In Volume 3: Lexicography; Grammar; Prosody, and Poetics; Rhetoric, Riddles, and Chronograms; Ornate Prose; Proverbs; Tales
§ 158. Īmānī mutak̲h̲alliṣ bah “Ṭāliʿ”, as he calls himself, wrote his Badāʾiʿ al-lug̲h̲ah in the time of Sulṭān Ḥusain [the Tīmūrid ruler of K̲h̲urāsān, who reigned at Harāt from 873/1469 to 911/ 1506]. He must therefore have been a contemporary of Mīr ʿAlī-S̲h̲īr “Nawāʾī” (for whom see pl. i § 1094, etc.). In the preface to his Sanglāk̲h̲ (§ 162 infra) Mīrzā Mahdī Khān refers to Ṭāliʿ Harawī’s work without mentioning its title.
- Badāʾiʿ al-lug̲h̲ah (beg. Ṭūṭī i s̲h̲īrīn-maqāl), a glossary of Turkī and Mongol words occurring in the poems of Mīr ʿAlī-S̲h̲īr “Nawāʾī”: Sipahsālār ii p. 160, Chanykov 35.
§ 159. Faḍl Allāh K̲h̲ān, as he calls himself in the preface to his vocabulary, or Faḍl Allāh K̲h̲ān Barlās, as he seems to be called in the printed edition, describes himself as a cousin (ʿamū-zādah) of Saif K̲h̲ān1 and as one whose ancestors for fourteen generations had served the house of Tīmūr.
(Lug̲h̲at i Turkī) (beg. Subḥāna ’llāh Har-gāh az afṣaḥ i ʿArab u ʿAjam), a vocabulary of Eastern-Turkish words with Persian explanations written by order of the reigning king [presumably Aurangzēb] for the use of the s̲h̲āh-zādah and divided into an introduction (on Turkī suffixes) and three bābs ((1) verbs arranged according to the first letters, (2) nouns arranged according to the initial and final letters, (3) miscellaneous words (mutafarriqāt), e.g. numerals, parts of the body, names of animals, Turkish tribes, pronouns, particles, etc.): Rieu ii 511b (52 foll. 18th cent.), Ethé 2437 (160 foll. 18th cent.), 2438 (41 foll., much shorter than Ethé 2437. ah 1208/1793–4), Bodleian iii 2770 ( ah 1246/1830), Bānkīpūr ix 836 (92 ¶ foll. 19th cent.), Būhār 255 128 foll., lacking Bāb iii. 19th cent.), possibly also ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 56 no. 22 (“Risālah dar lug̲h̲āt i Turkī”, composed in 1090/1679, acephalous).
Edition: Calcutta 1240/1825° (244 pp. No title-page. Beg. Subḥāna ’llāh, etc. Printed at the request of Sir W. Ouseley with improved arrangement and some additions).
§ 160. M.Taqī Bēg Turkmān.
- Farhang i Turkī, composed in 1140/1727–8: Āṣafīyah ii p. 1456 no. 89 ( ah 1140/1717–8).
§ 161. K̲h̲wājah Ṭaiyib Buk̲h̲ārī Naqs̲h̲bandī.
- Alfāẓ i jalīyah fī bayān i lug̲h̲āt i Turkīyah (beg. Ḥamdī kih aurāq i aḥdāq i baṣāʾir), a Turkī vocabulary and grammar explained in Persian, dedicated to Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad S̲h̲ah Pāds̲h̲āh G̲h̲āzī [the Indian Tīmūrid, ah 1131–61/1719–48], and divided into fifty faṣls (the first twenty-five containing Turkī words classed according to subject with Persian equivalents, the second twenty-five treating of Turkī grammar) and a k̲h̲ātimah (a hundred moral sentences ascribed to Turkish s̲h̲aik̲h̲s with Persian translations): Rieu ii 512a (18th cent.).
§ 162. Mīrzā M. Mahdi K̲h̲ān “Kaukab” b. M. Naṣīr Astarābādī has already been mentioned ( pl. i § 407) as the author of the Ṭārīk̲h̲ i Nādirī and the Durrah i nādirah.
Sanglākh2 (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. lā yustaqṣā ḥamduhu … ammā baʿd c̲h̲ūn bandah i ḥaqīr M. Mahdī, g̲h̲ufira d̲h̲unūbuhu az mabādiʾ i ḥāl ba-k̲h̲wāndan i as̲h̲ʿār i amīr i nāfid̲h̲ al-amr), a Turkī-Persian dictionary with numerous examples from the works of Mīr ʿAlī-S̲h̲īr “Nawāʾī” (cf. pl. i § 1094, etc.), Bābur and other writers, begun in the reign of Nādir S̲h̲āh ( ah 1148/1736–1160/ 1747), completed in 1172/1758–9 or 1173/1759–60, divided according to the initial letters into kitābs and according to the initial vowels into bābs, with a muqaddimah entitled Mabānī ’l-lug̲h̲ah,3 which is a short Turkī grammar, and an appendix containing Arabic and Persian words and metaphorical phrases used by “Nawāʾī”: Bodleian 1760 (beg. Ammā baʿd c̲h̲ūn etc. ah 1186/1772–3), Rieu Suppt. 176 = Turk. Cat. p. 264 ¶ (19th cent.), Sipahsālār ii p. 268 (Mabānī ’l-lug̲h̲ah only.), Majlis ii 860 (transcribed from an autograph. Cf. Sipahsālār ii pp. 1611, 26815).
Edition of the Mabānī ’l-lug̲h̲ah: The Mabânî ’l-lughat; being a grammar of the Turki language in Persian by Mirzâ Mehdi K̲h̲ân edited by E. Denison Ross, Calcutta 1910* (Pp. 142. Bibliotheca Indica). In the Majlis catalogue, ii p. 99 n. 1, M. ʿAlī Tarbiyat (cf. pl. i § 1493) is cited as authority for the statement that there exists an edition published at Tabrīz (cf. Mus̲h̲ār i 1366, 1410).
Abridgments of the Sanglāk̲h̲:
- K̲h̲ulāṣah i ʿAbbāsī (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. jaʿala ’l-nāsa s̲h̲uʿūban wa-qabāʾila), a considerably smaller dictionary without examples dedicated to S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās Qājār [i.e. ʿAbbās Mīrzā b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, d. 1249/1833] by M. K̲h̲ūʾī:4 D̲h̲arīʿah vii p. 229 no. 1105, Sipahsālār ii p. 173 ( ah 1240/1824–5), Majlis ii 855 ( ah 1245/1829–30 (so Sipahsālār cat.) or 1265/1849 (so Majlis cat.). Cf. Sipahsālār ii p. 174 n. 1), Blochet ii 1006 ( ah 1264/1847), Leningrad Institut (see Smirnow p. 166).
- Kitāb i ʿAdan: Schefer p. 151 no. 1000 ( ah 1294/1877. Cf. Blochet ii p. 22317).
§ 163. M.Ẓahīr al-Dīn Mīrzā ʿAlī Bak̲h̲t “Azfarī” Gurgānī has already been mentioned ( pl. i § 808, etc.) as the author of the autobiographical work Wāqiʿāt i Aẓfarī, which extends to the year 1221/1806.
- Farhang i Aẓfarī, or Maʿrūf al-lug̲h̲āt, a dictionary in two parts, (1) Persian-C̲h̲ag̲h̲atāy. (2) C̲h̲ag̲h̲atāy-Persian, arranged in bābs according to the first letter and in faṣls according to the last, each faṣl containing first the verbs and then the nouns: Rehatsek p. 54 no. 27, Ethé 2439 (Qism ii only, beginning Hād̲h̲ā ’l-qism al-t̲h̲ānī min Farhang i Aẓfarī al-musammā bi-Maʿrūf al-lug̲h̲āt awwaluhā Turkī wa-āk̲h̲iruhā Pārsī ʿalā rasm al-taʾlīfāt al-mas̲h̲hūrāt. Bāb al-alif maʿa faṣl al-alif fī ’l-afʿāl).
§ 164. Appendix
- Lug̲h̲at i Atrākīyah, by Fatḥ-ʿAlī b. Kalb-ʿAlī b. Murs̲h̲id-Qulī b. Fatḥ-ʿAlī Qājār Qazwīnī: Leningrad Univ. 1177 ( ah 1278/1861–2. Romaskewicz p. 12).
- ¶ Niṣāb i Quṭbīyah (beg. Og̲h̲ān u Tangrī u Īzī K̲h̲udā Waraq Yāfrāg̲h̲), a metrical Turkī-Persian vocabulary in 274 distichs written for a royal prince, Mirzā Quṭb al-Dīn, by Kalimat Allāh, known as (mas̲h̲hūr bi-) K̲h̲wājah Pāds̲h̲ah, walad i K̲h̲wājah. Raḥmat Allāh b. K̲h̲wājah Niʿmat Allāh: Rieu ii 513a ( ah 1253/1837).
- Vocabulary of the language of the Aimāqs and Turkamāns arranged according to the final letters (beg. Ḥamd u sp. u st. mar ān Maʿbūd rā), by Ahl i Dīn Turkamān b. Bairam ʿAlī Bī Ag̲h̲ur: Rieu iii 998b (circ. ad1850).
Zubdat al-asmāʾ al-Turkīyah (beg. Bāb fī bayān asmāʾ al-as̲h̲yāʾ al-muk̲h̲talifah fī lisān al-Atrāk), a Turkī-Persian vocabulary divided into nine faṣls ((1) heaven and earth, (2) state, (3) arts and trades, and so on): Rieu ii 513a (foll. 80–92. ah 1253/1837).
For Qatīl’s C̲h̲ār s̲h̲arbat, the fourth s̲h̲arbat of which consists of a short Turkī grammar and vocabulary, see pl. iii § 310 infra.
^ Back to text1. Saif al-Dīn Maḥmūd maʿrūf bi- Faqīr Allāh, whose father, Tarbiyat K̲h̲ān, had migrated from Tūrān to India in 1095/1684 as Governor of Allahabad (see Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-umarāʾ ii pp. 479–85). He completed in 1076/1665–6 a Persian translation of the Indian musical work Rāg-darpan (cf. Bodleian 1847, Browne Suppt. 646 (King’s), Eton 212, Ivanow-Curzon 639, Ross-Browne 71, etc.).
^ Back to text4. Mulla, or Ḥakim, M. b. ʿAbd al-Ṣabūr K̲h̲ūʾī (Ḥakīm Qublī), who eventually became Ḥakīm-bās̲h̲ī to Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲ah, wrote also (1) Taʿlim-nāmah dar ʿamal i ābilah zadan, translated from a work by Dr. Cormick and printed at Tabrīz in 1245/1829–30, (2) Majmaʿ al-ḥikmatain wa-jāmiʿ al-ṭibbain (see pl. ii § 520. ms. dated 1250/1834–5 in the Sipahsālār Library), (3) Anwār i Nāṣirīyah (see ibid.), on anatomy and the principles of medicine, composed in 1272/1855–6 and lithographed at Tabrīz in that year. (See al-Maʾāt̲h̲ir wa-’l-āt̲h̲ār p. 203: Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbayjān p. 122; Sipahsālār ii pp. 174–5.)