s̲h̲āh-zādah sih sih [dittographed ?] rūz dū [read dar ?] majlis s̲h̲udah u sābiq Rāy Jādau Dās dar bayāḍ i k̲h̲āṣṣ nawis̲h̲tah būdand dar nywlā [read certainly dar-īn-wilā] baʿd i fatḥ i Qandahār bāz ittifāq uftād.

^ Back to text11. Edition with English translation: Majmaʿ-ul-baḥrain; or, The mingling of the two oceans … Edited … with English translation, notes and variants by M. Mahfuz-ul-Haq, Calcutta 1929* (Bibliotheca Indica). mss.: Āṣafīyah i p. 472, Aumer 351 (1), Bānkīpūr xvi 1452, Bodleian 1241 (13), 1820–1, Brelvi-Dhabhar p. x no. 9, Eton 36, Ivanow Curzon 681, Rieu ii 828a, 841b. Description: Qanungo pp. 143–6. Arabic translation: Tarjamah i Majmaʿ al-baḥrain written before 1185/1771 by M. Ṣāliḥ b. al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Aḥmad al-Miṣrī: Būhār Arab. Cat. 133.

^ Back to text12. This preface occurs in one of the two b.m. mss.

^ Back to text13. So Rieu.

^ Back to text14. So Qanungo i p. 147, Ivanow-Curzon 678.

^ Back to text15. mss.: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1540 nos. 1, 2, 52, Bānkīpūr xvi 1453, Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2083, Berlin 1077(2), Blochet i 216–17, Bodleian 1329–31, Būhār 107, Ethé 1976–82, Ivanow 1708, 1714(4), Ivanow-Curzon 678–9, Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 1093, Lindesiana p. 131 no. 340, Princeton 145, Rieu i 54–55a, ii 841b. Edition: Sirr i akbar, Benares 1909* (Pt. 1 (15 Upanishads) only. Ed. Brij Mōhan Lāl). Latin translation: Oupnek’hat (id est, Secretum Tegendum): opus ipsa in India rarissimum, … ad verbum, e persico idiomate, samskreticis vocabulis intermixto, in latinum conversum …: studio et opera Anquetil Duperron, Strasbourg 1801–2°*. German translation: Das Oupnek’hat … Aus der sanskrit-persischen Uebersetzung des Fürsten Mohammed Daraschekoh in das Lateinische von Anquetil Duperron, in das Deutsche übertragen von F. Mischel, Dresden 1882°. Descriptions: (1) The unpublished translation of the Upanishads by Prince Dara Shukoh, by Mahesh Das (in Dr. Modi Memorial Volume, Bombay 1930, pp. 622–38), (2) Qanungo i pp. 147–54.

^ Back to text16. Rieu i p. 54, from Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh’s preface.

^ Back to text17. Bānkīpūr Suppt, ii 2080, Berlin 1077(1), Browne Pers. Cat. 35(2), Ethé 1972–4, 2927, Ross-Browne 194, Ivanow 1700, Ivanow-Curzon 680. Cf. Qanungo i pp. 159–60.

^ Back to text18. Ethé 1949, Ivanow 1707, Rieu i 59a.

^ Back to text19. To quote Ethé’s words “In the British Mus. copy it is wrongly ascribed to Abû-alfaḍl; the real translator was, as a note on fol. 1a in the present copy proves [!], prince Dârâ Shukûh”.

^ Back to text20. The only copy traceable at present belongs to the private library of K̲h̲ān Bahādur Maulawī Ẓafar Ḥasan, Superintendent, Archæological Survey, Northern Circle, Āgrah, who has published a description of it under the title Manuscript copy of the Dīwān of Dārā Shikūh in the jrasb., Letters, Vol. v, 1939, pp. 155–73. The statement of Massignon (Textes inédits i p. 256) that “Le dîwân de Dârâ Shikouh est à Londres (ms. Or. 9492)” is incorrect. The b.m. ms. Or. 9492 is the dīwān of “Dārā”, a poet of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s time. Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh’s tak̲h̲alluṣ was not “Dārā”, but “Qādirī”.

^ Back to text21. On p. 172 of the article referred to in the preceding note Ẓafar Ḥasan speaks of “the specimens of his writing, still available”. Cf. no. 1321 (1), mss., Lahore infra.

^ Back to text22. Particularly valuable on account of “a comparative strictness in the chronological order and the full dates they give” (Ethé).

^ Back to text23. At the end of the notice of S̲h̲āh Madār (no. 358, p. 188 = ocm. x/3 p. 115) the author says that of the people of India [i.e. presumably of those who belonged to Ṣūfī orders] half, mostly from the upper classes (as̲h̲rāf), were followers (murīd) of ʿAbd al-Qādir, a quarter, mostly from the lower classes (ajlāf), followed S̲h̲āh Madār (see no. 1329 (6), 2nd footnote infra), an eighth followed Muʿīn al-Dīn C̲h̲is̲h̲tī (see no. 1259, 2nd par., 3rd footnote supra) and an eighth Bahāʾ al-Dīn Zakarīyāʾ (see no. 1280, 3rd par., (3) footnote supra).

^ Back to text24. These are the numbers assigned to the notices in Ethé’s description of the i.o. ms. Ethé 647. In the Nawal Kis̲h̲ōr editions the notices are not numbered.

^ Back to text25. Cf. Mirʾāt i Aḥmadī, k̲h̲ātimah pp. 37–8, English trans. pp. 35–6.

^ Back to text26. She died in 1057 (see no. 1321 (2), 4th footnote infra).

^ Back to text27. This Hindī word, meaning “lord” or “master”, is a title of respect and not a part of the saint’s name.

^ Back to text28. Miyāṅ Mīr, or S̲h̲āh Mīr, whose real name was Mīr Muḥammad (Sakīnat al-auliyāʾ, Urdu trans., p. 19, ʿAmal i Ṣāliḥ iii p. 363 ult.), or Muḥammad Mīr (K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i p. 1544: S̲h̲aik̲h̲ M. Mīr al-mas̲h̲hūr bi-Miyān-Mīr Bālā Pīr Qādirī Lāhaurī), was a Fārūqī (not a Saiyid apparently) and was born at Sīwistān (i.e. Sehwan, in Sind) in 938/1531–2 (Sakīnah, Urdu trans., p. 19 ult.), or 957/1550 (Safīnah p. 7010), or 975/1567–8 (Sakīnah, Urdu trans., p. 75 ult.). He settled in Lahore (at the age of twenty-five according to K̲h̲azīnah. i p. 15414) and had been living there for more than sixty years when he died on the 7th (Safīnah p. 7219), or the 17th (Sakīnah, Urdu trans., p. 74 ult.) of Rabīʿ i 1045/21st or 31st August, 1635 (so both Safīnah and Sakīnah) or in 1044/1634–5 (Pāds̲h̲āh-nāmah i, 2, p. 3311, ʿAmal i Ṣāliḥ iii p. 36610). His tomb to the east of Lahore at the place now called Miyāṅ Mīr is close to the military cantonment. The or jīw sometimes appended to the word Miyāṅ is a Hindī affix indicative of respect. See Tūzuk i Jahāngīrī p. 286 antepenult., Rogers and Beveridge’s trans. ii p. 119; Safīnat al-auliyāʾ pp. 70–3 (no. 65); Pāds̲h̲āh-nāmah i, 2, pp. 329–31; ʿAmal i Ṣāliḥ iii pp. 363–6; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 154–60; Rieu i p. 358a; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under S̲h̲āh Mīr (the Ḍiyāʾ al-ʿuyūn, however, is by S̲h̲āh Mīrzā (for whom see no. 93 supra), not S̲h̲āh Mīr); Ency. Isl. under Mīrānd̲j̲ī (sic ?) (Hidayet Hosain).

^ Back to text29. See no. 1332 3rd par. footnote infra.

^ Back to text30. This date occurs at the end of the preface (Urdu trans. p. 610). At the beginning of the account of Bībī Jamāl K̲h̲ātūn, the saint’s sister, (Urdu trans. p. 1014) 1050 is mentioned as the current year. Two or three dates are later insertions. Thus the notice of S̲h̲. ʿAbd al-Wāḥid, which speaks of him in the present tense, ends with a statement that he died in 1056 (Urdu trans. p. 17012). Similarly Bībī Jamāl K̲h̲ātūn, who is described as “now, in 1050, alive and well” (Urdu trans. p. 1014), is said to have died on Tuesday, 27 Rabīʿ i 1057 “after the writing of this book” (Urdu trans. p. 102 penult.). A reference to the Safīnat al-auliyāʾ occurs in the chapter headed Bayān i faḍīlat i silsilah i Qādirīyah (Urdu trans. p. 126). Curiously enough the Safīnat al-auliyāʾ contains a reference (inserted either subsequently or in anticipation of a future event) to the Sakīnat al-auliyāʾ. It comes near the end of the notice of Miyāṅ Mīr and in the autograph described by M. S̲h̲afīʿ it runs as follows: C̲h̲ūn baʿd az-īn risālaʾī dar bayān i aḥwāl u auḍāʿ i ān-ḥaḍrat u pīr u murīdān i īs̲h̲ān nawis̲h̲tah s̲h̲ud dar-īn kitāb ba-hamīn qadr iktifā numūd (ocm x/3 p. 11111). In the Nawal Kis̲h̲ōr text (p. 7217) pīs̲h̲ az-īn takes the place of baʿd az-īn, and risālaʾī is expanded into risālaʾī musammā ba-Sakīnat al-auliyā.

^ Back to text31. I have failed to trace an edition of the Persian text.

^ Back to text32. e.g. Pāds̲h̲āh-nāmah i, 1, p. 1784,7, ʿAmal i Ṣāliḥ i p. 8013.

^ Back to text33. Cf. Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i p. 104.

^ Back to text34. See no. 28 supra, no. 1332 3rd par., footnote infra, and Additions and Corrections.

^ Back to text35. As Qanungo points out, Macdonald (or rather von Kremer, since the former is only quoting the latter) calls her Fāṭimah through a misunderstanding of the complimentary title Fāṭimat al-Zamānī.

^ Back to text36. Doubtless because Muʿīn al-Dīn C̲h̲is̲h̲tī was (to quote Qanungo Dara Shukoh p. 104) “ the patron saint of the house of Akbar”.

^ Back to text37. For this tomb see S. Aḥmad K̲h̲ān Āt̲h̲ār al-ṣanādīd (in Urdu), Delhi 1853, Bāb 3, p. 73; The Indian antiquary ii p. 120; Carr Stephen The archæology … of Delhi p. 108; etc.

^ Back to text38. Carr Stephen loc. cit. For Peter Mundy’s accusation against her see The Indian antiquary xliv pp. 24, 211.

^ Back to text39. For whom see no. 1259 2nd par. 3rd footnote supra.

^ Back to text40. See Manucci Storia do Mogor, tr. W. Irvine, iv p. 423. According to M. Ibrāhīm (ocm. xiii/4 (Aug., 1937) p. 3 footnote) there is an autograph ms. of this work in the Lucknow [Public ?] Library.

^ Back to text41. I have failed to trace an edition of the Persian text, although according to Ivanow the work “has been repeatedly lithographed in India, in the original Persian and in Hindustani translations”.

^ Back to text42. For a work of this title containing about the same number of biographies and completed in 1043/1633–4 by Mīr ʿAlī Akbar Ḥusainī Ardistānī see no. 1319 supra.

^ Back to text43. See Badāʾūnī iii pp. 383–4 (cf. Sprenger p. 65); Āʾīn i Akbarī p. 1155 (merely the name Mīr ʿAbd Allāh in a list of calligraphists), Blochmann’s trans. p. 1037; Ṣuḥuf i Ibrāhīm; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 2951; Rieu i p. 154; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under ʿAbdullah Tirmizi. For his son M. Ṣāliḥ “Kas̲h̲fī” see no. 274 supra.

^ Back to text44. diyah (or diyā, as it is usually written) is a Hindī word meaning “given”.

^ Back to text45. d. 765/1363. See Siyar al-aqṭāb; Mirʾāt al-asrār, ṭabaqah 22; Sawāṭiʿ al-anwār no. 26; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 361–5.

^ Back to text46. d. 1033/1624. See Siyar al-aqṭāb (last biography: summarized by Rieu, i p. 359a); K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 459–61.

^ Back to text47. Kairānah, now in the Muẓaffarnagar District of the United Provinces, is about twenty miles east of Pānīpat, which is in the Karnāl District of the Panjāb. Muqarrab K̲h̲ān “built many edifices” in Kairānah, “and laid out a beautiful garden with an immense tank” (Āʾīn i Akbarī, tr. Blochmann p. 5441). He also “constructed a mausoleum near the tomb of the renowned Saint Sharafuddín of Pánípat” (op. cit. p. 543 penult.).

^ Back to text48. See Badāʾūnī Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ iii p. 169; Āʾīn i Akbarī p. 23411 (merely his name in the list of physicians), Blochmann’s trans. p. 543.

^ Back to text49. Ḥakīm S̲h̲. Ḥasan, d. at Kairānah in 1056/1646, aged ninety. See Memoirs of Jahāngīr, tr. Rogers and Beveridge, p. 27 and elsewhere (see index); Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ iii pp. 379–81; Āʾīn i Akbarī tr. Blochmann pp. 543–4; Rieu iii p. 1086a, l. 3.

^ Back to text50. In the singular, not Ḥikāyāt.

^ Back to text51. See no. 1279 3rd par. footnote supra.

^ Back to text52. Thirty-eight miles from Bārā Bankī in Oudh.

^ Back to text53. Not confirmed.

^ Back to text54. A village 8 miles N.W. of Bilhaur and 40 miles from Cawnpore.

^ Back to text55. S̲h̲. Madār, “one of the most popular saints of India and the subject of the most fabulous legends” (Rieu), is said in the Mirʾāt i Madārī to have been a Jew born at Aleppo in 715/1315, who visited Mecca, embraced Islām at al-Madīnah, migrated to India, and settled at Makanpūr, where he died in 840/1436 after spending thirty-five years of his life in Syria, forty at Mecca, al-Madīnah and al-Najaf and fifty in India. He was treated with great respect by Ibrāhīm S̲h̲āh S̲h̲arqī, who built his tomb. According to a pedigree quoted in the K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ he was descended on his father’s side from Abū Hurairah and on his mother’s from ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAuf (!). See Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār p. 164; Gulzār i abrār no. 60; Kalimāt al-ṣādiqīn no. 21; Safīnat al-auliyāʾ pp. 187–8 (no. 358); Dabistān i mad̲h̲āhib, trans., New York 1937, p. 279; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ ii pp. 310–12; Āʾīn i Akbarī, tr. Jarrett, iii p. 370; Garcin de Tassy Mémoire sur … la religion musulmane dans l’Inde (2nd ed. Paris 1869) pp. 52–9; S. M. Amīr Ḥasan Tad̲h̲kirat al-muttaqīn (see no. 1410 infra); Siyar al-Madār (in Urdu), by Ẓahīr Aḥmad “Ẓahīrī”, Pt. i Lucknow 1900, Pt. ii Badāyūn 1920; Cawnpore District Gazetteer (Allahabad 1909) pp. 309–10; Jaʿfar S̲h̲arīf Islam in India or the Qānūn-i-Islām, tr. G. A. Herklots, revised W. Crooke, Oxford 1921, pp. 195–6; Bānkīpūr Cat. viii pp. 64–66 (where the Mirʾāt i Madāri is summarized).

^ Back to text56. Kintoor (officially so spelt) is a village near Bārā Bankī.

^ Back to text57. An alleged nephew of Sulṭān Maḥmūd G̲h̲aznawī, born at Ajmēr in 405/1014 and killed in battle against the Hindu idolaters in 424/1033 at Bahrā’ic̲h̲, where his tomb is a celebrated place of pilgrimage. See Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 160 (no. 290); Mirʾāt al-asrār, ṭabaqah XII; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ ii pp. 217–24; Garcin de Tassy Mémoire sur … la religion musulmane dans l’Inde (2nd Ed., Paris 1869) pp. 72–9; G̲h̲azā-nāmah i Masʿūd (in Urdū), by ʿInāyat-Ḥusain Bilgrāmī, Cawnpore 1293/1876°*; Rieu iii 1015; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under Masaʿud Ghazi; Ivanow 322; Ency. Isl. under G̲h̲āzī Miyān (Hidayat Ḥusain), where some further references will be found.

^ Back to text58. At the beginning of Professor Maḥmūd S̲h̲erānī’s article mentioned below the name of this author is followed by the dates 1007 and 1088, presumably as those of his birth and death, but the authority for them is not specified.

^ Back to text59. Īn risālah īst musammā bi’sm i Firdausīyah [i qudsīyah ?] yaʿnī [!] nām i īn nusk̲h̲ah C̲h̲is̲h̲tīyah i bihis̲h̲tīyah etc. (Ivanow-Curzon 78, fol. 2). In the Āṣafīyah catalogue it is called C̲h̲is̲h̲tīyah i bihis̲h̲tīyah musammā bah Firdausīyah i qudsīyah.

^ Back to text60. Rāprī is a village, once a large town, in the S̲h̲ikohābād taḥṣīl of the Mainpūrī District of the United Provinces. Barnāwah is not mentioned either in the Mainpūrī District Gazetteer or in the Imperial Gazetteer of India.

^ Back to text61. For S̲h̲. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Barnāwī, who was not only a saint but also a musician, see an Urdu article by Professor Maḥmūd S̲h̲ērānī based mainly on the C̲h̲is̲h̲tīyah i bihis̲h̲tiyah and entitled Mak̲h̲dūm S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Bahāʾ al-Dīn Barnāwī in the OCM. iii/4 (Aug. 1927) pp. 41–58, iv/1 (Nov. 1927) pp. 9–26, and v/4 (Aug. 1929) pp. 72–99. This article includes a summary of the information contained in the C̲h̲is̲h̲tīyah i bihis̲h̲tīyah concerning the earlier s̲h̲aik̲h̲s of Barnāwah.

^ Back to text62. Lindesiana p. 205 no. 754, Ross and Browne 68, Ethé 2937–3, Bānkīpūr ix 850–2, xi 1098 liii, Būhār 263–4, Ivanow 1st Suppt. 788, Ivanow Curzon 176, Rieu ii 814b, 821b, iii 999b, Browne Suppt. 1144–5 (Corpus 231 and 28), Leyden v p. 160, etc.

^ Back to text63. Meaning of this nisbah not ascertained. A Mīr Yūsuf Kūlālī is mentioned in ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd’s Pāds̲h̲āh-nāmah i, 2, p. 3202.

^ Back to text64. As Tawakkul Bēg says that he had availed himself of Mullā S̲h̲āh’s teaching for forty years, this discipleship must have begun in, or about, 1031/1622.

^ Back to text65. See second next footnote below.

^ Back to text66. Rieu mentions that in one of the b.m. mss. of the S̲h̲ams̲h̲ēr-K̲h̲ānī he is called Tawakkul Muḥammad son of Tūlak Muḥammad al-Ḥusainī.

^ Back to text67. Mullā, or Maulānā, S̲h̲āh, whose name was S̲h̲āh Muḥammad (S̲h̲āh being part of his name, not a title), though Miyān Mīr used to call him Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (Sakīnat al-auliyāʾ, Urdu trans. p. 1172, Bānkīpūr viii p. 502), was born in Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān ah 992/1584, settled in India in 1023/1614–15 and died at Lahore in 1072/1661. See no. 28 supra; Jahān-ārā Ṣāḥibīyah (cf. no. 1322 (2) supra); Sakīnat al-auliyāʾ foll. 86–118 (pp. 116–58 in the Urdu translation); ʿAmal i Ṣāliḥ iii pp. 370–2; Tad̲h̲kirah i Naṣrābādī p. 63; Wāqiʿāt i Kas̲h̲mīr pp. 161–2; Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲ūʿarāʾ (cf. Bland in jras. 1848 p. 147); Farḥat al-nāẓirīn (passage quoted in ocm. iv/3 (May 1928) pp. 95–6); Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn pp. 161–2; Beale Miftāḥ al-tawārīk̲h̲ (Āgrah 1849) pp. 401–2; S. M. Latif Lahore: its history, etc., pp. 59, 175–6, 178; Ency. Isl. Suppt. under S̲h̲āh Muḥammad; K.-R. Qanungo Dara Shukoh. Vol. i. Biography (Calcutta [1935]) pp. 348–58; Jahān-ārā Bēgam kī ēk g̲h̲air-maʿrūf taṣnīf: Ṣāḥibīyah, by M. Ibrāhīm (in ocm. xiii/4 (August 1937) pp. 3–19).

^ Back to text68. It will be seen that his proper name was ʿAbd Allāh but that he was known as ʿUbaid Allāh (or vice versa, since there is some disagreement in the mss.). Similarly his father was properly called ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq but was known as ʿAbd al-Qādir.

^ Back to text69. The name of an Afg̲h̲ān clan (cf. no. 840 1st footnote supra).

^ Back to text70. Qaṣūr is 34 miles S.E. of Lahore. “The Afghâns of Qasûr belong mostly to the Khweshgî clan, whose eponym appears to have flourished in the eleventh century [ad]” (M. S̲h̲afīʿ in the article mentioned below). See also an article entitled S̲h̲ahr i Qaṣūr kē mutaʿalliq iqtibāsāt by M. S̲h̲afīʿ in ocm. xiii/2 (Feb. 1937) pp. 92–8.

^ Back to text71. The appended to the word k̲h̲alīfah is the same Hindi affix indicative of respect that occurs, for example, in Miyān-jī (cf. no. 1321 (2), 2nd footnote).

^ Back to text72. Or rather, visited. S̲h̲. Pīr Muḥammad Lak’hnawī died at Lucknow in 1080/1669–70 or 1082/1671–2. See K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 482–3 (where there is a quotation from the Maʿārij al-wilāyat telling how ʿAbd Allāh K̲h̲wēs̲h̲gī on his way to Bengal [ba-safar i Bangālah, possibly with Dilēr K̲h̲ān, who took part in the campaign of Muʿaẓẓam K̲h̲ān Mīr Jumlah against S̲h̲āh-S̲h̲ujāʿ at the beginning of Aurangzēb’s reign] visited him at Lucknow, showed him the Baḥr al-firāsah and was invested by him with the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī k̲h̲irqah); Tajallī i nūr i pp. 81–2.

^ Back to text73. i.e. Jalāl K̲h̲ān Dāwud-za’ī, for whom see Maʾat̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ ii pp. 42–56, Beveridge’s translation pp. 495–505.

^ Back to text74. Not identified. It is not clear why Dārā-S̲h̲ukōh (presumably the well-known son of S̲h̲āh-Jahān and disciple of Mullā S̲h̲āh) should describe himself as a disciple of this person, who seems not to be mentioned in the Safīnat al-auliyāʾ or the Sakīnat al-auliyāʾ.

^ Back to text75. Fifty followed by a k̲h̲ātimah and a tad̲h̲yīl (the last on ʿAbd al-Qādir’s pedigree and the more celebrated of his 49 children) in Ethé 1799, sixty-seven in i.o. d.p. 751B(a), ninety-one (the number of years in ʿAbd al-Qādir’s life) in i.o. d.p. 751A.

^ Back to text76. Edwards prefixes the title Sayyid to M. Bulāq’s name, doubtless on the authority of a title-page, but the text of the work itself (to judge from Rieu and Blumhardt) seems to give no warrant for this. Rieu writes Muḥammad Yalāq, but this is presumably a corruption.

^ Back to text77. S̲h̲. Saʿdī BLK̲H̲ĀRĪ Mujaddidī Lāhaurī, a k̲h̲alīfah of S̲h̲. Ādam Banūrī, died in 1108/1696. See K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 647–53. BLK̲H̲ĀRĪ is not a misprint for Buk̲h̲ārī. since a chronogram for the date of his death requires the presence of the lām.

^ Back to text78. Cf. no. 1320 2nd par. 3rd footnote supra.

^ Back to text79. So Rieu iii 1013a.

^ Back to text80. Pisar u murīd u sajjādah-nis̲h̲īn i S̲h̲āh Ars̲h̲ad ast (Tajallī i nūr p. 748). Browne in his description of the Ganj i Faiyāḍī describes him as the son of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥibb Allāh. If this is a real discrepancy and Muḥibb Allāh is not merely a description of M. Ars̲h̲ad, the information derived from the Ganj i Faiyāḍī is likely to be correct.

^ Back to text81. See no. 1346 last footnote.

^ Back to text82. A well-known Arabic qaṣīdah ascribed to ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (see Brockelmann Sptbd. i p. 779 no. 44).

^ Back to text83. M. Ars̲h̲ad, according to the Tajallī i nūr (i p. 73), was the son of Dīwān M. Ras̲h̲īd [evidently the same person as ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd Jaunpūrī, who died in 1083/1672 and whose works include the Ras̲h̲īdīyah, well known in India: see Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 119; Tajallī i nūr ip. 71; Būhār Arab. cat. p. 513; Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 621; etc.]. Born in 1041/1631–2, he became one of the best scholars of Jaunpūr as well as an influential Ṣūfī affiliated to the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī, Suhrawardī and Qalandarī orders. The [anonymous] Arabic syntax entitled Hidāyat al-naḥw [for which see Ellis col. 637, Brockelmann i p. 305, Sptbd. i 535] was one of his works according to the Tajallī i nūr, which does not mention the titles of any other works by him. He died on 24 Jumādā ii 1113/26 Nov. 1701 and was buried at Jaunpūr, near his father.

^ Back to text84. Sihālī (ba-kasr i sīn i muhmalah u hā-yi hawwaz u alif u lām i maksūr u yā-yi taḥtānī i maʿrūf) qaṣabah īst az tawābiʿ i Lak’hnaʾū (Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 168).

^ Back to text85. An Urdu work on this saint is Karāmāt i Razzāqīyah by Nawwāb M. K̲h̲ān S̲h̲āhjahānpūrī, Hardoi [1907*].

^ Back to text86. A biography of this scholar, who seems not to be mentioned by Raḥmān ʿAlī, is given in the D̲h̲ikr i jamīʿ i auliyāʾ i Dihlī (foll. 101a–103b in d.p. 594, foll. 85a–87a in d.p. 634).

^ Back to text87. Reading bist-sālagī instead of the impossible sī-sālagī.

^ Back to text88. For Z. al-N. see Jadunāt’h Sarkār’s Studies in Mughal India pp. 79–90.

^ Back to text89. C̲h̲andī dar sarkār i Z. al-N…. tarjamah i Fatāwī i ʿĀlamgīrī numūd. There seem to be no extant mss. of this translation undertaken at the instance of Zēb al-Nisāʾ and perhaps never completed. A translation of the kitāb al-ḥudūd and the kitāb al-jināyāt made at a much later date by Qāḍī ’l-quḍāt M. Najm al-Dīn K̲h̲ān Kākōrawī, who died in 1229/1814 (see Raḥmān ʿAli pp. 233–5, Sprenger p. 166), was printed at Calcutta in 1813°*. For the Arabic original, compiled by S̲h̲. Niẓām Burhānpūrī (cf. Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 242) and others (five of whom are mentioned in Bānkīpūr xix p. 63), see Brockelmann ii p. 417, Sptbd. ii p. 604.

^ Back to text90. u muddatī dar ṣuḥbat i M. Y. K̲h̲. Nāẓim i Dār al-k̲h̲ilāfah tālīf i kitāb [d.p. 634 has kutub] i lug̲h̲at mī-kard.

^ Back to text91. No mss. of this ḥās̲h̲iyah seem to be recorded. His Persian translation of the Qāmūs is mentioned below.

^ Back to text92. i.e. Munʿim K̲h̲ān, who died in 1123/1711. See Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ iii pp. 667–77, Irvine Later Mughals i pp. 19, 36, 38, 125, etc.

^ Back to text93. u bā Wazīr al-Mulk muṣāḥabat u muʿās̲h̲arat numūdah fawāʾid i bisyār girift.

^ Back to text94. u ba-k̲h̲idmat i tadrīs i ḥuḍūr sar-buland gardīd u dārog̲h̲agī i kitāb-k̲h̲ā̲nah wa-g̲h̲airah k̲h̲idamāt az sarkār i nawwāb i ʿālī-janāb yāft. I do not feel sure that I have translated this correctly.

^ Back to text95. ba-k̲h̲idmat i Amānat i K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah i Dār al-k̲h̲ilāfat u Amānat i Mazārāt i mutabarrakah sar-buland gardīdah.

^ Back to text96. u dar s̲h̲urūʿ i ʿahd i mubārak ba-k̲h̲idmat i wakālat i s̲h̲arʿī i ḥaḍrat i K̲h̲idīw i Gaihān ba-iḍāfah i ṣadī u k̲h̲iṭāb i k̲h̲ānī ʿizz i imtiyāz yāft.

^ Back to text97. Barās is a village situated a few miles west of Karnāl in the Panjāb.

^ Back to text98. For S̲h̲. Saund’hā see Ethé col. 338 no. 36, K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i p. 487. Safīdūn is now in the State of Jīnd.

^ Back to text99. This is given as an alternative title in the author’s preface according to the i.o. mss., but as the sole title in the lithographed edition, which (1) omits from the author’s preface his statement concerning the date of composition, (2) inserts after the preface a muqaddimah on Ṣūfism, the 14 main orders, etc. (3) differs elsewhere from the text of the i.o. mss.

^ Back to text100. For A. ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Rudaulawī see no. 1279, 3rd par., footnote supra.

^ Back to text101. This is an Indian title of respect (cf. no. 1321 (2), 1st and 2nd footnote, supra).

^ Back to text102. Kairānah is a town on the Jumna 31 miles S.W. of Muẓaffarnagar.

^ Back to text103. This autobiography of five pages tells of his birth(4 S̲h̲awwāl 1114), his going to maktab (in his 5th year), his beginning to pray and fast, his circumcision, his finishing the Qurʾān and beginning to read Persian books (7th year), his reading the S̲h̲arḥ i Mullā [Jāmī on Ibn al-Ḥājib’s Kāfiyah] (10th year), marriage (14th year), his introduction to the practices of the Ṣūfīs, especially the Naqs̲h̲bandīs, as his father’s disciple and his completion of the traditional course of studies (15th year), his father’s death after giving him licence to accept baiʿat and give irs̲h̲ād (17th year), some twelve years of teaching, of progress in Ṣūfism, study of the books of the four mad̲h̲āhib and acceptance of the rawis̲h̲ i fuqahā-yi muḥaddit̲h̲īn, his departure for the pilgrimage (end of 1143), his visits to Mecca and Medina, his intercourse with the traditionist S̲h̲. Abū Ṭāhir [M. b. Ibrāhīm al-Kurdī al-Madanī, d. 1145: see jasb. 1912 p. 166], by whom he was admitted to several Ṣufī orders (k̲h̲irqah i jāmiʿah i S̲h̲. A. Ṭ. kih ḥāwī i jamīʿi k̲h̲iraq i Ṣūfīyah tuwān guft pūs̲h̲īd), his performance of the ḥajj at the end of this year, his departure for India (beginning of 1145) and his arrival home on 14 Rajab. Many of the books read by him in the course of his studies are specified.

^ Back to text104. Similar personal names consisting of the word G̲h̲ulām followed by the name of a saint are G̲h̲ulām-Jīlānī (cf. no. 915 supra), G̲h̲ulām-Hamadānī (no. 1175 supra), G̲h̲ulām-Muḥyī ’l-Dīn (nos. 547, 852 supra), and G̲h̲ulām-Naqs̲h̲band (cf. Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 611). The S̲h̲araf al-Dīn referred to is evidently S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Yaḥyā Manērī (for whom see no. 1404 (2) footnote).

^ Back to text105. Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad gives the author’s name as “Yār Md. B. Rājī Kamman”, and this indeed appears to be the form in which the name first occurs in the ms., since Ivanow in quoting the opening words [al-Ḥ. l…. ammā baʿd fa-qāla … (M. b.) Yār M. b. Rājī …] brackets M.b. as though supplied from another place.

^ Back to text106. Nahrawālah = Pattan in Gujrāt.

^ Back to text107. So called because “maḍāmīn u maʿānī laṭīfah i nafīsah par mabnī hai” (Urdu trans., p. 9, l. 5 from below).

^ Back to text108. For Uwais al-Qaranī, who is said to have been killed at the Battle of Ṣiffīn (ah 37/657) or to have died at some other date (ah 18, 22, 32, etc.), see Kas̲h̲f al-maḥjūb. tr. Nicholson, pp. 83–4; Tad̲h̲kirat al-auliyāʾ i pp. 15–24; Haft iqlīm pp. 19–22 (no. 1); Majālis al-muʾminīn pp. 120–1 (3rd biography in Majlis 4); Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 30(no. 18); K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ ii pp. 118–21; Caetani Chronographia Islamica i pp. 214 (ah 18) and 423 (ah 37), where other references will be found.

^ Back to text109. Or As̲h̲fāq in accordance with the usual, though corrupt, Indian pronunciation in such names as this.

^ Back to text110. Cf. no. 1320 2nd par. 2nd footnote supra and Qaiyūm i t̲h̲ānī, a short (48 pp.) Urdu biography by M. ʿAẓīm Fīrōzpūrī, Lahore [1905*].

^ Back to text111. For whom see D̲h̲ikr i jamīʿ i auliyāʾ i Dihlī (i.o. d.p. 594 foll. 90b–92a); K̲h̲āfī K̲h̲ān ii pp. 552–3; C̲h̲ahār guls̲h̲an (i.o. 3944 fol. 23a ult.); Āt̲h̲ār al-ṣanādīd (in Urdu), bāb iii p. 74; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i p. 180 margin. A collection of his sayings taken down by a disciple named K̲h̲alīl is preserved in an i.o. ms. (d.p. 590).

^ Back to text112. B. al-D. G̲h̲., who is the person commemorated in the name of Burhānpūr, was a disciple of Niẓām al-Dīn Auliyā (cf. no. 1259, 4th footnote) and died in 738/1337 (or thereabouts). See Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār pp. 93–4; Haft iqlīm, no. 390; Firis̲h̲tah ii pp. 400–1; Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 101 (no. 117); K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 346–8; Nuzhat al-k̲h̲awāṭir pp. 143–4; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under Burhan-uddin G̲h̲arib; etc.

^ Back to text113. Presumably in reference to Kintūr, a village 21 miles N.E. of Bārah Bankī in Oudh.

^ Back to text114. That the work exists in a Persian form is implied by its inclusion in Semenov’s Ukazatel’, but the inclusion may be inadvertent.

^ Back to text115. Cf. Siyar al-mutaʾak̲h̲k̲h̲irīn i p. 313, ii p. 37411 (Lucknow editions).

^ Back to text116. The B. al-i. is mentioned in the S. al-m. ii pp. 52316, 61313 (Lucknow editions).

^ Back to text117. S. al-m. ii p. 61311–12 (Raymond’s trans. (1926) ii p. 171).

^ Back to text118. If this work was really written in Aurangzēb’s lifetime, Ivanow 285 is presumably an expanded recension of it.

^ Back to text119. This name was borne also by his great-grandfather, who like him had the title G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn K̲h̲ān Firōz-Jang (but not ʿImād al-Mulk) and who died in 1122/1710. See Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ ii pp. 872–9, Beveridge’s trans. pp. 587–92; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under G̲h̲azi-uddin Khan i.

^ Back to text120. By the title ʿImād al-Mulk he is distinguished from his father and his great-grandfather, both of whom bore the title G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn K̲h̲ān Fīrōz-Jang.

^ Back to text121. See Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i pp. 361–2; K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah pp. 49–50.

^ Back to text122. Mīr Qamar al-Dīn. See Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ iii pp. 837–48; K̲h̲izānah i ʿāmirah pp. 35–49.

^ Back to text123. Mīr M. Fāḍil. See Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i pp. 358–61.

^ Back to text124. See bsos.ix/1 p. 225.

^ Back to text125. See Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i pp. 365–8.

^ Back to text126. He was a son of Iʿtimād al-Daulah Qamar al-Dīn K̲h̲ān and therefore a maternal uncle of ʿImād al-Mulk.

^ Back to text127. Cf. no. 843 supra.

^ Back to text128. See jasb. xlviii/1 (1879) p. 130.

^ Back to text129. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Fak̲h̲r i Jahān S̲h̲ahjahānābādī C̲h̲is̲h̲tī, as he is called in the K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ, was the son and k̲h̲alīfah of S̲h̲. Niẓām al-Dīn Aurangābādī (cf. no. 1380 3rd before last footnote infra). Born at Aurangābād in 1126/1714, he migrated to Delhi at the age of twenty-five and died there in Jumādā ii 1199/April-May 1785. See D̲h̲ikr al-aṣfiyā’; Miftāḥ al-tawārīk̲h̲ p. 360; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 498–505; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under Fakhr-uddin (Maulana) (Beale’s statement that he was styled Saiyid al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ seems to be based on the fact that the chronogram on his tomb is followed by the words min kalām S. al-s̲h̲. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Maqbūl i Ilāhī sanah i 1199, but presumably the author of the chronogram was his disciple S. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn “Mast”, who is mentioned in the K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i p. 5003).

^ Back to text130. Cf. no. 1370 supra.

^ Back to text131. The analysis which follows is based on the table of contents prefixed to the work in the b.m. ms. (foll. 1–70).

^ Back to text132. Celebrated traditionist and ascetic, d. 110/728 at al-Baṣrah. See Ibn Qutaibah Maʿārif p. 225; Kas̲h̲f al-maḥjūb, tr. Nicholson p. 86; Tad̲h̲kirat al-auliyāʾ i pp. 24–40; Ibn K̲h̲allikān no. 155; Haft iqlīm p. 144 (no. 88); Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 31 (no. 19); K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 222–5; Rauḍāt al-jannāt pp. 208–11; Ency. Isl. under al-Ḥasan (unsigned); Caetani Chronographia Islamica p. 1396 (where many further references will be found); Massignon Essai sur les origines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane pp. 152–79; Der Islam. xiv (1925) pp. 1–75.

^ Back to text133. One of Niẓām al-Dīn Auliyā’s disciples, d. 758/1357. See Maṭlūb al-ṭālibīn (Ethé col. 32422); Sawāṭiʿ al-anwār (Ethé col. 3336); K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 357–8; Nuzhat al-k̲h̲awāṭir (in Arabic) p. 77; etc.

^ Back to text134. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Aḥmad Ṣābir Kalyarī, founder of the Ṣābirī branch of the C̲h̲is̲h̲tī order and a disciple of Ganj i S̲h̲akar (for whom see no. 1259 3rd footnote supra), died in 690/1291 and is buried at Pīrān Kalyar, near Roorkee, in the Sahāranpūr District of the United Provinces. See Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār p. 69; Sawāṭiʿ al-anwār (Ethé col. 334 no. 24); K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 315–19; Sawāniḥ i ʿumrī i ḥaḍrat i Ṣābir … mukammal tārīk̲h̲ i Pīrān Kalyar i s̲h̲arīf (in Urdu), by Sulṭān Maḥmūd b. Mus̲h̲tāq Aḥmad Murādābādī, Murādābād [1911 ?]; Tad̲h̲kirah i Ṣābirīyah maʿrūf bah Siyāḥat i Kalyar (in Urdu), by Walī Aḥmad K̲h̲ān. Badāyūṅ [1922]; etc.

^ Back to text135. For M. al-K., a celebrated Ṣūfī who died in 200/815–16 and is buried at Bag̲h̲dād, see Kas̲h̲f al-maḥjūb tr. Nicholson pp. 113–15; Tad̲h̲kirat al-auliyāʾ i pp. 269–74; Ibn K̲h̲allikān no. 371; Nafaḥāt pp. 42–3; Haft iqlīm p. 105 (no. 38); Majālis al-muʾminīn p. 266; Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 35 (no. 27); K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 76–8; Rauḍāt al-jannāt iv pp. 216–17; Ency. Isl. under Maʿrūf (Nicholson); etc.

^ Back to text136. ʿAbd al-Qāhir b. ʿAbd Allāh, d. 563/1168 at Bag̲h̲dād. See Ibn K̲h̲allikān (Cairo 1310) i p. 299; Subkī iv p. 256; Nafaḥāt p. 478; Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 103 (no. 122); K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ ii p. 11; Brockelmann i p. 436, Sptbd. i p. 780; etc.

^ Back to text137. Founder of the Kubrawī order, d. 618/1226 at K̲h̲wārazm. See Tārīk̲h̲ i Guzīdah p. 789; Subkī v p. 11; Nafaḥāt p. 480; Majālis al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq no. 19; Haft iqlīm no. 1401; Majālis al-muʾminīn p. 286 (Majlis 6); Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 103 (no. 124); Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn p. 239; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ ii p. 258; Rauḍāt al-jannāt p. 81; Browne Lit. Hist, ii pp. 491–4; Ency. Isl. under Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn (Berthels); Brockelmann i p. 440, Sptbd. i p. 786; Doklady Akademii Nauk, Leningrad 1924, series B, April-June, p. 36 (an article by Berthels on Kubrā’s quatrains with biography and bibliography).

^ Back to text138. Abū Yazīd Ṭaifūr b. ʿĪsā al-Bisṭāmī, d. 261/875 or 264/878 at Bisṭām. See Kas̲h̲f al-maḥjūb tr. Nicholson pp. 106–8; Tad̲h̲kirat al-auliyāʾ i pp. 134–79; IbnK̲h̲allikān under Ṭaifūr; Nafaḥāt p. 62; Majālis al-ʿus̲h̲s̲h̲āq no. 4; Haft iqlīm no. 836; Majālis al-muʾminīn p. 263; Safīnat al-auliyaʾ p. 73 (no. 66); Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn p. 46; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 519–22; Rauḍāt al-jannāt pp. 338–41; Ency. Isl. under Bāyazīd (unsigned); Massignon Essai sur les origines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane pp. 243–56; etc.jh

^ Back to text139. This division seems to diverge from that of the b.m. ms.

^ Back to text140. i.e. the branch of the Naqs̲h̲bandī order founded by Aḥmad Sirhindī called Mujaddid i Alf i Th̲ānī (for whom see no. 1316 (1) 1st footnote supra).

^ Back to text141. Mīrzā S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Ḥabīb Allāh (cf. Rieu i 363b, where the information concerning his “real name” comes evidently from the Bis̲h̲ārāt i Maẓharīyah), or Mīrzā Jān-i-Jānān “Maẓhar” (Jān-i-Jānān mutak̲h̲alliṣ bi-“Maẓhar” pisar i Mīrzā Jān “Jānī” tak̲h̲alluṣ, as he calls himself in the autobiographical preface to his dīwān) is said to have owed the name or nickname Jān-i-Jān (upon which Jān-i-Jānān is apparently a later improvement: cf. Sprenger p. 488) to a punning suggestion by Aurangzēb that Jān-i-Jān would be a suitable name for the new-born son of Mīrzā Jān, who was a manṣabdār in the Imperial service. He was born at Kālābāg̲h̲, Mālwah, in 1111/1699–1700 or 1113/1701–2 or thereabouts (“Maẓhar’s” own statements on this subject seem to have varied: see ocm. xviii/1 pp. 37–8), but most of his life was spent at Delhi, where he was murdered by a S̲h̲īʿite fanatic in Muḥarram 1195/January 1781 (other dates, 1192, 1194, seem to have less good authority). Although “Maẓhar” wrote little in Urdu, his influence on the development of Urdu poetry is regarded as important. In Persian he is represented by (1) a dīwān of some 1,000 verses (Editions: Calcutta 1267/1851*, Cawnpore 1271/1855°*, Madras 1272/1855–6, Lahore [1922*]. mss.: Āṣafīyah i p. 732, iii p. 294, Browne Suppt. 609–10, Edinburgh 321, Lindesiana p. 186, Blochet iii 1945, Bānkīpūr Suppt. i 1966, Ivanow 875–6, Ivanow-Curzon 745(4), Edinburgh New Coll. p. 9, etc.), (2) K̲h̲arīṭah i jawāhir, an anthology of single lines and a few rubāʿīs selected [by “Maẓhar”, not by M. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān as stated in the b.m. and i.o. catalogues] from the works of many ancient and modern poets (Editions (appended to the dīwān): Cawnpore 1271/1855°*, Lahore [1922*]. ms.: i.o. d.p. 1328), (3) Maktūbāt, Ṣūfī letters compiled by M. Naʿīm Allāh Bahrāʾic̲h̲ī (mss.: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 53 no. 13, p. 18 no. 12 (it is not clear from the catalogue whether the second ms. contains the same collection as the first)). See “Maẓhar’s” brief autobiographical preface to his dīwān (quoted in Sprenger p. 488); Maqāmāt i Maẓharī (see no. 1376 infra); Safīnah i K̲h̲wus̲h̲gū (see Bānkīpūr viii p. 111); Nikāt al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ; Sarw i āzād; “Ḥairat” Maqālāt al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (Sprenger p. 159); Gul i raʿnā; Gulzār i Ibrāhīm; ʿIqd i T̲h̲uraiyā; Ṣuḥuf i Ibrāhīm; K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār no. 448; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 2693; Majmūʿah i nag̲h̲z ii pp. 198–200; Ṭabaqāt i suk̲h̲un; Nis̲h̲tar i ʿis̲h̲q; Natāʾij al-afkār; K̲h̲āzin al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ fol. 152a ult.; Sprenger p. 256 (information from several Urdu tad̲h̲kirahs): K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 784–7; Garcin de Tassy ii pp. 297–300; Rieu i 363, iii 1086a; Hadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah p. 453; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under Jan Janan; Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 226; Saksēna History of Urdu literature pp. 49–51; Ency. Isl. under Maẓhar (Hidayet Hosain); T. Grahame Bailey History of Urdu literature p. 46; Bānkīpūr Suppt. i pp. 214–15; ocm. xviii/1 (Nov. 1941) pp. 27–43 (part of an Urdu article entitled Tanqīd bar Ab i ḥayāt i Maulānā, M. Ḥusain “Azād” by M. Maḥmūd S̲h̲ērānī); etc.

^ Back to text142. Sunām is now in the State of Patiala.

^ Back to text143. So Arberry, but Dār al-maʿārif according to the K̲h̲azīnah, the Ḥadāʾiq and Raḥmān ʿAlī.

^ Back to text144. Cf. no. 1316 (1) 1st footnote supra.

^ Back to text145. Kākōrī is about eight miles due west of Lucknow.

^ Back to text146. Qārī Amīr Niẓām al-Dīn b. Amīr Saif al-Dīn, called S̲h̲. Bhīkan, or Bhikārī, or Bhīk, was born in 890/1485 and died in 981/1573–4. According to Raḥmān ʿAlī he wrote works entitled Manhaj (dar uṣūl i ḥadīt̲h̲), Maʿārif (dar taṣawwuf) and Tarjamah i risālah i Mulhamāt i Qādirī, the last being described as a translation of a work by S. ʿAbd al-Razzāq, one of ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī’s sons. See Ṭabaqāt i Akbarī ii p. 478 (only his name in a list); Badāʾūnī Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ iii p. 24; Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 33.

^ Back to text147. S̲h̲āh Mujtabā is the eighth of the s̲h̲aik̲h̲s whose biographies are given in the Uṣūl al-maqṣūd.

^ Back to text148. S̲h̲āh M. Kāẓim, Turāb ʿAlī’s father, died in 1221/1806.

^ Back to text149. In giving this account of his spiritual ancestors the author professes to follow the custom observed in the C̲h̲īs̲h̲tī affiliation. The twelve s̲h̲aik̲h̲s are ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Makkī, K̲h̲iḍr Rūmī, Najm al-Dīn G̲h̲aut̲h̲ al-dahr, Quṭb al-Dīn Bīnā-dil Jaunpūrī (d. 925), M. Quṭb [Jaunpūrī], ʿAbd al-Salām [Jaunpūrī] (d. 976), ʿAbd al-Quddūs Jaunpūrī (d. 1052), Mujtabā Lāharpūrī (d. 1084), Fatḥ Jaunpūrī (d. 1118), Ilāh-diyah Aḥmad Lāharpūrī (d. 1147), Bāsiṭ ʿAlī Ilāhābādī (d. 1196) and M. Kāẓim (d. 1221), the author’s father, of whom a very long and detailed account is given. “The work sheds no light on the origin and the history of the Qalandars and the flourishing period of their movement in India, where it acquired great importance. The author’s more or less authentic information begins only with the x/xvi c., when Qalandarīs had finally degenerated, lost their importance, and when their different branches had become amalgamated with other Sufic orders which still flourished at that time, especially the Qādirīs and C̲h̲is̲h̲tīs” (Ivanow). The muqaddimah to the Tārīk̲h̲ i maẓhar i buzurgān (Bodleian 1997) contains a brief account of the Qalandarī order.

^ Back to text150. For Maʿrūf al-Kark̲h̲ī see no. 1374 2nd par. (4) a supra.

^ Back to text151. “The shrine of Muhammad Aqil Sáhib at Koṭ Miṭhan was in the old town of Koṭ Miṭhan, but when in S. 1919 both town and shrine were washed away by the Indus, the coffin containing the body of Muhammad Aqil Sáhib was disinterred and brought to the present shrine” (H. A. Rose Glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province i p. 599).

^ Back to text152. So in the author’s preface. On the title-page, however, we read “Kitāb i maḥāmid-intisāb … al-mausūm bah D̲h̲ikr al-aṣfiyā maʿrūf Takmilah Siyar al-auliyā dar manqabat i S̲h̲ams al-Hudā, the words Takmilah Siyar al-auliyā being put in the boldest type.

^ Back to text153. See no. 1259 1st par. last footnote supra.

^ Back to text154. One of C̲h̲irāg̲h̲ i Dihlī’s disciples, d. 756/1355. See K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i p. 353; Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 173.

^ Back to text155. Son of the preceding, mentioned incidentally K̲h̲azīnah i p. 4362 in the pedigree of S̲h̲. Ḥasan M., whose great-great-grandfather he was.

^ Back to text156. A disciple of C̲h̲irāg̲h̲ i Dihlī, mentioned incidentally K̲h̲azīnah i p. 5364.

^ Back to text157. A disciple of the preceding, mentioned incidentally K̲h̲azīnah i p. 5364 as S̲h̲. Maḥmūd al-maʿrūf (i.e. known as) S̲h̲. Rājan.

^ Back to text158. A disciple of the preceding mentioned incidentally K̲h̲azīnah i p. 4363 as S̲h̲. Jamāl al-Dīn al-mas̲h̲hūr (i.e. known as) S̲h̲. jmn. Cf. Mirʾāt i Aḥmadī, k̲h̲ātimah, p. 756, Eng. trans. p. 6513, where there is another incidental mention. In the English trans. the surname is spelt Jumman. In the Tad̲h̲kirat al-kirām (Bānkīpūr Suppt. i 1783 fol. 146) there is a notice of a certain S̲h̲āh Jamāl Muḥammad alias Jumman.

^ Back to text159. K̲h̲alīfah of the preceding, d. 980/1572–3 or 982/1575. See Mirʾāt i Aḥmadī, k̲h̲ātimah. pp. 75–6, Eng. trans. pp. 65–6; K̲h̲azīnah i p. 436.

^ Back to text160. Son of the preceding, d. 1040/1630. See Mirʾāt i Aḥmadī, k̲h̲ātimah, pp. 76–9, Eng. trans. pp. 66–8.

^ Back to text161. Grandson of the preceding, d. 1101/1689. See Mirʾāt i Aḥmadī, k̲h̲ātimah pp. 79–83, Eng. trans. pp. 68–70.

^ Back to text162. Disciple of the preceding, d. 1140/1727. See K̲h̲azīnah i pp. 494–5; Ḥadāʾiq al-Ḥanafīyah pp. 438–9; Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 172.

^ Back to text163. Disciple of the preceding, d. 1142/1730. See K̲h̲azīnah i pp. 495–7.

^ Back to text164. Son and k̲h̲alīfah of the preceding, d. 1199/1785. See no. 1372 antepenult. par., footnote supra.

^ Back to text165. Disciple of the preceding, d. 1205/1791. See no. 1396 2nd par. footnote.

^ Back to text166. Disciple of the preceding, d. 1229/1814 and is buried at Kōṭ Miṭ’han. See K̲h̲azīnah i p. 507 antepenult.; H. A. Rose Glossary of the, tribes and castes of the Punjab i p. 599. Cf. no. 1380 2nd footnote.

^ Back to text167. Gōpāmau is a small town 14 miles north-west of Hardoi in Oudh.

^ Back to text168. d. at Sandīlah (cf. no. 1181 2nd footnote supra) in 1225/1810. See Raḥmān ʿAlī pp. 54–5. One of his pupils was the S̲h̲īʿite Mujtahid, S. Dildār ʿAlī Lak’hnawī (for whom see Raḥmān ʿAlī pp. 60–1, Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 852).

^ Back to text169. i.e. the commentary of Ṣadr al-Dīn M. b. Ibrāhīm al-S̲h̲īrāzī on the first fann of the second part (physics) of At̲h̲īr al-Dīn al-Abharī’s Hidāyat al-ḥikmah (for which see Brockelmann i p. 464, Sptbd. i pp. 839–41).

^ Back to text170. i.e. the annotations of Mīr M. Zāhid al-Harawī on the commentary of Jalāl al-Dīn al-Dawānī on the first part (logic) of al-Taftāzānī’s Tahd̲h̲īb al-manṭiq wa-’l-kalām (for which see Brockelmann ii p. 215, Sptbd. ii pp. 302–4).

^ Back to text171. Furaiz-i-Irtazeeah: a treatise on the Mohammedan law of inheritance. By Moulavie Mohummud Irtaza Alee Khan Bahadur, Madras, 1825*.

^ Back to text172. Dedicated presumably to Nawwāb M. G̲h̲aut̲h̲ K̲h̲ān “Aʿẓam”, for whom see no. 1209 supra.

^ Back to text173. Who died in 1226/1811. See K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 690–2.

^ Back to text174. i.e. Warden of the alleged shrine of ʿAlī at Balk̲h̲.

^ Back to text175. For the affix jīw see no. 1321 (2) 2nd footnote supra.

^ Back to text176. Phulwārī is a village in the Patna Division of Bihār.

^ Back to text177. In the terminology of the British Museum “called” is used to represent mutak̲h̲alliṣ, but also madʿū, maʿrūf, mas̲h̲hūr, mulaqqab, muk̲h̲āṭab and the like.

^ Back to text178. On pp. 203–4 of his Tad̲h̲kirah i ʿulamāʾ i Hind Raḥmān ʿAlī gives a biography of Maulawī [not Saiyid, be it noted] Muḥammad ʿAlī Ṣadrpūrī b. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ramaḍān ʿAlī, a resident (mutawaṭṭin) of Ṣadrpūr in the parganah of Malīḥābād near Lucknow. He was a Ṣūfī and a poet using the tak̲h̲alluṣ “Muḥammad” [not “ʿAlī”]. Born early in the second decade of the thirteenth century of the Hijrah, he studied Ḥadīt̲h̲ and Tafsīr under Mirzā Ḥasan ʿAlī Muḥaddit̲h̲ Lak’hnawī and entered the Naqs̲h̲bandī Mujaddidī order of Ṣūfīs as a murīd of Maulawī S̲h̲āh Bis̲h̲ārat-ʿAlī Bahrāʾic̲h̲ī. He strove earnestly to promote fidelity to the Sunnah and to extirpate bidʿah, and was himself a man of deep piety. In 1258/1842 he went to Ṭōnk and entered the service of Wazīr al-Daulah Nawwāb Wazīr M. K̲h̲ān [to whom the Mak̲h̲zan i Aḥmadī is dedicated]. He died in Rajab 1289/1872 in the time of Nawwāb M. ʿAlī K̲h̲ān. Among the works of his which Raḥmān ʿAlī mentions is [not Mak̲h̲zan i Aḥmadī but] Waqāʾiʿ i Aḥmadīyah (dar ḥālāt i Saiyid Aḥmad i Mujāhid i Rāy Barēlī). In spite of the discrepancies noted above it seems difficult to believe that M. ʿAlī Ṣadrpūrī is not identical with the author of the Mak̲h̲zan i Aḥmadī [which, we may note, “is intermixed with numerous poems and verses”].

^ Back to text179. Wazīr al-Daulah Wazīr M. K̲h̲ān succeeded his father Amīr K̲h̲ān (for whom see no. 898 supra) as Nawwāb of Ṭōnk in 1834 and died in 1864.

^ Back to text180. S. Aḥmad Mujāhid Rāy-Barēlawī, as Raḥmān ʿAlī calls him, or S. Aḥmad Barēlawī, as he is more commonly called, was the son of M. ʿIrfān and belonged to the family of the Saiyids of the Rāy Barēlī takyah (az k̲h̲ānadān i Sādāt i takyah i Rāy Barēlī, Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 81). In 1222/1807 he became a disciple of S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Dihlawī (for whom see no. 41 supra) and assimilated the latter’s puritanical views and hostility towards all “idolatrous” or superstitious innovations. On leaving Delhi he started a revivalist movement, in the course of which he “performed miracles and attracted a large number of followers”, becoming “a terror to the S̲h̲îʿahs of Lucknow and Naṣîrâbâd”. In 1821 he visited Calcutta and gained numerous adherents. In 1822 he made a pilgrimage to Mecca with his two chief disciples M. Ismāʿīl Dihlawī (cf. Ency. Isl. under Ismāʿīl al-S̲h̲ahīd) and ʿAbd al-Ḥaiy Dihlawī, who were respectively the nephew and the son-in-law of his old teacher, S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, and of whom the former expounded S. Aḥmad’s doctrines in the Persian work Ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm (Calcutta 1238/1823°). On 7 Jumādā ii 1241/17 Jan. 1826 he set out from Rāy Barēlī with a view to conducting jihād against the Sik’hs, whom he accused of oppressing the Muslims in the Panjāb, of prohibiting the ad̲h̲ān and the killing of cows. After inciting the people of Kābul and Qandahār, he with ten or twelve thousand adherents from India and Afg̲h̲ānistān attacked the Peshawar district. For some years he engaged Ranjīt Sing’h’s forces with varying success until he was killed in battle at Bālākōṭ on 24 D̲h̲ū ’l-Qaʿdah 1246/6 May 1831. His works include short tracts entitled Tanbīh al-g̲h̲āfilīn (Delhi 1285/1868*) and Mulhimāt [sic] i Aḥmadīyah fī ’l-ṭarīq al-Muḥammadīyah (Āgrah 1299/1882°). See jasb. i (1832) pp. 479–98 (cf. Beale Oriental biographical dictionary, London 1894, pp. 354–5); The Indian Musalmans, by W. W. Hunter, London 1871, pp. 12–18, 52–3, etc.; Tawārīk̲h̲ i ʿajībah or Sawāniḥ i Aḥmadī (in Urdu), by M. Jaʿfar, Delhi 1891*, Sād’haurah [1914*]; Raḥmān ʿAlī pp. 81–2; Ḥayāt i ṭaiyibah (in Urdu), by Mīrzā Ḥairat Dihlawī, Delhi 1895*; Buckland Dictionary of Indian biography p. 8; Ency. Isl. under Aḥmad b. Muḥammed ʿIrfān (Blumhardt); Niẓāmī Badāyūnī Qāmūs al-mas̲h̲āhīr (in Urdu) i pp. 314–15.

^ Back to text181. Rāy (Rai, or Rae) Barēlī, the chief town of a district in Oudh 48 miles S.E. of Lucknow, is to be distinguished from Barēlī (officially Bareilly) in Rohilkhand.

^ Back to text182. So Mak̲h̲zan i Aḥmadī, but the Ency. Isl. gives the date 1 Muḥ. 1201/24 Oct. 1786.

^ Back to text183. Rieu writes Kul, but Gul seems more probable.

^ Back to text184. Perhaps a misreading of Jīw (for which see no. 1321 (2) 2nd footnote).

^ Back to text185. According to B. i d.-g. p. 226 Lōhārī, known as Lōhārī-Jalālābād, is in the District of Muẓaffarnagar “az mutaʿalliqāt i Sahāranpūr”.

^ Back to text186. The date 1270 given by Arberry has perhaps been taken inadvertently from a short pamphlet printed at the same press which comes next to the Bayāḍ i dil-gus̲h̲ā in the collectaneous India Office volume.

^ Back to text187. The references are to the Cawnpore edition of 1914.

^ Back to text188. For ʿAlī Ṣābir see no. 1374 2nd par. (3) (d) supra.

^ Back to text189. For ʿAbd al-Quddūs Gangōhī see no. 1279 supra.

^ Back to text190. Perhaps Maulawī A. A. C̲h̲is̲h̲tī, who lived at Amrōhah and died in 1280/1864. See K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i p. 515.

^ Back to text191. M. S., born at Gargōjī, in the hill-country west of Taunsah in the D̤ērah G̲h̲āzī K̲h̲ān District of the Panjāb, was educated at the madrasah of Qāḍī M. ʿĀqil (cf. no. 1380 2nd par. last footnote) at Miṭ’hankōṭ and afterwards became a disciple of Nūr-Muḥammad Mahārawī (for whom see no. 1396 2nd par. footnote). He settled at Taunsah and died there on 7 Ṣafar 1267/12 December 1850. His grave is marked by a mausoleum erected by M. Bahāwal K̲h̲ān iii, Nawwāb of Bahāwalpūr 1825–52, who was one of his disciples. See Manāqib al-maḥbūbain; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i p. 514; Anwār al-ʿārifīn; Qaṣr i ʿārifān; Dera Ghazi Khan Gazetteer (1898) p. 54; Bahawalpur State Gazetteer (1904) p. 74; K̲h̲ātam i Sulaimānī (in Urdu), by Ilāh-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ K̲h̲ān Balōc̲h̲, Lahore 1325/1907*; Note on the shrine of Taunsa, by D. C. Phillott (in jasb. 1908 pp. 21–9); Griffin and Massey Chiefs and families of note in the Panjab, revised ed., Lahore 1909–11, vol. ii p. 388; H. A. Rose Glossary of the tribes and castes of the Panjab and North-West Frontier Province i (Lahore 1919) pp. 602–3.

^ Back to text192. In his Intik̲h̲āb Yār-Muḥammad regularly calls this work Manāqib i s̲h̲arīfah. The publisher calls it Manāqib i Sulaimānīyah.

^ Back to text193. Jhunjhunū is “about 90 miles north-by-north-west of Jaipur city” (Imperial Gazetteer of India, Provincial series, Rājputāna, Calcutta 1908, p. 262). Nāgaur is in the State of Jōd’hpūr (cf. no. 9, 2nd par., footnote supra).

^ Back to text194. This saint, surnamed Qiblah i ʿālam, has through his disciples “exercised a profound influence over the whole of the south-western Punjab” (Rose). Born in 1142/1730, he went to Delhi and obtained the k̲h̲irqah i k̲h̲ilāfat from Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Muḥibb al-Nabī (for whom see no. 1372 4th par. supra). He died in 1205/1791 and was buried at C̲h̲is̲h̲tiyān, near Mahārān, in the State of Bahāwalpūr. See K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 506–8; Bahawalpur State Gazetteer (1904) pp. 176–8; H. A. Rose Glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province i (Lahore 1919) p. 533.

^ Back to text195. Cf. Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 168: Farangī Maḥall aknūn maḥallah īst az maḥallāt i s̲h̲ahr i Lak’hna’ū dār al-imārah i ṣūbah i Awad’h sābiq qiṭʿah i zamīn būd kih dar-ān tājirī az Farangistān sukūnat dās̲h̲t az-īn wajh ān qiṭʿah i zamīn ba-Farangī Maḥall s̲h̲uhrat girift baʿd i murūr i aiyām ba-wajh i na-māndan i aʿqāb i tājir i Farangī zamīn i mad̲h̲kūrah dar nuzūl i s̲h̲āhī dar-āmad baʿd i qatl i Mullā-yi s̲h̲ahīd [i.e. Quṭb al-Dīn Sihālawī] aulādas̲h̲ān jihat i qiyām i k̲h̲wud jā-yi mad̲h̲kūr muʿāf yāftand u dar-ān-jā hanūz aulād i s̲h̲arīfas̲h̲ qiyām-pad̲h̲īr and u ān mauqiʿ bah Farangī Maḥall s̲h̲uhrat dārad.

^ Back to text196. A. A. al-Ḥ. F.-M. b. Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq b. M. Saʿīd b. Quṭb al-Dīn Sihālawī died in 1236/1821. See Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 13.

^ Back to text197. Q. al-D. Sihālawī was murdered in 1103/1692. See Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-kirām i no. 24; Subḥat al-marjān p. 76; Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 167; etc. Sihālī is a village near Lucknow (cf. no. 1347 1st footnote supra).

^ Back to text198. For the third of these four sons, Mullā Niẓām al-Dīn M. Sihālawī, see no. 1347 supra.

^ Back to text199. Cf. no. 1374 2nd par. (3) (d) footnote.

^ Back to text200. S̲h̲. al-D. A. b. Y. Munyarī or Manērī, born at Manēr, a village in the Patna Division of the Province of Bihār, went to Delhi either before or shortly after the death of Niẓām al-Dīn Auliyā (for whom see no. 1259 4th footnote supra) and became a disciple of Najīb al-Dīn Firdausī. After his return to Bihār he spent many years of seclusion and austerity in the Rajagriha hills. Later he settled outside the town of Bihār (now a place of pilgrimage called on his account Bihār S̲h̲arīf) and died there on 7 S̲h̲awwāl 772/1371 or 781/1380 or 782/1381. See Ak̲h̲bār al-ak̲h̲yār pp. 117–22; Gulzār i abrār no. 99; Mirʾāt al-asrār, ṭabaqah 20, last biography; Mak̲h̲zan al-g̲h̲arāʾib no. 1143; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ ii pp. 290–2; Ḍamīr al-Dīn Sīrat al-S̲h̲araf (cited in Nuzhat al-k̲h̲awāṭir p. 102 and Bānkīpūr xvi p. 25); Rieu ii 402; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under Sharafuddin Ahmad Ahia [sic] Maniri and also under Shah Sharaf-uddin; Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 84; Nuzhat al-k̲h̲awāṭir (in Arabic) pp. 8–10; Bānkīpūr xvi p. 25. Among his works were (1) Maktūbāt, well known Sūfī letters, of which there are three or four collections (mss.: Āṣafīyah i p. 486 nos. 68, 69, 461, 683, 810, Bānkīpūr xvi 1361–5, xvii 1585, 1615, Brelvi-Dhabhar p. 72, Ethé 1843–7, Ivanow 1205–7, Ivanow-Curzon 756, Ivanow 1st Suppt. 855, Kapurthala (ocm. iii/4 (Aug. 1927) p. 10), Lahore (ocm. viii/3 (May 1932) p. 138), Leyden v p. 42 no. 2304, Peshawar 940b, Princeton 98. Editions: Maktūbāt i ṣadī [sic ?], [Arrah] 1287/1870* (vol. i only, pp. 165), Maktūbāt, Lucknow 1885° (pp. 400). Translation: Letters from a Sûfî teacher, Shaikh Sharfuddîn Manerî or Makhdûm-ul-Mulk. Translated … by Baijnath Singh, Benares [1909*] (pp. 130)), (2) Ajwibah (mss.: Bānkīpūr xvii 1569, Bombay Univ. p. 231 no. 151 Ivanow-Curzon 462 iv. Edition (?): Maktūbāt i jawābī, Lucknow 1884°), (3) Fawāʾid i Ruknī, extracts from the Maktūbāt (ms.: Bānkīpūr xvii 1612). Edition: place ? 1328/1910 (Āṣafīyah iii p. 200)), (4) Irs̲h̲ād al-sālikīn (mss.: Bānkīpūr xvii 1583, Ethé 1849, Ivanow-Curzon 462 iii), (5) Maʿdin al-maʿānī, a collection of malfūẓāt (mss.: Āṣafīyah i p. 488 no. 70, Bānkīpūr xvi 1360, Ivanow-Curzon 425, Lahore (ocm. viii/3 (May 1932) p. 138), Vollers 902 (?)). (6) Muk̲h̲k̲h̲ al-maʿānī, a collection of malfūẓāt. Edition: Āgrah 1321/1904*. The name of his birthplace, officially spelt Maner (i.e. Manēr presumably), is spelt Munair in the Bānkīpūr catalogue (xvi p. 25) and Manīr (bi-fatḥ al-mīm wa-kasr al-nūn) in the Nuzhat al-k̲h̲awāṭir (p. 91), but the spelling Munyar (or Manyar ?) is attested, though perhaps only as a poetic licence, by several verses in the S̲h̲araf-nāmah i Aḥmad i Munyarī, a dictionary dedicated to his memory in 877/1472 or 878/1473 by a dweller at his shrine, Ibrāhīm Qiwām Fārūqī Bīhārī (e.g. Mug̲h̲īt̲h̲ i jahān sarwar i Munyar ast * kih k̲h̲āk i dar i rauḍah as̲h̲ ʿanbar ast (quoted Ethé ii 3052), Samī-yi Nabī Aḥmad i Munyarī * kih dārad ba-d-ū dīn i ḥaqq bartarī (Sipahsālār Cat. ii p. 190), Sarāpā kih mamlū zi durr i darī’ st * S̲h̲araf-nāmah i Aḥmad i Munyarī ’st).

^ Back to text201. For whom see no. 1259 2nd par. 3rd footnote supra.

^ Back to text202. The Āṣafīyah Library has two copies of this work dated 1312 [i.e. 1894–5] which the catalogue [iii p. 166 nos. 131, 173] describes, probably by inadvertence, as manuscripts.

^ Back to text203. His father calls him Muḥammad Maʿṣūm in a note recording the date of his birth which is quoted in the Ṭarāʾiq al-ḥaqāʾiq iii p. 220 antepenult.

^ Back to text204. This nisbah indicates descent from Saiyid Abū Turāb Fanṣūr (d. 899/1494), S̲h̲āh Madār’s immediate successor, whose biography is given on pp. 22–31 of the first volume of the Tad̲h̲kirat al-muttaqīn. The word Fanṣūr is not explained. For its use as a geographical name see Ḥudūd al-ʿālam, tr. Minorsky, p. 87.

^ Back to text205. A village 8 miles N.W. of Bilhaur and 40 miles from Cawnpore, owing its celebrity to the shrine of S̲h̲āh Madār.

^ Back to text206. For this saint, who died in 371/981–2, see Kas̲h̲f al-maḥjūb tr. Nicholson p. 158; ʿAbd Allāh Anṣārī Ṭabaqāt al-Ṣūfīyah (Ivanow 234, no. 110); ʿAṭṭār Tad̲h̲kirat al-auliyāʾ ii pp. 124–31; Haft iqlīm no. 171; Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 110 (no. 144); Massignon La passion d’al-Hallaj pp. 363–4; Brockelmann Sptbd. i pp. 358–9 (where further references will be found).

^ Back to text207. For Indian saints the compiler’s chief authority is the Mirʾāt al-asrār (cf. no. 1329 (5) supra).

^ Back to text208. The last word is queried in the printed text.

^ Back to text209. The ms. should presumably be now either in the library of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal or in that of the India Office, but it seems not to be traceable in the catalogues of those libraries.

^ Back to text210. For Qāḍī Ḥ. al-D.N. see no. 9 supra.

^ Back to text211. Cf. no. 1329 (6) 2nd footnote supra.

^ Back to text212. See Nafaḥāt al-uns p. 431; Ras̲h̲aḥāt p. 18; Haft iqlīm no. 1486; Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 76 (no. 76); K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i p. 532; Ency. Isl. under G̲h̲ud̲j̲duwānī (unsigned).

^ Back to text213. The G̲h̲aut̲h̲ al-T̲h̲aqalain is of course ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (for whom see no. 1251 2nd par. footnote).

^ Back to text214. S. S̲h̲āh B. b. S. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. S. ʿĪsā Qādirī Lāhaurī, was born at S̲h̲aik̲h̲ūpūrah, became a disciple of S. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Qādirī Lāhaurī and died on 28 S̲h̲aʿbān 1046/25 Jan. 1637. See Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 198 (no. 377); ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Pāds̲h̲āh-nāmah i, 2 p. 334; ʿAmal i Ṣāliḥ iii p. 366; K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 161–3.

^ Back to text215. See Ency. Isl. under Mahdawīs; Raḥmān ʿAlī pp. 188–9; etc.

^ Back to text216. See Ẓafar al-wālih (in Arabic) i pp. 34–6; Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ i pp. 124–5, Beveridge’s translation pp. 116–7; Raḥmān ʿAlī pp. 197–201; Sawāniḥ i Mahdī i mauʿūd (in Urdu), by S. Walī Sikandarābādī, Āgrah 1321/1903*; Intik̲h̲āb i tawārīk̲h̲ al-Ag̲h̲yār (no. (28) below); etc. For a work entitled It̲h̲bāt i mad̲h̲hab i Saiyid Muḥammad Ṣāḥib i Jaunpūrī, by S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Mahdawī (d. circ. 1275/1858–9), see Āṣafīyah ii p. 1354 no. 50.

^ Back to text217. Presumably the same person as the subject of the Manāqib i Ḥāfiẓīyah mentioned below (no. 48).

^ Back to text218. Presumably Abū ’l-Maʿālī b. S. M. As̲h̲raf C̲h̲is̲h̲tī Ṣābirī, of Anbahtah (“Ambahta”) near Sahāranpūr, who was a disciple of M. Ṣādiq Gangōhī and a k̲h̲alīfah of his son, M. Dāwud b. M. Ṣādiq Gangōhī C̲h̲is̲h̲ti, and who died in 1116/1704–5. See Sawāṭiʿ al-anwār (Ethé col. 338 no. 35(d)), K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 485–6.

^ Back to text219. Author of the Ṣūfī tract Ḍābiṭah dar taḥṣīl i rābiṭah, Ludiana 1893*.

^ Back to text220. “S̲h̲āʾiq” is the author of a Mat̲h̲nawi in six daftars published at Lucknow in 1294/1877°*.

^ Back to text221. Presumably S. Amīr Kulāl, who died in 772/1370. See Maqāmāt i Amīr Kulāl (no. (51) below; perhaps another copy of the same work); Nafaḥāt al-uns; Ras̲h̲aḥāt pp. 42–3; Haft iqlīm no. 1488; Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 77 (no. 81); K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 546–8.

^ Back to text222. Whether this is the work of M. Ṣādiq S̲h̲ihābī (see no. 1339 supra) does not appear from the catalogue.

^ Back to text223. Probably identical with the subject of the (Risālah i) ḥasab a nasab i … Ḥāfiẓ M. ʿAlī-S̲h̲āh K̲h̲airābādī mentioned above (no. (24)).

^ Back to text224. For S. Amīr Kulāl see no. (44) above. According to Ras̲h̲aḥāt p. 45, the author of the Maqāmāt i Amīr Kulāl was a grandson of Amīr Ḥamzah, Amīr Kulāl’s second son (dar Maqāmāt i Amīr Kulāl kih nabīrah i Amīr Ḥamzah taʾlīf kardah). This passage is probably the source of Ḥ. K̲h̲.’s information. According to the ocm. the author’s name does not occur in the preface. The cataloguer inferred from a passage on fol. 15 that Amīr Ḥamzah himself was the author.

^ Back to text225. Presumably Wajīh al-Dīn ʿAlawī Gujrātī, a well-known scholar and mystic, who died in 998/1590 and whose grave at Aḥmadābād is marked by a beautiful tomb. See Badāʾūnī iii pp. 43–4; Maʾāt̲h̲ir i Raḥīmī iii pp. 17–18; Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 193 (no. 371); Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-kirām; Mirʾāt i Aḥmadī, k̲h̲ātimah pp. 68–70, Eng. trans. pp. 60–61; Subḥat al-marjān p. 45; Majmūʿah i ḥālāt i ḥaḍrat i S̲h̲āh W. al-D. ʿA. G. (“in Urdu, Persian, and Arabic”), by M. Yūsuf b. Aḥmad K̲h̲atk̲h̲atī, S̲h̲ihābī Press, Bombay (see Ḥaidarābād Coll. p. 36); Raḥmān ʿAlī pp. 249–50; Brockelmann Sptbd. i p. 534 and elsewhere.

^ Back to text226. In the b.m. ms. the title is given as Ḥālāt i Saiyid Sālār Masʿūd i G̲h̲āzī. The attribution of the title Saiyid to Sālār Masʿūd is perhaps due to a confusion with Saiyid Masʿūd G̲h̲āzī, the founder of G̲h̲āzīpūr, who is said to have died in 767/1365–6. See A short history of Syed Masud Gházi and his descendants, by S. Ali Azhar, in the Journal of the United Provinces Historical Society, iii pp. 49–53.

^ Back to text227. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn M. Buk̲h̲ārī, one of the chief disciples of Bahāʾ al-Dīn Naqs̲h̲band, died in 802/1400. See Nafaḥāt al-uns p. 448; Ras̲h̲aḥāt pp. 79–90; Haft iqlīm no. 1490; Safīnat al-auliyāʾ p. 80 (no. 85); K̲h̲azīnat al-aṣfiyāʾ i pp. 551–3.

^ Back to text228. For proper names of this type see no. 1354 footnote. For S̲h̲. Bhīk see no. 1378 2nd footnote.

^ Back to text229. A biography of “As̲h̲raf” without dates is given in the K̲h̲āzin al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ (fol. 46b). He was apparently alive at the time of writing (1260–5/1844–9).

^ Back to text230. I.e. presumably either S̲h̲. Ḥamzah Kas̲h̲mīrī (for whom see no. 1291 footnote supra) or someone descended from him.

^ Back to text231. For whom see no. 1259 2nd par. 3rd footnote supra.

^ Back to text232. Founder of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ī sect, d. 1242/1827. See Browne Lit. Hist. iv pp. 410–11, 421–2; Brockelmann Sptbd. ii pp. 844–5, and the authorities there cited.

^ Back to text233. One of Aḥsāʾī’s pupils. See Browne op. cit. iv p. 421; Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 845.

^ Back to text234. One of Kāẓim Ras̲h̲tī’s pupils, d. 1288/1871. See Browne op. cit. iv. p. 421; Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 846.

^ Back to text235. This is the title given (incorrectly ?) by Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad.

^ Back to text236. For whom see no. 1307 3rd footnote supra.

^ Back to text237. Cf. no. 1259 2nd par. 3rd footnote supra.

Cite this page
“13.2.2 Biography: Saints, Mystics, etc.: Saints, Mystics, etc. (2)”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 25 July 2024 <>
First published online: 2021

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