In Volume 3: Lexicography; Grammar; Prosody, and Poetics; Rhetoric, Riddles, and Chronograms; Ornate Prose; Proverbs; Tales
See also Farhang-nāmah-hā-yi ʿArabī ba-Fārsī (Silsilah i Intis̲h̲ārāt i Dānis̲h̲gāh no. 513. Cf. Lug̲h̲at-nāmah i Dihk̲h̲udā, muqaddimah, p. 265 seq.).
§ 114. Abū Naṣr Ismāʿīl b. Ḥammād al-Jauharī, born at or near Fārāb, received his early education from his maternal uncle Isḥāq b. Ibrāhīm al-Fārābī, the author of the Dīwān al-adab (for which see Brockelmann i 128, Sptbd. i 195) and subsequently studied at Bag̲h̲dād under al-Sīrāfī (al-Ḥasan b. ʿAbd Allāh) and al-Fārīsī (Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan b. Aḥmad). After travelling in Mesopotamia, Syria and the Ḥijāz he settled at Nīs̲h̲āpūr as a teacher of Arabic and calligraphy and he died there about 400/ 1009–10.
[Ency. Isl. under D̲j̲awharī; Brockelmann i 128, Sptbd. i 196.]
Tāj al-lug̲h̲ah wa-ṣiḥāḥ (or ṣaḥāḥ) al-ʿArabīyah, commonly called al-Ṣiḥāḥ or al-Ṣaḥāḥ, a celebrated Arabic dictionary (for which see Brockelmann op. cit., and Lane Arabic-English lexicon, preface, p. xiv).
Abridgment with a Persian translation: al-Ṣurāḥ min al-Ṣiḥāḥ (beg. Qāla ’l-faqīr ilā Maulāhu … Abū ’l-Faḍl M. b. ʿUmar b. K̲h̲ālid al-madʿū bi-Jamāl al-QRSH Ī … Aḥmadu ’llāha wa-huwa ’l-maḥmūd bi-kulli ’l-lug̲h̲āt), completed on 16 Ṣafar 681/26 May 1282 (see Bodleian 1645) at Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar by Abū ’l-Faḍl M. b. ʿUmar b. K̲h̲ālid called (al-madʿuww bi-) Jamāl [al-Dīn] al-Qars̲h̲ī, who mentions in his (Arabic) Mulḥaqāt al-Ṣurāḥ that his father was one of the ḥuffāẓ of Balāsāg̲h̲ūn: Ḥ. K̲h̲. iv p. 101 (Ṣurāḥ al-lug̲h̲ah), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1436, no. 18 ( ah 681/1282, autograph (?)), p. 1438 nos. 233, 261, 275, Bodleian 1645 ( ah 700/1301, autograph with numerous marginal additions by the author), 1646–8, 1649 (an abridgment), iii 2765, Blochet ii 950 (defective. Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar, ah 700/1300–1), Tashkent Acad. i 439 ( ah 917/1511), 440, Leyden i p. 69 no. 123 ( ah 931/1524–5), Bānkīpūr ix 830 (16th cent.), 831 (18th cent.), Ethé 2388 ( ah 1013/1605), 2389–90, Sipahsālār ii p. 200 nos. 842–5, Browne Pers. Cat. 153 ( ah 1066/1656), 154 ( ah 1085/ 1674), Suppt. 835 ( ah 1091/1680–1), Ahlwardt 6947, Rieu ii 507a (2 copies), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 55 no. 11, Cairo p. 435, Ellis Coll. M 202, Eton 96, Majlis 468, Mas̲h̲had ii, fṣl. 11, mss., nos. 22, 23, Salemann-Rosen p. 16 no. 374b, Vollers 993. Some others are mentioned by Brockelmann.
¶ Editions: Calcutta 1812° (The Soorah. A dictionary of Arabic words, explained in Persian, by Abool Fuzl Moohummud bin Omr bin Khalid, commonly called Jumal, being a translation of … the Sihah. Revised and corrected … by Muoluvees Durvesh Ulee, Jan Ulee, Meer Ghoolam Husun and Ubdoor-Ruheem. 2 vols. Pp. 648; 649–1395), 1815° (The Soorah, etc. 2 vols.), Tihrān 1286/1869–70 (see Sipahsālār ii p. 201), Lucknow 1289/1872° (Ṣurāḥ. Followed by the Qarāḥ, a glossary of Persian words occurring in the Ṣurāḥ, with explanations in Persian, by Ḥakīm ʿAbd al-Majīd K̲h̲ān. 2 vols.), 1883° (Ṣurāḥ … maʿ farhang i musammā bah Qarāḥ. 2 vols.), Cawnpore 1910‡ (1st qr. 1911) (Ṣurāḥ maʿa iḍāfah i musammā bah Qarāḥ. Pp. 602. Presumably this is the edition, India 1328, mentioned by Sarkis, col. 707, in which case it contains also the Nūr al-ṣabāḥ, for which see below).
Corrections: Nūr al-ṣabāḥ fī ag̲h̲lāṭ al-Ṣurāḥ, by M. Saʿd Allāh Murādābādī (for whom see pl. i § 81): Calcutta 1812 (appended to the Ṣurāh. Mushār i 1606); Lucknow 1293/ 1876 (ʿAlawī Pr. See ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. ptd. bks. p. 52); Lucknow 1311/1893° (in a volume containing six of M. Saʿd Allāh’s works, the first being Nawādir al-wuṣūl [al-uṣūl?] fī s̲h̲arḥ al-Fuṣūl, which gives its title to the volume); Cawnpore 1343/1924–5 (appended to the Ṣurāḥ. Mus̲h̲ār i 1606).
Supplement: Ḍamīmah i laṭīfah, by Ḥakīm ʿAbd al-Majīd K̲h̲ān (author of the Qarāḥ mentioned above and editor of the 1834 edition of the Burhān i qāṭiʿ and of other works), Calcutta 1831° (186 pp.); possibly also Cawnpore 1332/1914* (Lug̲h̲āt al-Ṣurāḥ bi-’l-taṣrīḥ wa-’l-īḍāḥ, additional explanations in Persian and Urdu, by M. ʿAbd al-Majīd Islāmābādī. Majīdī Pr. 511 pp.).
For the author’s own supplement, Mulḥaqāt al-Ṣurāḥ, which is in Arabic, see Barthold Turkestan, London 1928, pp. 51–2; Brockelmann Sptbd. i p. 196, and Barthold Turkestan v epokhu mongol’skago nashestviya Teksty, pp. 128–52, where some extracts are printed.
§ 115. al-Qāḍī Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusain b. Aḥmad al-Zauzanī, imām ʿaṣrihi fī ’l-naḥw wa-’l-lug̲h̲ah wa-’l-ʿarabīyah, died in 486/1093 (see Bug̲h̲yat al-wuʿāh p. 232; Brockelmann i p. 288, Sptbd. i p. 505).
- al-Maṣādir (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ʿalā sawābig̲h̲i ālāʾihi ’l-mutasābiqah), a dictionary of Arabic infinitives with their meanings in Persian: Ḥ. K̲h̲. v p. 5745, Blochet ii 942 ( ah 650/1252), 943, de Slane 4287 (16th cent.), 4288, Escurial 600 ( ah 670/1271), Ellis Coll. M 439 ( ah 711/1311), 438 ( ah 880/1475), Leyden 2nd ed. 100 ( ah 725/1325. Described by H.E. Weijers in Orientalia i (Amsterdam 1840) pp. 367–8), 101, Rieu ii 505a (14th ¶ cent.), 505b (19th cent.), Flügel i 93 ( ah 858/1454), Leipzig Fleischer 1 ( ah 888/1483), Upsala 12 ( ah 922/1516. Preface quoted), Bodleian 1630–2, Sipahsālār ii p. 282 nos. 905–6, Bānkīpūr ix 817–18, Ivanow Curzon 532, Aumer 297, Dorn 227, Leningrad Univ. 1149* (Romaskewicz p. 14), and others at Istanbul (cf. Horn Pers. Hss. p. 497 no. 904) and elsewhere (cf. Brockelmann i p. 288, Sptbd. i p. 505).
§ 116. Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusain b. Ibrāhīm al-Naṭanzī, surnamed D̲h̲ū ’l-lisānain, died in 497/1103 or 499/1106. For al-Mirqāt, a Persian-Arabic glossary ascribed to him on doubtful authority, see § 91 supra.
[Samʿānī fol. 564a; Bug̲h̲yat al-wuʿāh p. 231; Brockelmann i p. 288, Sptbd. i p. 505.]
- Dastūr al-lug̲h̲ah, or al-K̲h̲alāṣ (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. abdaʿa ’l-ʿālama bi-qudratihi), a glossary of Arabic words with explanations sometimes in Persian sometimes in Arabic arranged according to the first letter in twenty-eight kitābs each subdivided into twelve bābs: Ḥ. K̲h̲. iii p. 227, D̲h̲arīʿah vii p. 208, Blochet ii 944 (early 12th cent.), iv 2417 ( ah 671/1273), de Slane 4286 (15th cent.), Leyden i 2nd ed. no. 104 ( ah 601/1204–5), nos. 102–3 (both undated), Majlis 464 (12th cent.), 463, b.m. ( ah 715/1315–16. See A volume … presented to E. G. Browne, p. 148), Upsala p. 8 no. 10 (2) ( ah 935/1528–9), Mas̲h̲had ii, fṣl. 11, mss., no. 10 ( ah 960/1553), Rāmpūr Arab. Cat. p. 509 nos. 27 ( ah 991/1583), 28 (defective), Bānkīpūr ix 819 ( ah 1114/1702–3), Maʿārif i 162, Sipahsālār ii p. 176 ( ah 1262/1846), and some others mentioned by Brockelmann.
§ 117. Abū ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. M. al-Maidānī, who died at Nīs̲h̲āpūr in 518/1124, wrote the well-known dictionary of Arabic proverbs entitled Majmaʿ al-amt̲h̲āl and several other works.
[Ency. Isl. under Maidānī (Brockelmann); Brockelmann i 289, Sptbd. i p. 506.]
al-Sāmī fī ’l-asāmī (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. lā yatimmu amrun dūna ḥamdihi), a classified Arabic vocabulary with short Persian explanations (which seem, however, to be absent from some of the mss.) completed in 497/1104 and divided into four qisms ((1) fī ’l-s̲h̲arʿīyāt, (2) fī ’l-ḥayawānāt, (3) fī ’l-ʿulwīyāt, (4) fī ’l-suflīyāt), each qism being subdivided into bābs (5, 27, 5 and 6) and each bāb into faṣls: Ḥ. K̲h̲. iii p. 573 no. 6995, Blochmann p. 5 no. 27, Salemann p. 508 no. 6, Sur. 9, an. 25, Paris Arab. Accessions (1884–1924) 5883 ( ah 528/1133–4), 6592 (mid 12th cent.), de Slane 4284 (13th cent.), 4285 ( ah 875/1470–1), Rieu Arab. Suppt. 855 ( ah 599/1203), Ellis-Edwards p. 52 ( ah 682/1283), b.m. (a recension differing considerably from Rieu Arab. Suppt. 855. 13th cent. See A volume … presented ¶ to E. G. Browne p. 149), Ahlwardt 7040 (circ. ad 1203. Headings of bābs quoted), Mas̲h̲had ii, fṣl. 11, mss., nos. 12 ( ah 651/1253), 13 ( ah 653/1255), Vatican Borg. Pers. 11 ( ah 680/1281–2. Rossi p. 166), Loth 997 (a fragment. ah 762/1361), 1027 (3) ( ah 965/1558), Escurial Arab. Cat. i 601 ( ah 821/1418), Browne Suppt. 750, Cairo p. 532, Leyden 1st ed. p. 76 no. 130 = 2nd ed. p. 66 no. 105, Majlis ii 859, Princeton Arab. Cat. 269–70.
Editions: Tihrān 1265/1848–9; 1267/1850–1; 1272/1855–6; date? (109 pp.); and others (see Mus̲h̲ār i 931–2).
§ 118. Abū ’l-Qāsim Maḥmūd b. ʿUmar al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, author of the Kas̲h̲s̲h̲āf ʿan ḥaqāʾiq al-tanzīl and several other well-known Arabic works, was born in 467/1075 at Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲ar, between Nūzwār and al-Jurjānīyah (Gurgānj) in the province of K̲h̲wārizm, and he died in 538/1144 at al-Jurjānīyah (see Brockelmann i pp. 289–93, Sptbd. i pp. 507–13; Ency. Isl. under Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī; etc.].
Muqaddimat al-adab (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. faḍḍala ʿalā jamīʿi ’l-alsinati lisān al-ʿArab), an Arabic dictionary dedicated to the Isfahsālār Bahāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlāʾ al-Daulah Abū ’l-Muẓaffar Atsiz b. K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh (who afterwards reigned from 522/1128 to 551/1156) and divided into five qisms ((1) nouns (including adjectives, numerals and pronouns) classed according to subject, with Persian, Turkish and K̲h̲wārizmian glosses1 (the last absent from most mss.), (2) verbs (with similar glosses), (3) particles, (4) inflexion of the nouns, (5) inflexion of the verb): Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 76, Blochet ii 946 (Qisms i– ii. With Persian and Eastern Turkish translations. Mid 12th cent.), 947 (Preface and Qism i with the nouns arranged in alphabetical order. Early 17th cent.), iv 2158, de Slane 4283 (2) ( ah 866/1462), 4289 (15th cent.), 4290–2, Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (Vyatkin ms. with Turkish glosses. Undated but very old. See Barthold “Eine Zamaḫšarī-Handschrift mit alttürkischen Glossen” in Islamica ii/1 (1926) p. 1), Univ. 176 ( ah 660/1262 and ah 669/1270–1. Many Turkish glosses. See Salemann-Rosen p. 19 and Mélanges ix p. 551 n.), Pub. Lib (Dorn 213 (Qism ii with Turkish (not Persian) translation), Chanykov 30), Marsigli 371 ( ah 663/1265), Ahlwardt 6961 ( ah 682/1283), 6960 ( ah 694/1294), Tashkent Acad. i 424 ( ah 705/1305), 425–7, Browne Coll. S. 1 ( ah 721/ 1321), Pers. Cat. 174 ( ah 790/1388), Cairo Arab. Cat. iv p. 190 ( ah 757/1356), Cureton-Rieu p. 241 no. 524 (Qisms iii, iv, v. ah 760/1359. Cf. Rieu Pers. Cat. iii p. 1089a), Rieu ¶ ii 505b (Preface and Qism i. ah 864/1460), Uri p. 238 no. 1127 ( ah 785/1383), p. 243 no. 1161 (Qism ii only. ah 792/1389), p. 233 no. 1083 (n.d.), p. 234 no. 1094 (n.d.), Nicoll-Pusey p. 186 no. 225 (most of Qism i. 16th cent.), p. 189 no. 231 (1) (Qism ii only. ah 941/1535), Bodleian 1633 = Uri p. 290 no. 99 (3) (Qism ii only), ii 2373 (=Uri p. 243 no. 1161), Majlis 487 (Qism ii (and iii?). ah 790/1388), 485 (Qism i. ah 872/1467–8), 486 (Qism i. ah 1343/1924–5), Bas̲h̲īr Āg̲h̲ā 1149 (with Persian, Turkish and K̲h̲wārizmian glosses. ah 797/1395. See Zekī Walīdī in Islamica iii/2 (1927) p. 210), Leyden 2nd ed. i p. 68 nos. 109 ( ah 827/ 1424), 110 (Qism ii. ah 852/1448), Upsala 13 (Qisms i and iii only. ah 864/1460. Preface quoted), Fleischer p. 332 no. 2 (partly ah 867/1462, partly ah 1059/1649), Rāmpūr p. 518 no. 101.
Editions: (1) [Preface and Qisms i– ii only] Samachscharii lexicon arabicum persicum edidit atque indicem arabicum adjecit J. G. Wetzstein. Leipzig 1850° (pp. 288, 269). (2) Leningrad 1938 (ed. Poppe. See bsos. ix/4 (1939) p. 947 n. 2).
Rearranged and amplified Persian translation2 of Qisms i– ii written by an anonymous author for his son Abū ’l-Ṣafāʾ Burhān al-Dīn Yaḥyā (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. jaʿala ʿilma ’l-adabi d̲h̲arīʿatan): Manchester Mingana 755 (defective at end. Circ. ad 1750).
(1) [on Qisms [ iii?] iv– v] Ṭilbat al-ʿufāt fī s̲h̲arḥ al-taṣarrufāt (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. ajzala lanā min ayādīhi ’l-mutaẓāhirah), by an anonymous author: Escurial 167 (3) ( ah 707/1307).
(2) [on Qisms iii– iv ( v?)] S̲h̲arḥ Risālat al-taṣarrufāt (beg. Ḥamdan li-Man fataḥa abwāba ’l-ʿulūm), by M. ʿIṣmat Allāh b. Maḥmūd Niʿmat Allāh al-Buk̲h̲ārī, who completed it in 945/1538: Leningrad Asiat. Mus. Buk̲h̲ārā Coll. 189–96 (of which 194 and 192 are dated 940 (sic?) and 945 respectively), Loth 989, 990 (2).
(3) Anonymous glosses on the same Risālat al-taṣarrufāt: Loth 990 (1).
Turkish translation: see Brockelmann.
§ 119. Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Muqriʾ al-Baihaqī [known as Bū Jaʿfarak according to Irs̲h̲ād al-arīb i p. 414, not Jaʿfarak, as H. K̲h̲. says] was born in or about 470/1077–8 and died in 544/ 1150. He was Imām of the Old Mosque at Nīs̲h̲āpūr and wrote works entitled Yanābīʿ al-lug̲h̲ah, an Arabic dictionary almost as large as the Ṣiḥāḥ on which it is chiefly based ( ms. of Vol. ii: Mas̲h̲had ii, fṣl. 11, mss., no. 61), al-Muḥīṭ bi-lug̲h̲āt al-Qurʾān and al-Muḥīṭ bi-ʿilm al-Qurʾān.
¶ [Irs̲h̲ād al-arīb i pp. 414–16; Bug̲h̲yat al-wuʿāh p. 150; Brockelmann i p. 293, Sptbd. i p. 513.]
Tāj al-maṣādir (beg. al-H. l. R. al-ʿā. ḥamdan yafūqu ḥamda ’l-s̲h̲ākirīn), a dictionary of Arabic infinitives with their meanings in Persian: Ḥ. K̲h̲. ii p. 93, D̲h̲arīʿah iii p. 207 no. 769, Blochet iv 2416 (two hands, circ. ad 1220 and a.h. 851/1448), 2417 ( a.h. 648/1250), Loth 994 (8th cent.), 995–6, Ross and Browne 154 (18th cent.), Bānkīpūr ix, 821 (14th cent.), 820 ah (850/ 1446), Tashkent Acad. i 428 ( ah 806/1403), 429–31, Majlis ii 849 ( ah 848/1444–5), Mas̲h̲had ii, fṣl. 11, mss., no. 6 (old), Browne Pers. Cat 149 ( ah 1111/1699), Calcutta Madrasah 153, Manchester Mingana 756, Tashkent Univ. 26, Āṣafīyah ii p. 908 no. 136, Bodleian 1635 (fullest description), Edinburgh 61, Leningrad Univ 1022* (Romaskewicz p. 4), and others at Istanbul (cf. Horn Pers. Hss. p. 494 no. 860) and elsewhere (cf. Brockelmann).
Edition: Bombay 1301–2/1884–5 (Bānkīpūr ix p. 40).
The statements of Ḥājjī K̲h̲alīfah and the Mas̲h̲had cataloguer concerning the vocabulary known as Ḥamd u t̲h̲anā and its metrical version, the ʿUqūd al-jawāhir, are as follows:
§ 120. Ḥ. K̲h̲. iii p. 116 ult.: Ḥamd u t̲h̲anā lug̲h̲ah manẓūmah Fārisīyah mansūbah ilā Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn [M. b. M. b. ʿAbd al-Jalīl al-ʿUmarī al-maʿrūf] bi-’l-Waṭwāṭ [al-mutawaffā sanata 573] g̲h̲aiyarahu rajul min al-Arwān li-l-Sulṭān Murād b. M. K̲h̲ān wa-sammāhu ʿUqūd al-jawāhir. Ḥ. K̲h̲. iv p. 2394: ʿUqūd al-jawāhir fī ’l-lug̲h̲ah manẓūmah mus̲h̲tamilah ʿalā iḥdā wa-k̲h̲amsīn qiṭʿah fī sittimiʾah wa-k̲h̲amsīn baitan aṣlaḥ3 awwaluhu al-Ḥ. l. Mubdiʿ al-badāʾiʿ ’lk̲h̲ wa-muʾallifuhu Aḥmad [here a verb has evidently been omitted, probably aṣlaḥa, which seems to be misplaced above] muk̲h̲taṣaran mausūman bi-Ḥamd u t̲h̲anā mansūban ilā ’l-Ras̲h̲īd al-Waṭwāṭ bi-naẓm salīs wa-ḍabṭ jaiyid wa-ahdāhu li-l-Sulṭān Murād b. M. K̲h̲ān fī at̲h̲nāʾ taʿallumihi.
Mas̲h̲had cat. ii, faṣl xi, mss., no. 59: Nuqūd al-zawāhir manẓūmah i Fārisī—nāẓim Rashīd al-Dīn M. b. ʿAbd al-Jalīl al-kitāb al-ʿUmarī maʿrūf bi-Waṭwāṭ—mutawaffā-yi sanah i 578 kih az mas̲h̲āhīr i s̲h̲uʿarā … u ṣāḥib i taṣānīf i badīʿah … ast u īn manẓūmah i ras̲h̲īqah mit̲h̲l i laʾalī i mant̲h̲ūrah mutafarriq būd Maulā M. Munīf kih dar Kas̲h̲f al-ẓunūn ū-rā Aḥmad guftah c̲h̲unānc̲h̲ih ism i kitāb rā ham ʿUqūd al-jawāhir k̲h̲wāndah ān-rā barāy i Sulṭān Murād K̲h̲ān pisar i Sulṭān M. K̲h̲ān i ʿUt̲h̲mānī dar at̲h̲nāʾ i taʿlīm u taʿallum jamʾ u tālīf numūdah u k̲h̲uṭbah u dibāchaʾī az k̲h̲wud ¶ muqaddamatan nawis̲h̲tah u ism i k̲h̲wud rā ba-M. Munīf u ism i kitāb rā ba-Nuqūd al-zawāhir taʿbīr kardah. Awwal i nusk̲h̲ah al-Ḥ. l. Mubdiʿ al-badāʾiʿ wa-muns̲h̲i̲ʾ al-ṣanāʾiʿ….
- (Ḥamd u t̲h̲anā) (beg. Ḥamd u t̲h̲anā Mubdiʿ i bī-mit̲h̲āl u ālat rā u Muk̲h̲tariʿ i bī-g̲h̲araḍ u ʿillat rā…. Bāb i Alif: Ibtidā u iftitāḥ u ins̲h̲ā Āg̲h̲āz i kār kardan4), an Arabic-Persian vocabulary in prose5 (with interlinear Turkish translation in most of the recorded mss.), divided into three fuṣūl ((1)fī ’l-mufradāt, (2) fī ’l-murakkabāt, (3) fī ’l-aḍdād, the last sometimes omitted) and arranged therein according to the first letter: Ḥ. Kh. iii p. 116, D̲h̲arīʿah vii p. 90 no. 467, Flügel i 121 (5) (old), de Slane 4301 ( ah 936/1530), Vatican Pers 45 ( ah 954/1547. Rossi p. 74), 82 ( ah 965/1557. Rossi p. 100), Browne Pers. Cat. 160 (belonged to Erpenius †1624), 169 (1) (presented ad 1655), Suppt. 658, Aumer 309 foll. 24–33, Berlin 164, Bodleian 1684 (title given as Tuḥfat al-ṣibyān and author’s name as Yūsuf al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲), 1759 (1), Cairo p. 436 (2 copies).
- ʿUqūd al-jawāhir (beg. al-Ḥ. l. Mubdiʿ al-badāʾiʿ wa-Muns̲h̲iʾ al-ṣanāʾiʿ … ammā baʿd c̲h̲unīn gūyad … al-Waṭwāṭī … Ibtidā u iftitāh u fātiḥah āg̲h̲āz i kār * Istimālat dil-k̲h̲wus̲h̲ī dādan Muwāfiq sāzkār), a metrical Arabic-Persian vocabulary “arranged, like the Niṣāb uṣ-Ṣubyān, by order of subjects” (Rieu), and consisting of fifty or fifty-one sections (qiṭʿahs) introduced with a prose preface, in which ʿAbd al-Jalīl b. Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn ʿUmar al-Waṭwāṭī (Ivanow), or Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn al-Qawī [sic?] ʿAbd al-Jalīl b. ʿUmar al-Waṭwāṭī6 (Rieu), or, according to some mss., Aḥmad “Dāʿī”,7 speaks as the author, and Sulṭān Murād b. M. ( ah 824–55/1421–51) or Mīrzā Ulug̲h̲ Bēg C̲h̲elebī, son of Sulṭān M. [b.] Bāyazīd b. Murād (i.e. Sulṭān M. i, who reigned 816–24/1413–21) is mentioned as the dedicatee: Ḥ. K̲h̲. iv p. 239, Ivanow Curzon 540 ( ah 1098/1687), 1st Suppt. 886 (mid 18th cent.), Rieu ii 507b (17th cent.), Browne Suppt. 871 (Aḥmad Dāʿī named as author. ah 1184/1770–1), Bodleian 1676 (lacks preface), Ethé 2391 (lacks preface), Rehatsek p. 155 no. 102, Mas̲h̲had ii, fṣl 11, mss., no. ¶ 59 (title given as Nuqūd al-zawāhir and author, or editor, as M. Munīf8), Upsala 15 (1) (beg. al-Ḥ. l. M. al-b. w-m. al-ṣ … ammā baʿd c̲h̲unīn gūyad muʾallif i sāʿī Aḥmad i Dāʿī. Scriptor porro annuntiat, se vocabularium Reschid-el-dini Watwati hic in aham formam redegisse. Dedication to M. b. Bāyazīd, reigned 816–25/1413–21), Meherji Rana p. 81 no. 13.
§ 121. Jamāl al-Dīn or Kamāl al-Dīn Badīʿ al-Zamān Abū ’l-Faḍl Ḥubais̲h̲ b. Ibrāhīm b. M. al-Tiflīsī, who dedicated his Kāmil al-taʿbir to the Saljūq Sulṭān Abū ’l-Fatḥ ʿIzz al-Dīn Qilij Arslan b. Masʿūd (reigned 551–88/1156–92), has already been mentioned as the author of medical works ( pl. ii § 366).
- Qānūn i adab (beg. Sipās K̲h̲udāy-rā kih Qādir i bar-kamāl-ast), an Arabic-Persian dictionary designed especially to help Persian poets in search of rhymes and Persian men of letters wishing to resolve ambiguities9 based on fifty-one works (of which the list is quoted by Rieu and Blochet), and divided according to the final letter into kitābs, which are subdivided firstly into nine nauʿs according to the nature of the vowel preceding the last letter (a, u, i, ā, ū, ī, and a, u, i followed by a quiescent consonant) and secondly into groups of words containing two, three, four, five and six letters respectively, the whole concluded with three short fuṣūl: Ahmed Ateş, “Hicrî vi– viii. ( xii– xiv.) asırlarda Anadolu’da farsça eserler” (in Türkiyat mecmuası vii– viii [?, misprinted vii– vii in Oriens i /2 (1948) p. 361, whence this reference is taken], Cüz ii, 1945, pp. 100–1, Ḥ. K̲h̲. iv p. 494, Blochet ii 949 (lacks preface. Mid 13th cent.), 948 ( ah 990/1582), Vatican Pers. 83 (1) ( ah 866/ 1462. Rossi p. 101), Rieu Suppt. 425 ( ah 893/1487), Aumer 295 ( ah 950/1543–4), 296, Uri p. 228 no. 1054 ( ah 952/1545), Sipahsālār ii p. 249 nos. 876 ( ah 968/1560–1), 875 (17th cent.), Mas̲h̲had ii, fṣl. 11, mss., no. 35 ( ah 969/1561–2), Cataloghi iii p. 312 no. 21 (?).
(Qawāfî), as it is called in the Sipahsālār catalogue, or (Bayān al-qawāfī), as Horn calls it, (beg. Sipās u s̲h̲ukr K̲h̲udāy rā kih az ʿilm u dānis̲h̲ mā-rā bahrah dād), a dictionary of Arabic rhyming words10 written at the request of the malik i ajall i ʿādil i ʿālim i kabīr Quṭb al-Dīn ʿImād al-Islām ¶ wa-Niẓāmuhā [sic] … Abū S̲h̲ujāʿ11Qilij Arsalān b. Masʿūd Yamīn Amīr al-Muʾminīn: Vatican 44 (1) ( ah 866/1462), Sipahsālār ii p. 250 ( ah 928/1522).
Apparently different from this is Cairo p. 438 (Tarjumān al-qawāfī fī bayān ḥurūf al-qāfiyah taʾlīf … Ḥubais̲h̲ … b. Ibrāhīm b. M. Kamāl (sic] al-Tiflīsī awwaluhu Mas̲h̲rūḥ kardah ba-Pārsī taṣnīf i K̲h̲wājah Imām.12 ah 629/1232).
§ 122. Ismāʿīl b. ʿAlī b. Isḥāq is of uncertain date.
- al-Taʿlīl (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. zaiyana ’l-ʿālama bi-l-ʿulamāʾi), an Arabic-Persian vocabulary (with interlinear Turkish glosses in the recorded mss.) divided into three qisms ((1) infinitives arranged in 28 bābs according to the first radical, (2) nouns arranged under the five heads (a) parts of the body, (b) crafts and tools, (c) food and drink, (d) animals, (e) heaven and earth, (3) a few particles): Aumer 300 ( ah 815/1412–13), Rieu ii 506a (16th cent.).
§ 123. Abū Naṣr al-Farāhī, the author of the Niṣāb al-ṣibyān, whose name is variously given as Masʿūd b. Ḥasan b. Ḥusain (Bodleian 1636), Badr al-Dīn Abū Naṣr Muḥammad (Bānkīpūr ix 825), Masʿūd b. Abī Bakr b. Ḥusain b. Jaʿfar (Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 346), etc., seems to be identical with Badr al-Dīn Abū Naṣr Maḥmūd b. Abī Bakr al-Farāhī (or, according to al-Jawāhir al-muḍīʾah ii p. 172 and Ibn Quṭlūbug̲h̲ā p. 56, Masʿūd b. Abī Bakr b. al-Ḥusain al-Farāhī), who in Jumādā ii 617/August 1220 completed his Lamʿat al-badr (Ḥ. K̲h̲. ii p. 5592, Cairo Arabic cat. iii p. 107, de Slane 823), a versification of al-S̲h̲aibānī’s al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣag̲h̲īr (Brockelmann i p. 172, Sptbd. i p. 290). It is stated by Browne, Lit. Hist. ii p. 488, that “he died in a.d. 1242”, but no authority is given for this statement.
Niṣāb al-ṣibyān (beg. (after a short prose preface, which varies in different mss. and is absent from many) Hamī gūyad Abū Naṣr i Farāhī), a metrical Arabic-Persian glossary containing 136513 Arabic words arranged according to subject in (about) 200 verses, which form forty qiṭaʿāt in nine different metres:14 Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 346, Browne Pers. Cat. 170 (3) ( ah 934/1527–8), 171 (2), 150, 151 (1), 152, Coll. S. 10, V. 72 (2), Suppt. 1313 (Christ’s Dd. 4.5), 1314 (Corpus 227 (3)), 1515 (3), Dorn p. 200 nos. 220 ( ah 991/1583), ¶ 221, Blochet iv 2429 (16th cent.), 2421 ( ah 1067/ 1657), 2159, 2161, i 961–2, Leyden v p. 148 nos. 2524 ( ah 1059/1649), 2523, Ethé 2375 ( ah 1075/1665), 2376–81, 2958 (2), 2959, Lahore Panjāb Univ. ( ah 1082/1671. See ocm. viii/1. p. 59), Hamburg 213–14, Bodleian 1636–9, Rieu ii 506b (2 copies), 504a, 825b, Bānkīpūr ix 825–9, xvii 1559, 1606, Gotha 3 (2), Ivanow 1411, Curzon 533–7, Aumer 299, Berlin 24 (1), 154, 155 (1), Flügel i 103 (1), iii 1700 (5), Madrās 489–91, Majlis 489–90, Mehren p. 64, Peshawar 1793, 1820, Princeton 51, 445, Upsala 15 (2), and others in Istanbul (Horn Pers. Hss. p. 498 no. 910), etc.
Editions: Calcutta 1819°; [Lucknow] Muḥammadī Press [circ. 1845?*]; [Lucknow] 1875*; Tabrīz 1262/1846° [Persia] 1268/1852 (see Mélanges asiatiques iv (St. Petersburg 1863) p. 60); [Persia] 1274/1858°; Iṣfahān 1286/1869° Cawnpore 1872°; [Istanbul] 1304/1886° (Ōqū yāz. With Turkish translation by Ibrāhīm Ḥaqqi); Berlin (Kāvayānī Press) 1923*, and doubtless many others.
Discussion: by ʿAbbās Iqbāl Ās̲h̲tiyānī in the periodical Āmūzis̲h̲ u parwaris̲h̲ a.h.s. 1318, pt. 3 (this reference comes from the Majlis catalogue ii p. 122 n. 1).
(a) al-Nusk̲h̲at al-ilāhīyah15 (beg. Sipās i bī-qiyās mar Qādirī rā kih asās), a detailed commentary completed in Rabīʿ ii 7903/April 1388 by Niẓām [al-Dīn] b. Kamāl [al-Dīn] b. Jamāl [al-Dīn] b. Ḥusām [al-Dīn] al-Harawī known as (maʿrūf bah) Ibn i Ḥusām: Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 346, Lahore Panjāb Univ. (old. See ocm. viii/1 (Nov. 1931) p. 60), Majlis 596 (2) ( ah 1057/1647), Ivanow 1st Suppt. 882 (mid 18th cent.), Berlin 156, Bodleian 1640, Cairo p. 517, Ethé 2382, ʿĀṭif Efendī 2727.
(b) Riyāḍ al-fityān, by “Yūsuf”: Ellis Coll. M428 (224 foll. ah 1017/1608).
(c) S̲h̲arḥ i Niṣāb al-ṣibyān (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. khalaqa ’l-insān ʿallamahu ’l-bayān), a commentary by ʿAlī b. ʿUmar b. ʿAlī al-Najjār, who quotes “Kamâl-aldîn bin al-marḥûm ibn Ḥusâm alharawî”: Bodleian 1641 (defective at end. “Written probably between ah 860 and 868 = ad 1456–1464”).
(d) S̲h̲arḥ i Niṣāb al-ṣibyān (beg. Baʿd az s̲h̲arḥ i niṣāb i zawāhir i ḥamd i mujmal), a commentary by M. b. Jalāl [al-Dīn] b.Sulaimān Quhistānī: Bodleian 1643, Tashkent Acad. i 437 (19th cent.).
(e) S̲h̲arḥ i Niṣāb al-ṣibyān (beg. Ḥ. u t̲h̲. i nā-maḥdūd u s̲h̲. u sp. i nā-maʿdūd mar ḥaḍrat) by M. b. Faṣīḥ b. M. called (al-madʿuww bi-) Karīm [al-Dīn] al-Das̲h̲t-i-Bayāḍī, who is said by Blochmann (Contributions p. 7. On what authority?) to have lived in Akbar’s time: Āṣafīyah i p. 128 no. ¶ 114 (autograph), Leipzig Fleischer 3 (?) (title given as Niṣāb al-mutaʿallim, commentator’s name not mentioned in catalogue, but opening words agree, ah 961/1554), Blochet iv 2161 ( ah 1040/1631), ii 963 ( ah 1113/1701), Lahore Panjāb Univ. ( ah 1148/1735. See ocm. viii/1 (Nov. 1931) p. 60), Cambridge 2nd Suppt. 139 (18th cent.), Ross and Browne 157, Ethé 2383, Ivanow Curzon 538.
Editions: Tihrān 1275/1858–9 (149 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1029); [Persia] 1283–4/1866°; Lucknow 1878° (S̲h̲arḥ i N. al-ṣ…. mus̲h̲tahir bah S̲h̲arḥ i Das̲h̲t-i-Bayāḍī).
(f) S̲h̲arḥ i Niṣāb al-ṣibyān (beg. Ḥamd i farāwān u s̲h̲ukr i bī-pāyān K̲h̲udāʾī rā sazāst kih ādamī rā), a commentary by M. Saʿd:16 Berlin 157 (1) ( ah 1129/1716).
(g) S̲h̲arḥ i Niṣāb al-ṣibyān, by M. Ḥusain al-Ṭālaqāni b. M. Riḍā al-S̲h̲arīf: Tihrān 1302/1884–5 (304 pp. Āṣafīyah iii p. 72 no. 303; Mus̲h̲ār i 1029); 1306/1888–9 (306 pp. Mus̲h̲ār ibid.); 1310/1892–3 (291 pp. Mus̲h̲ār ibid.).
(h) S̲h̲arḥ i Niṣāb al-ṣibyān (beg. al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā…. a. b. c̲h̲unīn gūyad Abū Naṣr i Farāhī ḥusida ḥāfiduhu wa-ḥufida ḥāsiduhu … Bi-dān-kih ḥasad awwal ba-maʿnī i nīk-k̲h̲wāhī ast), an anonymous commentary: Bodleian 1642 ( ah 1097/1686).
(j) S̲h̲arḥ i Niṣāb al-ṣibyān (beg., without preface, al-Qiṭʿat al-ūlā ba-ḍamm i hamzah u sukūn i wāw Awwal nuk̲h̲ustīn yaʿnī Pārah i nuk̲h̲ustīn az-īn kitāb): Bānkīpūr ix 829 (19th cent.).
(k) S̲h̲arḥ i Niṣāb al-ṣibyān (beg. al-Ḥ. l…. a. b. awwal bāyad dānistan kih c̲h̲irā in kitāb rā N. al-ṣ. nām kard), an unidentified commentary: Bodleian 1644 (a fragment of 21 foll.).
(l) S̲h̲arḥ i Niṣāb al-ṣibyān (beg. Ibtidā mī-kunam ba-nām i K̲h̲udāy kih), a brief anonymous commentary dealing chiefly with matters of prosody: Ivanow 1412 (27 foll. Early 18th cent.).
(m) S̲h̲arḥ i Niṣāb al-ṣibyān, unidentified: Cambridge 2nd Suppt. 409 (18th cent.).
(n) al-Durrat al-t̲h̲amīnah, completed in 1292/1876 by ʿAlī Akbar b. M. Jaʿfar al-Ḥasanī al-Ḥusainī al-Lug̲h̲awī al-Yazdī: D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 96 no. 358, Mus̲h̲ār i 663, printed Tihrān 1295/ 1878 (both D̲h̲. and Mus̲h̲.); 1303/1885–6 (Mus̲h̲.); 1312/1894–5 (D̲h̲.); 1313/1895–6 (Mus̲h̲.); 1316/1898–9 (Mus̲h̲.)
¶ Supplement: al-Durrat al-yatīmah, by ʿAbbās [b. M. Riḍā] Qummī (d. 23 D̲h̲ū ’l-Ḥijjah 1359/22 January 1941: cf. pl. i § 1662; D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 116 no. 423): printed 1316/ 1898–9 (D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 116 no. 423).
- Nasīb i ik̲h̲wān, an Arabic-Persian vocabulary in a qaṣīdah, of 191 verses, at the beginning of which the anonymous author mentions an earlier vocabulary composed by him under the title of Niṣāb al-ṣibyān: Blochet iv 2414 ( ah 1104/1692), possibly also Bodleian 1650 (3) and Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. viii/2 p. 67, where ah 776 is given as the date of composition). [Cf. § 130 infra.]
§ 124. The Majlis ms. of the Maṭlaʿ maqāṣid al-lug̲h̲ah has lost its first leaf and therewith any information that the author may have given concerning his name and date, but the cataloguer infers from the style of composition (az ṭarz i ins̲h̲āʾ) that the work was probably written in the 7th/13 century.
- Maṭlaʿ maqāṣid al-lug̲h̲ah (beginning of the explanations: Kitāb al-alifāt Bāb al-alif al-maftūḥah “al-Ābid” kār i s̲h̲igift u kār i pāy-dār), divided, after an Arabic preface, into two parts ((1) nouns arranged according to the initial letter in kitābs each of which is subdivided into three bābs (maftūḥ, maḍmūm and maksūr), (2) verbs, first the strong and then the weak): Majlis ii 870 (lacking foll. 1 and 71–127. 14th cent.).
- Muhad̲h̲d̲h̲ab al-asmāʾ fī murattab al-ḥurūf wa-’l-as̲h̲yāʾ (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. k̲h̲alaqa ’l-asmāʾa bi-qudratihi), a vocabulary of Arabic nouns with Persian explanations but without examples, based on a number of works which the author enumerates in the preface,19 and divided according to the initial letter into twenty-eight kitābs (so Bānkīpūr), each of which is subdivided into three bābs (maftūḥ, maḍmūm and maksūr):20 Ḥ. K̲h̲. vi p. 273, Tihrān ʿAlī Akbar “Dihk̲h̲udā’s” private library (2 copies, one “very old”. See Sipahsālār ii p. 294 penult.), Sipahsālār ii p. 294 ( ah ¶ 1087/1676–7), Ivanow Curzon 542 (18th cent.), Bānkīpūr ix 823–4 (both 19th cent.), i.o. d.p. 556 (defective at end).
§ 126. Muṣṭafā b. Qubād al-Lād̲h̲iqī died in 722/1322 according to Ḥ. K̲h̲.
- Mis̲h̲kāt al-maṣābīḥ (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. aumaḍa [sic] k̲h̲aladata [sic?] ʿibādihi ’l-ʿulamāʾi bi-’l-ʿilmi wa-’l-nūr), an Arabic-Persian vocabulary arranged according to the first letter, the words under each letter being grouped according to the first vowel: Upsala 14 (foll. 147. An owner’s note dated 1033/1623–4, but the ms. is much older).
§ 127. In 725/1324–5 was composed:
- (Muqaddamat al-lug̲h̲ah),21 in three qisms ((1) nouns, (2) verbs, (3) particles): Tashkent Acad. i 441 (128 foll. ah 730/ 1330).
§ 128. M. b. Qiwām b. Rustam b. Aḥmad b. Maḥmūd Badr i K̲h̲izānah (?22) al-Balk̲h̲ī known as (al-maʿrūf bi-) Kark̲h̲ī (?23) is an author whose date has been regarded as fixed by a chronogram for the year 1091/1680, which according to Sprenger (p. 52224) occurs at the end of his commentary on the Mak̲h̲zan al-asrār4 and indicates the date of composition. This chronogram runs as follows: Ba-fikr andar s̲h̲udam az bahr i tārīk̲h̲ * Dilam guftā zihī s̲h̲arḥ i Gulistān.
As one of the British Museum mss. of M. b. Qiwām’s commentary bears a note of purchase dated 1089/1678, Rieu was led to suppose that 1091 was the date of a later recension, but it may be conjectured that the ms. seen by Sprenger25 contained not only M. b. Qiwām’s commentary on the Mak̲h̲zan al-asrār but also a commentary on the Gulistān and that the chronogram refers to the latter. The earliest of the recorded mss. of M. b. Qiwām’s commentary on the Mak̲h̲zan al-asrār seems to be that dated 1069/1658–9 in the Āṣafīyah Library (Cat. iii p. 628), but a more precise indication of the date of the work may eventually be found in the fact that the author “quotes a poetical extract on Niẓāmī’s writings from the Badīʿ ul-Ḥikāyāt by Mughīs̤ ud-Dīn Hānsavī, ¶ whom he calls the most eminent man of the age” (Rieu ii p. 573b). A certain Maulānā Mug̲h̲īt̲h̲ is mentioned under Hānsī in the Haft iqlīm (no. 379) as a celebrated poet, but apparently his date is not given.
No cataloguer has yet discovered the date of the Baḥr al-faḍāʾil, but there is at least a possibility that it will be found in the fourth bāb of Qism ii. At any rate such a date occurs in that bāb of the Manẓar al-faḍāʾil fī manāfiʿ al-afāḍil (Ivanow 1st Suppt. 883), which seems to be the Baḥr al-faḍāʾil masquerading under a slightly incorrect title and with a spurious beginning (the first eight leaves being more modern than the rest). According to Ivanow ah 737/1336–7 is there mentioned as the current year. These matters need further investigation, but provisionally we may treat the Baḥr al-faḍāʾil as a production of the fourteenth century.
- Baḥr al-faḍāʾil fī manāfiʿ al-afāḍil (beg. Ḥamd u sipās mar K̲h̲udāy-rā kih malāʾikah u unās dar lug̲h̲at i pāk), a “Persian dictionary,26 embracing the most common phraseology met with in Persian prose and poetry, including Arabic, Pahlawî, Greek, and Turkish words”27 (Ethé), divided into two qisms, “the first of which forms the real dictionary, arranged alphabetically in European manner, in twenty-eight bâbs” (dar lug̲h̲āt i ahl i faḍl u iṣṭilāḥāt i īs̲h̲ān ba-tartīb i ḥurūf i tahajjī), while “the second, on miscellaneous matters, contains fourteen bâbs and thirty-seven faṣls” (the bābs being28 (1) dar asāmī i baʿḍī az ahl u aulād u kārdārān u g̲h̲azawāt u asbān u asbāb i Paig̲h̲ambar ʿm, (2) dar alfāẓ i adawāt u g̲h̲air i ān, (3) dar kunyathā, (4) dar asāmī i māhhā u aiyām i har millat, (5) dar asāmī i burūj u kawākib …, (6) dar asāmī i iqlīmhā-yi mas̲h̲hūr u baʿḍī s̲h̲ahrhā, (7) dar ḥilyah i ādamīyān, (8) dar wazn i diram u dīnār u riṭl u ṣāʿ …, (9) dar alfāẓ i ṣifathā kih ahl i faḍl rā ba-kār āyad, (10) dar alfāẓ i mutanāsib az har nauʿ, (11) dar asāmī i mai u k̲h̲umār u awānī u asbāb, (12) dar asāmī i pardahā u auqāt i ni wāk̲h̲tan i surūd u rāg’hā …, (13) dar asāmī i haftād u dū millat i ahl i bidʿat …, (14) dar baʿḍī alfāẓ i Hinduwī kih dar naẓm istiʿmāl kunand): Salemann p. 573 no. 153, Ivanow 1st Suppt. 883 (?) (“Manẓar al-faḍāʾil fī m. al-a.”, beg. al-Ḥ. l…. u az bisyār kutub (probably spurious as suggested above). No author’s name. Bābs 13 and 14 missing. Early 16th cent.), ¶ Lindesiana p. 194 no. 474 (circ. ad 1650), Blochet ii 960 (alif to dāl only. Late 17th cent.), Ethé 2967 (lacks Bāb 14 of Qism ii. ah 1199/1785), 2512 (Qism i and detached portions of Qism ii. Much shorter than Ethé 2967), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1450 nos. 87, 251, Madrās i 400.
§ 129. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Angūrī.
- Silk al-jawāhir (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. zaiyana ’l-insāna bi-’l-raʾsi), a metrical Arabic-Persian glossary composed in 757/1356 on the model of the glossaries of Abū Naṣr al-Farāhī and Ḥusām al-Dīn29 and containing about three thousand Arabic words in 550 verses, which form 35 qiṭaʿ in various metres: Flügel i 104 ( ah 902/ 1496–7), 103 (2).
§ 130. In 776/1374–5 was composed
Naṣīb i ik̲h̲wān30 (beg. Nāmah bar nām i Kirdgār i jahān * kūst Allāh u Rāḥim u Raḥmān), a metrical Arabic-Persian glossary: Bodleian 1650 (3), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. viii/2 p. 67). Possibly also Blochet iv 2414 (cf. § 123 (2) supra).
Prose version: Bodleian 1651 (4) (beg. ʿAql k̲h̲irad Lubb ba-ḍamm i awwal k̲h̲irad).
§ 131. “Aḥmadī”, who wrote the Mirqāt al-adab and whose tak̲h̲alluṣ occurs in a line quoted by Pertsch from that work, is called “al-Aḥmadī al-Kirmānī” by Ḥājjī K̲h̲alīfah, who gives 815/1412–13 as the date of his death. The person intended is evidently the celebrated Turkish poet “Aḥmadī” Garmiyānī (for whom see Gibb Ottoman poetry i pp. 260–98; Ency. Isl. [1st. ed.] under Aḥmedī [2nd ed. under Aḥmadī. v.s.]; Islâm Ansiklopedisi under Ahmedî (M.F. Köprülü); etc.).
- Mirqāt al-adab (beg. D̲h̲ikr i Bismi ’llāhi ’l-Raḥmāni ’l-Raḥīm* S̲h̲ud kilīd i mak̲h̲zan i dār i Ḥakīm. Baʿd i ḥamd i Pāds̲h̲āh i Lā-yazāl * Ān-ki mulk i ū maṣūn s̲h̲ud az zawāl), a metrical Arabic-Persian glossary in a series of poems of different metres: Ḥ. K̲h̲. v p. 496, Berlin 159 (32 foll., apparently defective at end).
§ 132. Majd al-Dīn M. b. Yaʿqūb al-Fīrūzābādī, who has already been mentioned ( pl. i § 224) as the author of the Sufar al-saʿādah, was born in 729/1329 at Kāzarūn and died in 817/ 1414–15 at Zabīd.
¶ al-Qāmūs, a celebrated Arabic lexicon (for which see Brockelmann ii 183, Sptbd. ii 234, Lane’s Arabic-English lexicon, preface, p. xvi, etc.).
(1) [apparently only the dībājah and the letter hamzah] Tarjamat al-Qāmūs (beginnning, without preface, al-Ḥamdu li-llāhi Jamīʿ i maḥāmid mar K̲h̲udāy-rāst ʿazza wa-jalla), by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ḥasan, who died in 1028/1619 according to a chronogram on fol. 1a of the i.o. ms.: Ethé 2397.
(2) Tarjumān al-lug̲h̲ah (beg. Sp. i buland-asās u. st. i bī-ḥ. u q. Ḥakīmī-rā sazāst), begun in 1114/1702, completed in 1117/ 1705 by M. Yaḥyā b. M. S̲h̲afī Qazwīnī and dedicated to S̲h̲āh Sulṭān-Ḥusain Ṣafawī: Ellis Coll. M 115 (Vol. ii only. ah 1117/1705), Majlis ii 850 (alif to zāʾ. ah 1193/1779), 851–3.
Editions: Tihrān 1273/1857°* (with many additions from other works), and on the margin of the Qāmūs lithographed at [Tihrān?] in 1277/1860°.
(3) Qābūs (beg. Ḥamd u niyāyis̲h̲ i gūnāgūn), a translation completed in 1147/1735 (according to the translator’s own statement, though his chronogram indicates 1149) and dedicated to Muḥammad S̲h̲āh by M. Ḥabīb Allāh [b. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Jahān Akbarābādī Dihlawī], who has already been mentioned ( pl. i §§ 1251, 1349): Rieu ii 511a (18th cent.), 511b (Vol. i, ending with ẓāʾ. 18th cent.), Majlis ii 866 (18th cent.), Calcutta Madrasah 157–60 (18th cent.), Bodleian 1674 (breaks off in the root ʿrq), Āṣafīyah iii p. 618 nos. 373–4, Būhār 253–4.
(4) “Táj alloghát, an Arabic Dictionary explained in Persian, in seven volumes, large folio, only four volumes have been printed in types, S.A. the remaining three have been lithographed, Vol. i. 725 pp.; Vol. ii. 624 pp.; Vol. iii. 252 pp.; Vol. iv. 176 pp.; Vol. v. 594 pp.; Vol. vi. 408 pp.; Vol. vii. 138 pp.” (Sprenger, preface p. v, in a list of works printed at Lucknow). The Tāj al-lug̲h̲āt has already been mentioned in this work, Vol. i p. 44, where it is described on the authority of Raḥmān ʿAlī as a translation of the Qāmūs, in the production of which Muftī Saʿd Allāh collaborated. See also Nujūm al-samāʾ p. 391, D̲h̲arīʿah iii p. 207 and Ellis col. 573 (where G̲h̲āzī al-Dīn Ḥaidar is given as the author).
§ 133. Qāḍī K̲h̲ān Badr [al-Dīn] M. i D’har has already been mentioned (§ 7 supra) as the author of the Persian vocabulary Adāt al-fuḍalāʾ, which he wrote in or about 812/1409–10 or 822/1419 and in which he calls himself Qāḍī K̲h̲ān Badr M. Dihlawī al-maʿrūf bi- D’hār-wāl.
- Dastūr al-ik̲h̲wān (beg. Ḥamd i bī-ḥadd Mubdiʿ i d̲h̲ū ’l-kamāl rā … ammā baʿd muʾallif i īn lug̲h̲āt … aḍʿaf al-ʿibād al-rājī bi-ḥaḍrat al-G̲h̲affār Q. K̲h̲. B. M. i D’hār c̲h̲unīn gūyad), an Arabic-Persian dictionary for beginners arranged according to the first, second and final letters without regard to ¶ the roots: D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 150 no. 594 ( ms. dated 827/1424 in possession of ʿAlī Akbar “Dih-k̲h̲udā”), Rieu Arab. Suppt. 877 (foll. 257. 16th cent.).
§ 134. ʿAlī b. Nuṣrat b. Dāwud.
- al-Tarjumān (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. faḍḍala lisān al-ʿArab bi-’l-faṣāḥah), an Arabic-Persian dictionary written in 843/1439–40 and arranged according to the first letter (without regard to the roots), the words under each letter being grouped according to the first vowel (fatḥah, kasrah and ḍammah): Ḥ. K̲h̲. ii p. 277, Brockelmann ii p. 194, Sptbd. ii p. 258, Princeton Arab. Cat. 285 (alif to sīn only. ah 843/1439, autograph. Purchased from E.J. Brill, Leyden), Leyden i p. 90 no. 160 = 2nd ed. i p. 70 no. 114 ( ah 886/1481), Uri p. 227 no. 1050 ( ah 911/1505), Mas̲h̲had ii, fṣl. 11, mss. no. 5 (?) (defective at both ends), and others at Istanbul (see Horn Pers. Hss. p. 494 no. 869).
§ 135. Amīrak Balk̲h̲ī.
- ʿUmān i maʿānī (beg. Ḥamd i bī-nihāyat Qādirī-rā kih az ṣanʿat i qudrat i k̲h̲wīs̲h̲), an Arabic-Persian glossary, “with occasional intermixture of Hebrew, Pahlavî, Syriac, Turkish, and other words”, compiled in 859/1455 at the request of S̲h̲. Niẓām: Ethé 2960 (foll. 120).
§ 136. Nūr al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad Jāmī, the well-known poet, scholar and mystic, who died at Harāt in 898/1492, has already been mentioned as the author of the S̲h̲awāhid al-nubuwwah ( pl. i § 234) and the Nafaḥāt al-uns ( pl. i § 1274).
Tajnīs al-lug̲h̲āt, or Tajnīs i k̲h̲aṭṭ, or Niṣāb i Tajnīs al-lug̲h̲āt (beg. Baʿd i tauḥīd u ṣifāt i K̲h̲āliq i s̲h̲ām u saḥar *), a short metrical glossary of Arabic words similar in form but differing in their diacritic points and meaning, by a certain ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, whose name occurs at the end and who is usually, but apparently on insufficient grounds, identified with Jāmī: Ivanow 1st Suppt. 887 ( ah 1128/1716 (?)), 2nd Suppt. 1079 ( ad 1831), Rieu ii 503b ( ah 1245/1829), 509a (with an English translation, doubtless by J. Haddon Hindley, the copyist, or by F. Gladwin), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 55 no. 4, Āṣafīyah i p. 162 no. 248.
Editions: Calcutta date?° (Toojnees ool Loghat, or, Discrimination between words similar in form, but different in meaning. Niṣāb i T. al-l. [Abridged and edited by M. ʿAskarī “Fikrat”]); 1818* (pp. 15, . Published by Mowluvee Hubban); 1826 (see Rieu ii p. 503b); London 1811° (Niṣāb i T. al-l…. [in Arabic character]. Resemblances linear and verbal. A philological poem in the Persian language … The English translation by F. Gladwin. [Edited by J.H. Hindley.] Pp. xv, 31, 39. Second edition); [Lucknow] ¶ Masīḥāʾī Press 1264/1848* (following M. Saʿīd’s Lug̲h̲āt al-Saʿīd. Pp. 16–18; Lucknow 1874* (following M. Saʿīd’s Lug̲h̲āt al-Saʿīd. Pp. 13–17); Cawnpore [1871*] (following M. Saʿīd’s Lug̲h̲āt al-Saʿīd).
§ 137. M. b. ʿAbd al-K̲h̲āliq b. Maʿrūf.
Kanz al-lug̲h̲āt (beg. Ibtidā-yi har suk̲h̲an ān k̲h̲ūbtar dar har maqām * … Jawāhir i kunūz i lug̲h̲āt i ḥamd u sitāyis̲h̲), a dictionary of the more important Arabic words including all that occur in the Qurʾān, dedicated to Sulṭān Muḥammad [of Gīlān, ah 851–83/1447–78] and divided into kitābs and bābs according to the initial and final letters respectively, each bāb containing first the infinities and then the other words (ghair al-maṣādir): Ḥ. K̲h̲. v p. 256, Āṣafīyah ii p. 1458 nos. 244 ( ah 952/1545), 92, 144, Blochet ii 951 ( ah 960/1552, transcribed from an autograph), 952–5, iv 2418–19, de Slane 4298–4300, Rieu ii 507b ( ah 961/1554), 508a ( ah 1059/1649), 508b, Suppt. 173 ( ah 994/1586), Leyden v p. 148 no. 2525 ( ah 985/1577), Berlin 161–3, 46 (6), Vatican Pers. 23 (16th cent. Rossi p. 51), Bodleian 1670 ( ah 1003/1595), Tashkent Acad. i 446 (16th cent.), 447–9, Leningrad Pub. Lib. (see Dorn 223 ( ah 1009/1600), 224 (same date), Chanykov 32, Mélanges asiatiques iii (1859) p. 732), Univ. 377 (Salemann-Rosen p. 18), Ethé 2392 ( ah 1034/1624–5), 2393–6, Majlis ii 867 ( ah 1044/1634–5), 868 (18th cent.), Rehatsek p. 55 nos. 31–2, Ellis Coll. M 255 ( ah 1074/1664), Sipahsālār ii p. 251 nos. 878–81, Ivanow 1st Suppt. 884–5, Browne Pers. Cat. 156 ( ah 1085/1674), 155, 157, ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 56 no. 14, Calcutta Madrasah 154–5, Būhār 250–1, Maʿārif i p. 198 no. 167, Turin 66, Bānkīpūr ix 832, Aumer 292–4, Eton 97, Hamburg 215, Madrās i 411, Majlis 477, Mas̲h̲had ii, fṣl. 11, mss., no. 37, Vatican 38.
Editions: Tihrān 1282/1865–6 (326 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1286); [Tihrān?] 1283/1866° (330 pp.); Tabrīz 1300/1882–3 (322 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1286); ibid. 1316/1898–9 (293 pp. Mus̲h̲ār ibid.); ibid. 1322/1904–5 (322 pp. Mus̲h̲ār ibid.); ibid. n.d. (320 pp. Karatay p. 116); place? 1316/1898–9 (published by M. Raḥīm. 314 pp. Mus̲h̲ār ibid.).
Abridgment, or abridgments: Blochet iv 2420, Rehatsek p. 55 no. 33.
§ 138. Luṭf Allāh b. Abī Yūsuf al-Ḥalīmī has already been mentioned (§ 95 supra) as the author of the Persian-Turkish dictionaries Qāʾimah i Luṭf Allāh Ḥalīmī and Nit̲h̲ār al-malik, the latter of which was completed in 872/1467–8.
- Muṣarriḥat al-asmāʾ (a chronogram = 871/1466–7. Beg. Inna min luṭfi ’llāhi bi-’l-t̲h̲abāt), an Arabic-Persian vocabulary arranged like a European dictionary (not according to the roots) and dedicated to Bāyazīd b. M. K̲h̲ān: de Slane 4297 ( ah 859/ 1455!), Breslau p. 23 no. 23 (1) ( ah 889/1484), ¶ Browne Coll. S. 7 ( ah 906/1501), Cairo Arab. Cat. iv p. 188 ( ah 916/1510), Uri p. 240 no. 1135 ( ah 979/1571–2), Leyden i p. 90 no. 159 (n.d.).
§ 139. In 896/1490–1 was composed
Niṣāb i ḥusnā (beg. Naḥmadu ’llāh al-Ilāh u Il K̲h̲udāy i bandagān), a metrical Arabic-Persian vocabulary: Bodleian 1650 (4).
Prose version: Lug̲h̲āt i Niṣāb i ḥusnā (beg. al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā. wa-’l-ʿāqibatu li-l-muttaqīn wa-’l-ṣalātu): Bodleian 1651 (2).
§ 140. Ṭāhir M. (or M. Ṭāhir31) b. al-Ḥasan32 Sabzawārī has already been mentioned ( pl. i § 137) as the author of the general history Rauḍat al-Ṭāhirīn, which was completed in 1014/1605–6. Zubdat al-lug̲h̲āt: Browne Suppt. 736 ( ah 1049/1639–40. King’s 215. Palmer’s catalogue p. 15).
§ 141. Amān Allāh, entitled (muk̲h̲āṭab bi-) K̲h̲ānah-zād K̲h̲ān Fīrōz-Jang, walad i Mahābat K̲h̲ān, entitled (al-muk̲h̲āṭab bi-) K̲h̲ān-i-K̲h̲ānān Sipah-sālār, b. Mīr M. G̲h̲ayūr died in 1046/1637 (see pl. i § 1115).
- C̲h̲ahār ʿunṣur i dānis̲h̲ (beg. Nāznīn s̲h̲āhidī kih az k̲h̲alwat-kadah i quds), a lexicographical work written in the time of Jahāngīr [ ah 1014–37/1605–28] (evidently (so far at least as the preface is concerned) not earlier than his seventeenth regnal year ( ah 1031–2), since the author appends to his name the title K̲h̲ānah-zād K̲h̲ān conferred upon him in that year) and divided into four ʿunṣurs ((1) (perhaps the only ʿunṣur ever completed) a large Arabic-Persian pronouncing dictionary based mainly on the Qāmūs, the Ṣurāḥ, the Kanz al-lug̲h̲āt and the Kas̲h̲f al-lug̲h̲āt and divided into bābs and faṣls according to the initial and final letters, (2) a Persian dictionary, (3) [Persian?] metaphorical phrases, Zend and Pāzend words as well as some Turkī and Hindī words, (4) medical terms): Rieu ii 509a (preface, statement of contents and ʿUnṣur i only. 1st half of 17th cent.).
§ 142. Mīr M. ʿAlī b. Nūr Allāh al-Ḥusainī al-Marʿas̲h̲ī al-S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tarī, whose father’s Majālis al-muʾminīn has already been mentioned ( pl. i § 1574), was the author of a dīwān (Dīwān i Ṣāḥib al-amrī) dated 1035/1625–6 (Bodleian 1089 (8)) and of some other works including Risālah i miḍmārīyah (Bodleian 1089 (2)), Muns̲h̲aʾāt i Mīr M. ʿAlī (Bodleian 1089 (7)), and S̲h̲arḥ i Duʿāʾ i mustajāb (Bodleian 1089 (9)).
- ¶ al-Baḥr al-mawwāj wa-’l-barr al-wahhāj (?33) (beg. Qāmūs i muḥīṭ kih g̲h̲awwāṣān i k̲h̲ānuwādah i imkān), an Arabic-Persian dictionary divided into bābs and faṣls according to the first and last letters respectively: Bodleian 1089 (1) (breaks off with the word s̲h̲ug̲h̲nūb).
§ 143. S. ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd b. ʿAbd al-G̲h̲afūr al-Ḥusainī al-Madanī al-Tattawi has already been mentioned (§ 33 supra) as the author of the Farhang i Ras̲h̲īdī, completed in 1064/1654 and dedicated to S̲h̲āh-Jahān.
Muntak̲h̲ab al-lug̲h̲āt i S̲h̲āh-Jahānī (beg. Sitāyis̲h̲ u sipās i Mālik al-mulkī kih tad̲h̲kār), a dictionary of Arabic words in common use, described by Blochmann (p. 20 penult.) as “the most popular Arabic dictionary in India”, compiled mainly from the Qāmūs, the Ṣiḥāḥ and the Ṣurāḥ, completed in 1046/1636–7, arranged according to the initial and final letters (without regard to the roots), and, according to the author, exempt from nine blemishes34 noticeable in earlier dictionaries: Leyden v p. 149 no. 2527 (believed by de Goeje to be an autograph, but for a reason which does not warrant this conclusion), Rehatsek p. 57 no. 37 ( ah 1046/1636–7), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (3 copies, one dated 1088/1677. See ocm. viii/2 p. 70), Rieu ii 510a–510b (3 copies, two of 17th cent.), Blochet ii 956 (17th cent. Large part of preface summarised in French), 957–8, Calcutta Madrasah 156, Ethé 2398–2403, i.o. d.p. 551, Majlis 488, Ivanow 1st Suppt. 891–2, Curzon 543–4, Manchester Mingana 761, Edinburgh 141, Browne Pers. Cat. 158–9, Sipahsālār ii p. 293 (2 copies), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 55 no. 8, p. 56 nos. 17, 25, Madrās 418–19, Āṣafiyah ii p. 1462 nos.90, 274, Bānkīpūr ix 833–4, Berlin 133 (2) (beginning only),Bodleian 1672–3, Būhār 252, Cairo p.532, R.A.S. A. 41, Tashkent Acad. i 459, Univ. i 30.
Editions: Calcutta 1808° (Moontukhub-ool-Loghaut, or A dictionary of Arabic words, with a Persian translation, according to the authority of the Kaumoos, the Sehauh, the Kunz, the Mohuzzub, and other Arabic lexicons … originally compiled by Abd-oor-Rusheed-e T’hatvee; and now revised, corrected and published by Molovee Allah Daud. [With English preface by M. Lumsden]. Pp. 881); 1816 (Moontujub-ol-Loghat, … originally compiled by Abdoor Rushed bin Abd ul Ghufoor al Hosuenee, under the title of Moontukhub-ool-Loghat, and now corrected, revised and alphabetically arranged, with the assistance of learned natives under his superintendence by J. H. Taylor. See Zenker i no. 25); [Calcutta] 1252/1836* (pp. 380. Cf. Zenker i no. 24); Lucknow 1835 (Ethé col. 1302); 1845 (Zenker ¶ ii no. 37); 1286/1869° (pp. 512); 1294/ 1877* (pp. 512); 1330/1912* (G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-lug̲h̲āt maʿa Muntak̲h̲ab al-lug̲h̲āt, in parallel columns. Pp. 11, 760); [India] 1262/1846* (pp. 636); Bombay 1279/1862° (pp. 272, 204); 1879° (pp. 512); Tihrān 1291/1874° (followed by an abridgment of Waṭwāṭ’s Ḥadāʾiq al-siḥr); Cawnpore 1305/1887* (pp. 696), 1307/1890* (G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-lug̲h̲āt and on the margin the Muntak̲h̲ab al-lug̲h̲āt followed (pp. 649) by the C̲h̲irāg̲h̲ i hidāyat. Pp. 904), 1912° (pp. 11, 760. Similar to the Lucknow edition of 1912), 1914 (similar to the edition of 1307/1890).
§ 144. In 1100/1688–9 was written
- Allāh K̲h̲udāy, a metrical Arabic-Persian35 vocabulary: [Lucknow?] 1273/1857° (Nusk̲h̲ah i Allāh K̲h̲udāy. Pp. 16).
§ 145. ʿAbd al-Majīd.
- Niṣāb i Nuzhat al-ṣibyān (beg. Jawāhir i zawāhir i ḥamd u t̲h̲anā-yi bī-muntahā), a metrical Arabic-Persian glossary completed in 1108/1696–7: Blochet ii 959 ( ah 1179/1765).
§ 146. S.Nūr al-Dīn b. Niʿmat Allāh Jazāʾirī S̲hūs̲h̲tari was born at S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tar in 1088/1677 and died there in 1158/1745.
[Tad̲h̲kirah i S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tarīyah p. 59; Tuḥfat al-ʿālam; Nujūm al-samāʾ pp. 238–41.]
Furūq al-lug̲h̲āt,36 in Arabic, on the discrimination of Arabic synonyms like julūs and quʿūd: [Tihrān?] 1275/1859° (appended to al-Maidānī’s al-Sāmī fī ’l-asāmī. Cf. Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 586, where, however, as in Rauḍāt al-jannāt iv p. 220 penult., the work is included among the writings of the author’s more celebrated father).
Persian translation: Maʿārif i 163 (with the Arabic text).
§ 147. M. Riḍā.
- Muntak̲h̲ab al-lug̲h̲āt, composed at K̲h̲īwah in 1213/1798–9 and divided into a very brief muqaddamah, two maqālahs ((1) Arabic words, (2) Persian and C̲h̲ag̲h̲atāy words, occurring in the works of Nawāʾī and other old Turkī poets) and a k̲h̲ātimah (on the value of poetry): Tashkent Acad. i 477 (Maqālah i only. 86 foll. ah 1254/1839), 478 (Maqālah i only? Early 19th cent.), 476 (Maqālah i only? ah 1270/1854).
¶ § 148. Maḥmūd Mīrzā b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh Qājār, Governor of Nihāwand, who was born in 1214/1799–1800 and died at Tabrīz in 1852 or 1853, has already been mentioned as the author of the Tārīk̲h̲ i Ṣāḥib-qirānī ( pl. i § 428), the Guls̲h̲an i Maḥmūd ( pl. i § 1195 (1)) and the Safīnat al-maḥmūd ( pl. i § 1195 (2)). Having long desired an Arabic dictionary similar to the Sanglāk̲h̲ (see § 162 infra) and the Burhān i qāṭiʿ (see § 32 supra), he obtained from the royal library a dictionary of unknown authorship and, “after supplying some of its deficiencies and correcting some of the vocables”, he gave it the title Maḥmūd al-lug̲h̲ah and supplied it with a preface [dated Nihāwand ah 1241/1825–6]. As this dictionary is not to any substantial degree the work of Maḥmūd Mīrzā, it is placed here only for the sake of provisional convenience.
- (Maḥmūd al-lug̲h̲ah)(beg. Ba-fatḥ Bāb al-alif fī ’l-alfāẓ al-ʿArabī i yak-ḥarfī A maftūḥ barāy i chand c̲h̲īz mī āyad awwal barāy i istifhām u istiʿmāl i hamzah i istifhām ba-dū nauʿ ast), an unidentified dictionary of Arabic words arranged under the first letter (without regard to the roots) and grouped further in bābs according to the last letter and within the bābs according to the number of letters (words of one letter coming first, then words of two letters and so on): Rieu Arabic Suppt. 881 (599 foll., bearing an owner’s seal dated 1131/1719. 18th cent.).
§ 149. Maulawī ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAbd al-Karīm Ṣafīpūrī published a number of grammatical and other works at Calcutta in the first quarter of the nineteenth century (see pl. i § 256).
- Muntahā ’l-arab fī lug̲h̲āt al-ʿArab, an Arabic-Persian dictionary: Lucknow 1824 (so Harrassowitz’s Bücher-Katalog 352 (1912) no. 1600); Calcutta 1252–7/1836–41°* (4 vols.); Lahore 1871°* (4 vols.).
§ 150. Maulawī M. ʿAlī “Muḥammad” is described in S̲h̲. M. Nawāz ʿAlī’s k̲h̲ātimah i ṭabʿ at the end of the 1267 edition of the Gauhar i manẓūm (p. 288) as a resident of the village (mauḍiʿ) of Ṣadrpūr in the parganah of Malīḥābād near Lucknow.
- Gauhar i manẓūm (a chronogram = 1267/1851, the date of completion: see p. 217. First verse: Bārī ism i Kirdgār u naubat u dukht i ṣag̲h̲ir * Sūs mahk u sūsmār u k̲h̲ūk-māhī yād gīr), a metrical Arabic-Persian glossary completed in the time of Nawwāb Wazīr al-Daulah Amīr al-Mulk M. Wazīr K̲h̲ān Nuṣrat-Jang [ruler of Tōnk after his father’s death in 1834: cf. pl. i § 898] and consisting of a series of mat̲h̲nawīs and qiṭʿahs, in each of which the Arabic words and their Persian (occasionally also Hindi) equivalents exemplify a particular rhetorical artifice or figure (the first verse, for example, providing an instance of the ṣanʿat i ¶ d̲h̲ū ’l-t̲h̲alāt̲h̲ah, since the words bārī and sūs have a meaning in the three languages, Arabic, Persian and Hindī): Cawnpore 1267/1851* (Pp. 28).
- K̲h̲iyābān i guls̲h̲an described by Edwards as “a metrical Persian vocabulary, with Persian and Hindustani marginal notes”: [Cawnpore] 1867° (Pp. 71); 1878°* (Pp. 71).
§ 151. M. Linjānī37 Iṣfahānī.
- Miftāḥ al-lug̲h̲ah (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. arsala kulla rasūlin ʿalā qaumihi), a glossary in 3120 verses modelled on the Niṣāb al-ṣibyān (cf. § 123 (1) supra): Majlis ii 872 ( ah 1272/1855–6, autograph).
§ 152. M. Saʿd Allāh Murādābādī died in 1294/1877 (see pl. i § 81).
- Nūr al-ṣabāḥ fī ag̲h̲lāṭ al-Surāḥ see under § 114 supra.
§ 153. D̲h̲abīḥ [Allāh] Bihrūz.
- Farhang i kūc̲h̲ak i Tāzī ba-Fārsī: Tihrān (239 pp. Nas̲h̲rīyah i Anjuman i Zabān i Īrān. Raus̲h̲anāʾī Pr. Mus̲h̲ār i 1176).
§ 154. Appendix
- Dastūr i aʿṣār u dastūr i amṣār (beg. Naḥmadu ’llāha wa-nastaʿīnu bihi wa-mā lanā an lā natawakkala ʿalā ’llāhi), a large Arabic-Persian dictionary (of maṣdars apparently), based on the Tāj al-maṣādir (see § 119 supra) and the Ṣiḥāḥ (see § 114 supra) and arranged according to the first, last and middle letters by Bahāʾ i ʿAbbās Aḥmad Ḥusainī ʿAlawī (so Ethé), or ʿAbbās Aḥmad dbwkrī (so Āṣafīyah): Ethé 2963 ( ah 1176/1762–3), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1454 no. 84.
- al-Ḥamāsāt al-adabīyah (beg. C̲h̲unīn gūyad bandah i ḍaʿīf u bazah-kār i naḥīf Sirāj al-Qāqī), an Arabic-Persian vocabulary by Sirāj [al-Dīn] al-Qāqī: Upsala 60 (4).
- ʿIqd al-laʾāliʾ (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. k̲h̲alaqa wujūdanā min al-ʿadam … (fol. 4b) Abniyah i ismhā nūzdah ast az mat̲h̲al * Hast sih nauʿ awwalas̲h̲ gas̲h̲t ba-sih ḥarf ḥal), a metrical Arabic-Persian vocabulary arranged according to subjects and consisting of a prose preface, an introduction in five qiṭʿahs on the formation of Arabic nouns, and four qisms ((1) dar s̲h̲arʿīyāt, (2) dar ḥayawānāt, (3) dar ʿulwīyāt, (4) dar suflīyāt, these qisms being further subdivided into bābs and qiṭʿahs varying in metre and rhyme), by Muṭahhar b. Abī Ṭālib, doubtless identical with M. b. A. Ṭ. al-Lād̲h̲iqī, ¶ whose Miftāḥ al-adab (fī lug̲h̲at al-Furs) is mentioned without date or other particulars by Ḥ. K̲h̲. ( vi p. 8): Berlin 160 (foll. 153).
- Kanz al-funūn (beg. S̲h̲ukr i K̲h̲udā kaz karam u luṭf i ān), an anonymous metrical Arabic and Persian [i.e. Arabic-Persian?] vocabulary: Rāmpūr (Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 300).
- K̲h̲azinat al-lug̲h̲āt (beg. Ḥ. u t̲h̲anā-yi farāwān u s̲h̲ukr u sp. i bī-pāyān mar Āfrīdgār i bī-c̲h̲ūn), an anonymous Arabic-Persian glossary divided into bābs and faṣls according to the first and last letters: Ethé 2404 (extends only to Bāb 8, faṣl 1. ah 1183/1769–70).
- K̲h̲ulāṣat al-lug̲h̲āt wa-tafsīr al-mus̲h̲kilāt (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. anzala ’l-Qurʾāna ’l-ʿArabīya auḍaḥa ’l-ḥujaj wa-’l-bayānāt), a vocabulary of Arabic words used in Persian composition but not generally understood,38 arranged according to the initial letter in twenty-eight kitābs, each subdivided into three bābs according to the initial vowel, by Ismāʿīl b. Luṭf Allāh al-Bāk̲h̲arzī, who wrote also the K̲h̲ulāṣat al-Islām, a short Ḥanafī treatise on religious duties and observances (Rieu ii 807b, Būhār 129, Princeton 451): Rieu 508b ( ah 1076/1666), 509a (18th cent.), Bodleian 1671 (?39) (acephalous and very defective. ah 1116/1705), Leningrad Mus. Asiat. (see Mélanges asiatiques iii (1859) p. 493), Tashkent Acad. i 480.
- Kitāb al-Maṣādir (beg. K. al-M. taʾlīf al-S̲h̲. Abī Bakr M. b. ʿAbd Allāh … b. al-Bustī Raḍiya ’llāhu ʿanhu Bismi ’llāhi … al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā.), a dictionary of Arabic infinitives with Persian explanations, similar to Baihaqī’s Tāj al-maṣādir (cf. § 119 supra) but differing slightly in arrangement, by Abū Bakr M. b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Bustī: Bānkīpūr ix 822 (15th cent.).
- Lug̲h̲at i ʿArab, an Arabic-Persian dictionary by M. Niẓām al-Dīn: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1460 no. 245 (defective at end).
- Manṭiq al-ṣibyān (beg. Baʿd i tauḥīd i K̲h̲āliq i bī-c̲h̲ūn * kaz ʿadam kard k̲h̲alq i gūnāgūn), a metrical Arabic-Persian vocabulary in eighteen qiṭʿahs prefaced by ten mat̲h̲nawī verses: Ethé 2958 (3).
- Muk̲h̲taṣar40 (beg. St. u sp. i bī-ḥadd u qiyās K̲h̲udāy rā kih ʿuqūl dar idrāk i ḥaqīqat i d̲h̲āt i Ū hāʾim and … ammā baʿd īn muk̲h̲taṣar mus̲h̲tamilast bar alfāẓ), a glossary of Arabic words used in Persian correspondence with their Persian and (at least in the Vienna mss.) their Turkish equivalents, ¶ arranged according to their initial consonants in twenty-nine bābs each subdivided into three parts according to the initial vowel: Flügel i 119 ( ah 947/1540), 120 (1), Leyden i p. 90 no. 161.
Niṣāb i badīʿ (beg. Miṣr s̲h̲ahr u s̲h̲ahr māh u māʾāb u k̲h̲auf sahm * Sahm tīr u ajniḥah c̲h̲ih bāl bās̲h̲ad bāl jān), a metrical Arabic-Persian vocabulary in a series of qiṭʿahs, each based on a different figure of rhetoric,41 the first qiṭʿah exemplifying al-tajnīs al-tāmm wa-’l-nāqiṣ (cf. Berlin p. 21612) and explaining each Arabic word usually by a Persian word identical or almost identical in pronunciation with another Arabic word, which is then explained on similar lines: Ethé 2386 ( ah 1122/1710–11), 2958 (1), Majlis 613 (1), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. viii/2 p. 67), Bānkīpūr xvii 1607 (with an introduction beginning Sp. i bī-q. mar Ṣāniʿ i ḥaqīqī rā kih ṣūrat by M. S̲h̲arīf b. S̲h̲. M. As̲h̲raf b. S̲h̲. Bark̲h̲wurdār mutawaṭṭin i qaṣabah i Buhlūl tābiʿ i sarkār i Lak’hnau, who has prefixed to each qiṭʿah of the original a qiṭʿah of his own42 and has apparently given to the whole the new title Badīʿ al-Niṣāb. 19th cent.).
Doubtless similar to this work, and in some cases perhaps identical with it, are Niṣāb i badīʿ, “vocabulaire arabe-persan, en vers mesnéwis,43 par Émir Khosrau” (Blochet iv 2414 fol. 132a), Niṣāb ascribed to K̲h̲usrau Dihlawī (ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 30 no. 5 ad 1819), Farhang i Niṣāb i Badīʿ al-ʿajāʾib, ascribed to K̲h̲usrau (ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 55 no. 1. ah 1247/1831–2).
Commentaries: (a) (S̲h̲arḥ i Niṣāb i badīʿ) (beg. Baʿd az taḥmīd i ḥaḍrat i ilāhī), by M. Saʿd:44 Berlin 157 (2) ( ah 1129/1717), Ethé 2387 (?) (beg. Bi-ʿaun i ʿināyat i Ilāhī. Ascribed in the colophon to Mullā Saʿd ʿAẓīmābādī. ah 1164/1751).
(b) S̲h̲arḥ i Niṣāb i badīʿ (beg. C̲h̲ūn g̲h̲araḍ az taswīd i īn ḥurūf taḥqīq i alfāẓ u ḥall i maʿānī u tauḍīḥ i ṣanāʾiʿ), by Lālā Tēk C̲h̲and “Bahār”, the author of the Bahār i ʿAjam (for which see § 41 supra): Bānkīpūr ix 835 ( ah 1244/1828–9).
(Niṣāb i Badīʿī,) or (Niṣāb i mut̲h̲allat̲h̲45), or (Mut̲h̲allat̲h̲ al-lug̲h̲ah), or (Naẓm i mut̲h̲allat̲h̲) (beg. Az pas i ḥamd i K̲h̲udāwand i zamīn u āsmān ¶ * … [l. 3] Rabb dān Parwardgār i ribb dān jamʿī zi k̲h̲alq * Ruhb āb i k̲h̲āliṣ az angūr u sīb u nārdān), a qaṣīdah of 98 verses containing Persian explanations of Arabic words identical in their consonantal spelling but differing in vocalisation ((1) maftūḥ, (2) maksūr, (3) maḍmūm) and meaning, by “Badīʿī”:46 Bodleian 1759 (7) ( ah 1079/1669), 2008, 1650 (1), Sipahsālār ii p. 271 (Mut̲h̲allat̲h̲ i manẓūm. ah 1109/1697–8), Berlin 157 (3) ( ah 1129/1716–17), Blochet iv 2414 fol. 125b (?) ( ah 1138/1726), ii 968 (late 18th cent.), Mehren p. 64 no. 3 (5), Ivanow 1st Suppt. 888 (mid 18th cent.), 889 (late 18th cent.), Curzon 539, Ethé 2383 foll. 109–12, 2384–5, ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 30 nos. 4, 7, Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. viii/2 p. 67), Lindesiana p. 125 no. 485b, Bānkīpūr ix p. 38, probably also Browne Suppt. 1315 (Corpus 2217 (2)).
Editions: according to Sipahsālār ii p. 27111 this work, which is there called Mut̲h̲allat̲h̲ i manẓūm, has been published repeatedly (mukarraran) with the Niṣāb al-ṣibyān and in 1265 with the Niṣāb i mut̲h̲allat̲h̲.47 The last is perhaps the Lucknow edition of 1265 mentioned by Zenker ( ii p. 3). Arberry (p. 61) mentions an edition (Muḥammadī Press [Lucknow] 1261/1845) of the Niṣāb i Badīʿ al-ʿajāʾib, “a poem on the elements of prosody”, by Ibn i Ḥasan, followed (pp. 17–26) by a similar work [on prosody?], Niṣāb i Mut̲h̲allat̲h̲.
Prose version: Lug̲h̲āt i Niṣāb i Badīʿī, Bodleian 1651 (1).
Commentaries: (a) (S̲h̲arḥ i Niṣab i Badīʿī) (beg. Sipās u sitāyis̲h̲ i bī-qiyās K̲h̲āliq i aflāk u nās rā), by M. Saʿd:48 Berlin 157 (3) ( ah 1129/1716).
(b) S̲h̲arḥ i Naṣāb i mut̲h̲allat̲h̲[sic49], by Gōbind Rām: Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. viii/2 p. 72).
Niṣāb i ik̲h̲wān50 (beg. Awān u ḥīn u mīqātast hangām), a metrical Arabic-Persian vocabulary: Bodleian 1650 (2), Tashkent Acad. i 474 (N. i. i (opening words not quoted), by Maulānā Muṭahhar. 25 foll. 17th cent.).
Prose version: Niṣāb i ik̲h̲wān (beg. Ān waqt jamʿ āwān u ānāt): Bodleian 1651 (3).
- Niṣāb i Maulānā Maʿrūf, a metrical vocabulary explaining 1020 words: Tashkent Acad. i 475 (43 foll. 17th cent.).
- ¶ Qunyat al-fityān (beg. Ḥamd Īzad rā kih dād Ū ṭabʿ i rawān), an Arabic-Persian vocabulary in the form of a qaṣīdah,51 by Ṣadr [al-Dīn b.] Badr [al-Dīn]: Blochet iv 2414 ( ah 1105/1693), Tashkent Acad. i 472 (24 foll. 17th cent.), Lahore Panjāb Univ. (see ocm. viii/2 p. 67).
- Quwwat al-kalām (al-Ḥ. l. ’l. ʿallama ’l-insān), a dictionary of Arabic words with Persian and Hindī equivalents divided into fifteen chapters, by ʿAḍud al-Dīn M. b. S̲h̲. Ḥāmid Amrōhī: Rāmpūr (Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 299).
- Risālah i Fatḥiyah dar lug̲h̲at i ʿArabīyah, by Abū ’l-Fath Ḥijāzī: Tihrān 1303–4/1886 (Mus̲h̲ār i 1581).
- Tāj al-asāmī (beg. al-Ḥ. l. al-maḥmūd bi-jamīʿ al-auṣāf wa-’l-asmaʾ), an anonymous vocabulary of Arabic nouns with explanations in Persian arranged according to the initial and final letters: Calcutta Madrasah 161 (16th cent.), Bodleian 1634 ( ah 1040/1630), Ivanow Curzon 541 ( ah 1053/1643), Būhār 249 (19th cent.), Majlis 462 (“Tahd̲h̲īb al-asmāʾ”), Yeñī p. 99 no. 312.
- Tuḥfah i ʿAlāʾī (beg. Iftitāḥ i maqāl bi-ḥamd i naʿmāʾ i bī-ḥadd), a metrical Arabic-Persian glossary modelled on the Niṣāb al-ṣibyān and Ḥusām al-Dīn’s Naṣīb al-fityān and dedicated to Sulṭān Murād (which?) by M. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn b. al-Bawwāb (so Ḥamīdīyah) or M. known under the name Ibn i Bawwāb (so Pertsch): Ḥ. K̲h̲. ii p. 233, Berlin 158, Ḥamīdīyah p. 135 no. 644.
^ Back to text1. “Wie ich an anderer Stelle ausführen werde, hat Zamahšarī selbst in diesem Glossar die arabischen Ausdrücke nicht nur persisch, sondern auch türkisch und ḫwārezmisch erklärt” (A. Zekī Walīdī in Islamica iii/2 (1927) p. 194. Cf. ibid. pp. 211–13, where thirteen K̲h̲wārizmian sentences are given from the Bas̲h̲īr Āg̲h̲ā ms.).
^ Back to text5. According to Ḥ.K̲h̲. (see above) the Ḥamd u thanā ascribed to Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Waṭwāṭ was a manẓūmah, but he does not quote the opening words and probably therefore had not seen the work.
^ Back to text6. “A name bearing a suspicious resemblance to that of the celebrated poet Rashīd ud-Dīn M.b.ʿAbd ul-Jalīl Vatvāt, who died a.h. 578” (Rieu ii p. 507b). According to Ḥ.K̲h̲. (as quoted above) the Ḥamd u t̲h̲anā was ascribed to Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Waṭwāṭ.
^ Back to text7. For Aḥmad “Dāʿī” see Gibb Ottoman poetry i pp. 256–9. “In some manuscripts and in the printed edition of Latifi it is said that Ahmed-i Dá‘í wrote further a work dealing with Persian and Arabic lexicography, which he called ‘Uqúd-ul-Jewáhir or ‘The Strings of Gems’” (Gibb loc. cit.).
^ Back to text9. u nāmas̲h̲ kitāb i Qānūn al-adab nihādam zīrā kih īn kitāb dar adab ahl i ʿAjam rā aṣl u qānūn i buzurg ast k̲h̲āṣṣah s̲h̲uʿarā rā az bahr i qāfiyah i s̲h̲iʿr u udabā rā az bahr i lug̲h̲āt i mus̲h̲kil (Rieu Suppt, p. 272 b).
^ Back to text10. The rhyming words are grouped according to the number of letters (from two to seven) that they contain. After the preface the work begins thus: Qawāfī i ḥarf i awwal. Yā, ai; Lā, nah; Mā, nah; Mā, āb u c̲h̲ih; Mā, ai [?]; Dā, dard; D̲h̲ā, ān.
^ Back to text14. For the numerous niṣābs of this kind see an article entitled Bac̲h̲c̲h̲ōn kē taʿlīmī niṣāb by Ḥāfiẓ Maḥmūd K̲h̲ān S̲h̲ērānī in the Proceedings of the Idara-i-Maarif-i-Islamia, first session, held at Lahore 15th and 16th April, 1933, Lahore 1935, pp. 51–139.
^ Back to text19. Unfortunately without the authors’ names. The latest of those certainly identifiable seems to be al-Asmā fī ’l-asmāʾ by Maidānī’s son Saʿīd (d. 539/ 1144–5). The Tarjumān al-Qurʾān referred to may be that of Jurjānī (see pl. i § 53) or that of Zauzanī (see pl. i § 56 (3)), but there were other works of this title (cf. pl. i § 56 (7), (8)). Among the other sources were the Kanz al-asāmī and al-Rauḍah.
^ Back to text23. This word appears in various forms in the mss.—Kark̲h̲ī (Rieu ii p. 573, Ethé 2512), Bakraʾī (Sprenger p. 521, Ethé 998), Kamar (Blochet ii 960), Nīkūʾī (Ethé 2967). One or two of these readings seem to treat the preposition bi- as part of the following word.
^ Back to text25. This ms. belonged to the College of Fort William, but it does not appear in any of the catalogues of the Asiatic Society of Bengal and the India Office, where most of the College of Fort William mss. now are.
^ Back to text27. Predominantly Arabic words, it would seem, to judge from the somewhat discrepant accounts of the work, which is variously described as a “Dictionary, Arabic-Persian” (Lindesiana), a “dictionnaire arabe et persan” (Blochet) and a “Persian dictionary” (Ethé).
^ Back to text35. So Edwards, but a work of this title (doubtless the same work. Editions: Lucknow 1873 (pp. 16), 1874 (pp. 12), 1876 (pp. 16)) is described in Blumhardt’s I.O. Hindustani catalogue as “a rhymed vocabulary of Persian and Urdu words”.
^ Back to text46. This tak̲h̲alluṣ occurs at the end (at any rate in some mss. See Bānkīpūr ix p. 38). In the Lindesian catalogue the author is called Yūsuf Badīʿī and the date of his death is given as 987 on unspecified authority. Brockelmann ii p. 286 mentions a Yūsuf al-Badīʿī al-Dimas̲h̲qī who died in 1070/1662 [sic].