In Volume 1-2: Biography, Additions, and Corrections | Section 2, History, Biography, etc.
§ 1412. For the embassies sent by Sulṭān S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ to China and India see no. 363, Extracts (4), (5), (6) supra.
§ 1413. For the (Tārīk̲h̲ i Ῑlc̲h̲ī i Niẓām-S̲h̲āh), by K̲h̲wurs̲h̲āh b. Qubād al-Ḥusainī, which contains an account of the author’s mission to S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp, see no. 131 supra.
§ 1414. S. G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī K̲h̲ān was sent to Istānbūl in 1200/1786 by Ṭīpū Sulṭān of Mysore, (for whom see no. 1070 supra) in the vain hope of enlisting Ottoman support against the British. The instructions issued to him are preserved in a ms. at Calcutta (Ivanow 1677).
- Waqāʾiʿ i manāzil i Rūm, a diary of the journey to Istānbūl in 1200–1, completed on 19 Rabīʿ al-Awwal 1201/9 January 1787: Ivanow 1678 (foll. 123).
§ 1415. Quṭb al-Mulk and ʿAlī Riḍā were sent as envoys to Ḥaidarābād by Ṭīpū Sultān, of Mysore, (for whom see no. 1070 supra). The instructions issued to them are preserved in a ms. at Calcutta (Ivanow 1679), which is dated 1217 Maulūdī1 [circ. 1205/1790–1].
- (Rūz-nāmah i wukalāʾ i Ḥaidarābād), a report on the above-mentioned mission, dealing chiefly with the expenses incurred on the journey: Ivanow 1680.
¶ § 1416. In return for the mission of Captain (afterwards Sir) John Malcolm to Persia (in 1799–1801) Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh dispatched Ḥājjī K̲h̲alīl K̲h̲ān Qazwīnī Malik al-Tujjār as his envoy to the Government of India. In 1802 K̲h̲alīl K̲h̲ān was killed at Bombay in a quarrel between his servants and the Hindu soldiers provided as his bodyguard. To succeed him the S̲h̲āh appointed his relative2 M. Nabī K̲h̲ān Qazwīnī, who returned to Persia in January, 1807. An account of the mission of these two envoys was written by an unnamed grandson of the second. [Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī ix foll. 81b–82a (ah 1219); Watson History of Persia pp. 129–30; Sykes History of Persia ii p. 302].
- Tārīk̲h̲ i sifārat i Ḥājjī K̲h̲alīl K̲h̲ān u M. Nabī K̲h̲ān ba-Hindūstān 1802–1805: Bombay 1886°.
§ 1417. Ḥājjī Mīrzā Abū ’l-Ḥasan K̲h̲ān b. Mīrzā M. ʿAlī S̲h̲īrāzī, nephew and son-in-law3 of the late Prime Minister Ḥājjī Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān S̲h̲īrāzī, left Ṭihrān on 22 Rabīʿ i 1224/7 May, 1809, accompanied by James Morier, on a mission to London of which the main purpose was to ascertain how the subsidy promised to Persia under the preliminary treaty of March, 1809, was to be paid (Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī ix fol. 95b, Watson History of Persia p. 163, Sykes History of Persia ii p. 308, etc.). On 18 July, 1810, he set sail on his return journey with Sir Gore Ouseley and Morier (Rauḍat al-ṣafā’ ix fol. 99a penult., etc.). In 1815 he was sent as envoy to St. Petersburg (R. al-ṣ. ix fol 111a penult.) and in 1818 as envoy extraordinary to Great Britain (R. al-ṣ. ix fol. 116a). Subsequently he became Minister for Foreign Affairs, and he continued to hold this office until 1250/1834, the last year of Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s reign (R. al-ṣ. ix fol. 171a).4
- Ḥairat-nāmah i sufarā, a diary of the author’s mission to England in 1224–5/1809–10, apparently left unfinished since both the recorded mss. end before the departure from England: Bānkīpūr vii 630 (ends with 10 Ṣafar 1225/17 March, 1810. Written in 1228/1813 for Sir G. Ouseley), Rieu i 386b (spaces for the dates left blank. Early 19th cent.).
[Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī, passages specified above and others (e.g. ix fol. 147b, x fol. 42a); J. Morier A journey through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor to Constantinople, in … 1808 and 1809, London 1812, pp. 220–3, A second journey through Persia … to Constantinople, 1810–16, London 1818, appendix; W. Ouseley Travels in various countries of the East, i, London 1819, p. 2 et passim; W. Price ¶ Journal of the British embassy to Persia, London 1825; J. B. Fraser A winter’s journey (tâtar) from Constantinople to Tehran, ii, London 1838, p. 3; A memoir of … Sir Gore Ouseley … by the Rev. James Reynolds (prefixed to G. Ouseley’s Biographical notices of Persian poets, London 1846); Portrait by Sir W. Beechey at the India Office. A caricature of Abū ’l-Ḥasan K̲h̲ān was drawn by J. Morier in his romance The adventures of Hajji Baba, of Ispahan, in England, London 1828, reprinted 1835, 1942.]
§ 1418. Ḥusain K̲h̲ān Muqaddam5 Ajūdān-bās̲h̲ī was descended from Āqā K̲h̲ān Muqaddam, an amīr of S̲h̲āh Ṣafī’s time (Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī x fol. 29b, l. 4). After a period in the service of the Nāʾib al-Salṭanah [ʿAbbās Mīrzā, d. 1249/1833: cf. no. 434 supra and corrections] he became an officer in the army and rose to the rank of Adjutant General. In 1254/1838 Muḥammad S̲h̲āh sent him on a special mission to Great Britain, France, and Austria in the hope of obtaining the recall of the British Minister at Ṭihrān, Sir John McNeill (op. cit. x fol. 29b, l. 20, Watson History of Persia pp. 324, 328–31, Sykes History of Persia ii p. 336). Having visited Istānbūl and Vienna he reached Paris on 1 Ṣafar 1255/16 April, 1839, and London shortly afterwards (R. al-ṣ. x fol. 30a, l. 20). Here he interviewed Lord Palmerston and was given a memorandum containing nine demands of the British Government. In 1258/1842 he was appointed Governor of Yazd (op. cit. x fol. 30a, l. 25), and held this office for two years (op. cit. x fol. 30b, l. 1). Presumably it was about this time that the title of Niẓām al-Daulah was conferred upon him. In the early days of the Bābī movement he was Governor of Fārs and in that capacity he interviewed and imprisoned the Bāb at S̲h̲īrāz (op. cit. x fol. 35–36a, Watson pp. 349–51, Sykes p. 341, and the Bābī histories). In the disturbances which followed the death of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (in 1264/1848) Ḥusain K̲h̲ān was besieged in the fort of Karīm K̲h̲ān’s citadel until rescued by his supersessor, Bahrām Mīrzā (op. cit. x fol. 46b, l. 19 foll.).
According to Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān (op. cit. fol. 22a ult.) an account of Ḥusain K̲h̲ān’s mission to Europe was written by Mīrzā ʿAbd al-Fattāḥ Garmrūdī,6 who accompanied the envoy as his deputy (nāʾib. Cf. fol. 30a, l. 11, where he is called Mīrzā Fattāḥ). It is not clear whether Chanykov’s ms. contains this account or another.
- ¶ Travels of Ḥusain K̲h̲ān, Ajūdān-bās̲h̲ī, in Germany [Austria ?], France, and England in 1254/1838 beginning: K̲h̲udāwandī-rā bandah īm): Chanykov 116.
§ 1419. Ḥājjī Mīrzā Muḥammad K̲h̲ān b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī Bēg Lawāsānī was sent on a mission to Russia at the beginning of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh’s reign [1264–1313/1848–96]. He was editor of the dīwān of “Nas̲h̲āṭī” K̲h̲ān Hazārjarībī published at [Ṭihrān7] in [1845 ?°].
- Mirʾāt al-arḍ, an account of the above-mentioned mission to Russia written in 1264/1848: Majlis 702.
§ 1420. For Riḍā-Qulī K̲h̲ān “Hidayat’s” Sifārat-nāmah i K̲h̲wārazm, an account of his embassy to Khiva in 1267/1851, see no. 440 (1) supra.
§ 1421. Mīrzā Ḥusain b. ʿAbd Allāh Sarābī Tabrīzī.
- Mak̲h̲zan al-asfār, an account of Farruk̲h̲ K̲h̲ān Kās̲h̲ānī’s8 mission to Europe in the course of which he negotiated the Anglo Persian treaty of March 1857 at Paris and subsequently visited London: Browne Coll. ¶ K. 7 = Houtum-Schindler 38 (ah 1276/1860), Mas̲h̲had iii, Faṣl 14, mss., p. 28 (Mak̲h̲zan al-waqāʾiʿ).
§ 1422. Mus̲h̲īr al-Daulah Mīrzā Jaʿfar K̲h̲ān Ḥusainī, the son of Mīrzā Taqī Ḥusainī Wazīr i Tabrīzī, was, like Mīrzā M. Ṣāliḥ S̲h̲īrāzī (see no. 1607 infra), one of the young Persians sent to England in 1230/1815 for the completion of their education. He spent four years in Europe, mainly in London (Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ x fol. 27b, l.1), and later, having specialized in Mathematics and Geometry, he wrote a book on arithmetic printed at Ṭihrān in 1263/1847 and known as the K̲h̲ulāṣat al-ḥisāb i Mus̲h̲īr al-Daulah. In 1252/1836–7 he was Muhandis-bās̲h̲ī i ʿAsākir i Manṣūrah when he was sent as Persian Ambassador to Istānbūl and in the course of his residence there he negotiated the commercial treaty of 1257/1841 with Belgium and the treaty of 1258/1842 with Spain. In 1260/1844 he was on his way to the Erzerum conference (see Watson History of Persia p. 365) when he fell ill at Tabrīz and was replaced as Persian Commissioner by Mīrzā Taqī K̲h̲ān Farāhānī. In 1264/1848 he went to Bag̲h̲dād and Muḥammarah to discuss the delimitation of the frontier between Persia and Turkey with representatives of Turkey, Russia, and Great Britain. The results of his investigations into the question of the frontier were recorded in a booklet, of which, according to M. ʿAlī “Tarbiyat”, many copies are in existence. In 1275/1858–9 he was appointed President of the Dār al-S̲h̲ūrā and in 1277/1860–1 he was sent as Envoy Extraordinary on a mission to England. He died at Mas̲h̲had after a period as Mutawallī of the Shrine of the Imām Riḍā (cf. al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār p. 15).
- (Siyāḥat-nāmah i Jaʿfar K̲h̲ān Mus̲h̲īr al-Daulah), an account of the above-mentioned journey to England in 1277/1860–1: Ṭihrān 1277/1861 (in the Rūz-nāmah i Daulat i ʿalīyah i Irān no. 513, 29 Rajab 1277/10 Feb., 1861. See Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān p. 345 penult.10)
[Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī x fol. 27a, l. 4 from foot, fol. 56a, l. 24, 81b, l. 25; Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān pp. 344–7 (portrait).]
^ Back to text6. Cf. Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān p. 258, where it is stated that ʿA. al-F. Garmrūdī Tabrīzī wrote (1) C̲h̲ahār faṣl, an account of the Ajūdān-bās̲h̲ī’s mission, (2) S̲h̲ab-nāmah, on the licentiousness of European life, and that numerous copies of both works are in existence.
^ Back to text7. Cf. Browne Press and poetry of modern Persia p. 8: The well-known Mashhadí Asad Áqá “Básma-chí” (“the Printer”) of Tabríz … also relates that Mírzā Ṣáliḥ of Shíráz, the Wazír of Ṭihrán, sent at great expense one Mirzá Asadu’lláh, of the province of Fárs, to St. Petersburg to learn the art of printing, and that on his return thence he founded at Tabríz, with the assistance of the late Áqá Riẓá, father of the above-mentioned Mashhadi Asad Áqá, a lithographic press, the first book lithographed at which was the Holy Qur’án in the hand-writing of Mírzá Ḥusayn the famous calligraphist. Five years later, at the Sháh’s command, this press and its appurtenances were transferred to Ṭihrán, where the first book printed was the Díwán of Nisháṭí Khán the poet.
^ Back to text8. Amīn al-Mulk F. K̲h̲. K. K̲h̲āzin i Sulṭānī was in the service of four S̲h̲āhs of Persia (Rauḍat al-ṣafā-yi Nāṣirī; x fol. 107b, i. 26). In M. Ḥasan K̲h̲ān’s list of the successive Heads of Government Departments in Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh’s reign (al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār pp. 15–29) he appears under the headings Riyāsat i ʿamalah i k̲h̲alwat i k̲h̲āṣṣah i humāyūnī (p. 20a), Idārah i ṣandūq-k̲h̲ānah i mubārakah (ibid.), Idārah i muhr i mubārak u k̲h̲izānat i k̲h̲ātam i humāyūn (p. 20b), Idārah i ṣarf i jaib i mubārak (ibid.), Muk̲h̲āṭabīn i salām i ʿāmm (p. 22b), and Pīs̲h̲k̲h̲idmat-bās̲h̲iyān i ḥuḍūr i mubārak (p, 23a). His appointment to the Ṣāḥib-jamʿī i k̲h̲āṣṣ took place in 1270/1854 (Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ x fol. 92b,l. 7 from foot). He must have been an elderly man at the time of his mission to Europe (for which see Rauḍat al-ṣafāʾ x fol. 107b, l. 21–109a, l. 5, fol. 122a, l. 18–123a, l. 2, fol. 128a, 1. 1–129b, l. 17, fol. 130a, ll. 13–27, Watson History of Persia pp. 430, 456, 459, 461). A Siyāḥat-nāmah of Farruk̲h̲ K̲h̲ān is mentioned in Browne’s Press and poetry of modern Persia p. 20n, as having been circulated in manuscript.
^ Back to text10. S̲h̲arḥ u tafṣīl i īn siyāḥat u māmūrīyat dar s̲h̲umārah i 513 i Rūz-nāmah i D. i ʿa. i Ī … nawis̲h̲tah s̲h̲udah ast. M. ʿAlī “Tarbiyat” does not say that the account was written by Jaʿfar K̲h̲ān himself.