Storey Online

2.1 Grammar: Persian Grammars
(7,787 words)

In Volume 3: Lexicography; Grammar; Prosody, and Poetics; Rhetoric, Riddles, and Chronograms; Ornate Prose; Proverbs; Tales

previous chapter: 1.19 Miscellaneous

The grammars in this section are mainly in Persian.

See also D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 155 sqq., M. Muʿīn’s Iḍāfah (Tihrān 1332/1953–4) pt. 1, at end, Farhang i Īrān-zamīn Vol. ii p. 19 sqq.

§ 190. Aḥmad b. Sulaimān [Pās̲h̲ā] b. Kamāl Pās̲h̲ā, known as Kamāl-Pās̲h̲ā-zādah or Ibn Kamāl Pās̲h̲ā, who died at Istanbul in 941/1535, has already been mentioned ( pl. iii § 101 supra) as the author of the Daqāʾiq al-ḥaqāʾiq, a Persian-Turkish dictionary of synonyms.

Qawāʿid al-Furs (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. manaḥanī min tawāturi naʿmāʾihi), an anonymous1 Persian grammar in four chapters ((1) fī aḥwāl al-ism, (2) fī aḥwāl al-fiʿl, (3) fī aḥwāl al-ḥurūf (4) fī taʿdād al-ism wa-tarjamatihi bi-’l-Turkīyah sawāan kāna ʿainan au maʿnan) of which the first three are in Arabic and the fourth in Turkish: Flügel i 216 ( ah 937/1530–1 (?). Lacks Bāb iv), Blochet iv 2165 ( ah 1098/1687), Berlin 104 (3) (before ad 1692), 102 (4) ( ah 1144/1732), 139 (4) (beginning only), Bodleian 1680 ( ah 1148/1735), Cairo p. 436, ʿAmūjah Ḥusain p. 45 no. 454 (8), Florence Ricc. 13 (see Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 671 § 108a).

§ 191. For the Farhang i Jahāngīrī, which was completed in 1017/1608–9 by Jamāl al-Dīn Ḥusain Injū and which contains a muqaddimah in twelve āyīns treating mainly of grammatical matters, see pl. iii § 24 supra.

§ 192. For the Burhān i qāṭiʿ, which was completed in 1062/1652 by M. Ḥusain “Burhān” b. K̲h̲alaf Tabrīzī and which contains nine preliminary fāʾidahs dealing mainly with grammatical matters, see pl. iii § 32 supra.

§ 193. For the Farhang i Ras̲h̲īdī, which was completed in 1064/ 1654 by S. ʿAbd al-Ras̲h̲īd b. ʿAbd al-G̲h̲afūr Tattawī and which contains a muqaddimah dealing mainly with grammatical matters, see pl. iii § 33 supra.

§ 194. ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ Hānsawī has already been mentioned ( pl. iii § 171 supra) as the author of the Hindī-Persian glossary entitled G̲h̲arāʾib al-lug̲h̲āt. His Risālah”, being based largely on the introduction to the Farhang i Ras̲h̲īdī, must be later than 1064/1654, and his commentary on the Būstān must have been written before 1140/1727, the date of the India Office ms. (Ethé 1150).

(Risālah i ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ), as it is usually called, or (Qawāʿid i zabān i Fārisī) (beg. Rabbi ʾg̲h̲fir wa-ʾrḥam wa-Anta k̲h̲air al-rāḥimīnammā baʿd īn risālah īst c̲h̲and waraqī maʿdūd mus̲h̲tamil bar qawāʿid u ḍawabiṭ i kullīyah i zabān i Farisī kih faqīrʿA. al-W. H.), a treatise, without formal title, divided into a muqaddimah, three bābs and a k̲h̲ātimah and dealing with “syntax, etymology and literary artifices” (Arberry), or “Persian grammar and philology (introduction and ch. i.–ii.) and … literary terminology (ch. iii.)” (Edwards), or “the art of prose and poetical compositions” (Abd al-Muqtadir), or simply Persian grammar (Browne, Ivanow): ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 46 no. 2 (?) (Risālah dar qawāʿid i Fārisī u ʿarūḍ, by Mīr ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ. ah 1229/1814), Ivanow 1477 (early 19th cent.), Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2225 ( ah 1271/1855), Āṣafīyah i p. 164 no. 37, Browne Pers. Cat. 75 (3), Suppt. 485 (title given as Dastūr al-ʿamal. Corpus 112).

Editions: Lucknow 1261/1845* (Pp. 66); Cawnpore 1267/1851* (Pp. 66); 1879° (Pp. 84); Lahore 1862° (Pp. 65); and others.

Urdu commentary: Hadīyah i Inʿāmīyah, by Inʿām Allāh: Cawnpore 1909†.

§ 195. Sirāj al-Dīn ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Ārzū” was born at Gwalior or Āgrah in 1099/1687–8 or 1101/1689–90 and died at Lucknow on 23 Rabīʿ ii 1169/26 January 1756 (see pl. i § 1149; cf. pl. iii § 40 supra).

Mut̲h̲mir (beg. Mut̲h̲mir i saʿādāt u muzhir i k̲h̲airāt sipās i Zabān-āfrīn-astammā baʿd īn musk̲h̲ah īst dar ʿilm i uṣūl i lug̲h̲at musammā bi-Mut̲h̲mir), a large work (292 foll.) on Persian grammar, orthography, phonology and style modelled on Suyūṭī’s Muzhir (for which see Brockelmann ii p. 155, Sptbd. ii p. 194) and divided into forty-one aṣls: Ivanow Curzon 550 (early 19th cent.).

§ 196. Tēk-C̲h̲and “Bahār” was still alive in 1180/1766–7 (see pl. iii § 41 supra).

Jawāhir al-ḥurūf, in two chapters ((a) dar bayān i ḥurūf i mufrad, “on the interchange of letters”, (b) dar bayān i ḥurūf i ṣilah wa-g̲h̲airah, “on the syntax of particles”): Cawnpore 1267/1851* (Muḥammadī Pr. See Blochmann Contributions to Persian lexicography p. 29).

§ 197. K̲h̲wājah Maʿrūf b. K̲h̲wājah Mūsā.

(1)
Jawāhir al-ʿulūm (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. ʿallama bi-’l-qalamammā baʿd mī-gūyad bi-ʿajz u hīc̲h̲madānī mauṣūf K̲h̲wājah Maʿrūf), on Persian grammar, prosody and rhetoric in an introduction, two jauhars and a conclusion: Rehatsek p. 50 no. 10 ( ah 1197/1783), p. 49 no. 9 (n.d.), Ross and Browne 246 ( ah 1280/1864, transcribed from one or both of the preceding), Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2223 (author’s name given as S. K̲h̲wājah Qāsim ʿAlī K̲h̲ān. 19th cent.).
(2)
Miftāḥ al-fawāʾid (beg. al-Ḥ. l. R. al-ʿā…. ammā baʿd mī-gūyad K̲h̲. M. b. K̲h̲. M. kih c̲h̲ūn mubtadiyān-rā), a short grammar in three maqālahs on ism, fiʿl and ḥarf respectively: Madrās i 437 (e) ( ah 1227/1812), Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2224 ( ah 1272/1855).

§ 198. Jamāl al-Dīn Ḥusain b. S. Nūr Allāh al-Marʿas̲h̲ī al-S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tarī was doubtless a descendant of the author of the Majālis al-muʾminīn (for which see pl. i § 1574).

Mīzān i Fārsī (beg. C̲h̲unīn mī-gūyad aḍʿaf al-ʿibād), a Persian grammar consisting of a preface, five muqaddimahs and twenty-eight wazns, based partly on the Farhang i Jahāngīrī and written at ʿAẓīmābād (i.e. Patna) in 1165/1752 to supersede an unsatisfactory grammar of the same title composed by someone (s̲h̲ak̲h̲ṣī) for the benefit of the people of ʿAẓīmābād, who enjoyed conversing in Persian: Berlin 106 (foll. 82).

§ 199. Mīr Ḥusain-Dōst “Ḥusainī” b. S. Abī Ṭālib Sanbhalī has already been mentioned as the author of the Tad̲h̲kirah i Ḥusainī completed in 1163/1749–50 (see pl. i § 1148) and of a prose abstract of Hātifī’s Tīmūr-nāmah written in 1203/1789 (see pl. i § 359).

Tas̲h̲rīḥ al-ḥurūf,2 or Tas̲h̲rīḥ i nādir (a chronogram = 1173/1759–60) (beg. Sp. i bī-q. Muṣannifī rā kih nusk̲h̲ah i mufradāt i ḥurūf), a Persian grammar written at Bareilly: Calcutta Madrasah p. 104 no. 169 (foll. 102. Circ. ad 1800), Lahore ( v.s. 1887/1830. See ocm. x/3 p. 108), Rāmpūr ( ah 1251/1835. See Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad 302).

§ 200. Muḥammad-Qulī K̲h̲ān “Muḥibb”.

Jāmiʿ al-qawāʿid (beg. Bahār-pīrāy i gulistān i taṣānīf), on Persian grammar and prosody, completed in 1174/1760–1, at the beginning of S̲h̲āh-ʿĀlam’s reign, and divided into six maqālahs ((1) letters and parts of speech, (2) various forms of the infinitive and formation of the past and future, (3) conjugation, (4) meanings of the detached letters and their permutations, (5) syntax and derivation, (6) in two bābs (a) prosody (ʿarūḍ), (b) rhyme): Rieu ii 519b (foll. 94. 18th cent.), 520a (foll. 134. ah 1229/1814), Lindesiana p. 194 no. 767 ( ah 1269/1852–3), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 46 no. 3.

§ 201. Raus̲h̲an ʿAlī “Naẓmī” b. Nad̲h̲r-ʿAlī Anṣārī Jaunpūrī was a professor at the College of Fort William at Calcutta and died about 1810. According to the Tajallī i nūr (the author of which did not know the date of his death) he spent the whole of his life in the sarkār of the Nawwāb of Murs̲h̲idābād and was buried at Murs̲h̲idābād near the Mōtī Jhīl. He was the author of the Persian translation which accompanied the Arabic text of Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-ʿĀmilī’s K̲h̲ulāṣat al-ḥisāb published at Calcutta in 1812 and which was republished separately at the same place in 1261/1845 (see pl. ii § 24 (1) (l)). He wrote also two tracts relating to permutations of letters in Arabic, namely (1) Risālah i tak̲h̲fīf i hamzah u iʿlāl u idg̲h̲ām, pp. 50, [Calcutta 1803?] and (2) Taʿlīlāt, Calcutta 1810. According to the Tajallī i nūr he wrote a commentary on the Maqāmāt of al-Ḥarīrī.

[G̲h̲ulām-Ḥasan Zaidī Account of Jaunpūr (Rieu i 311b), tatimmah; Walī Allāh Tārīk̲h̲ i Farruk̲h̲ābād, Qism ii, maqālah 3; Tajallī i nūr ii p. 105 and p. 19 in the separately paginated lives of poets; Rieu ii 857b.]

Qawāʿid i Fārsī (beg. Baʿd i ḥamd i ḥaḍrat i Āfrīdgār u naʿt i janāb i Rasūl i muk̲h̲tārān-kih īn risālah i mausūm ba-Q. i F…. mustanbaṭ az nusk̲h̲ah i Farhang i Ras̲h̲īdī wa-g̲h̲airah), a Persian grammar written for the author’s son Afḍal ʿAlī and his other children and divided into a muqaddimah, eleven bābs and a k̲h̲ātimah: Ethé 2520 ( ah 1183/1769–70), 2521 ( ah 1195/1781), Eton 115 ( ah 1195/1781), Rieu ii 857b ( ah 1224/1809), ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 45 no. 2, Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 1083 (4), Bānkīpūr ix 789–90, Būhār 261 (5), Edinburgh 359, Madrās 470.

Editions: Mus̲h̲ār i 1229; Calcutta 1819* [? Perhaps a misprint in Arberry for 1817] (Quwaidi-Farsee, or Rules on Persian Grammar. Pp. 63); 1828° (2nd ed. Pp. 51); [Calcutta] 1249/ 1873°* (with slightly different preface. Pp. 62); [Calcutta], Ik̲h̲wān al-ṣafaʾ Press, 1263/1847* (Pp. 71); Lucknow 1264/ 1848* (Pp. 29); [Lucknow], Muṣṭafāʾī Press, 1268/1852* (Pp. 28); Lucknow, n.k., 1870* (Pp. 20); 1875° (Pp. 20); Madrās 1279/ 1862* (Pp. 32), and others.

§ 202. G̲h̲ulām-Aḥmad Ṣiddīqī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibrāhīm Ujjainī.

Takmilah i Wahhābī (beg. Sipās u sitāyis̲h̲ mar Aḥadī rā kih wujūd), a Persian grammar composed in 1187/1773–4, dedicated to Nawwāb ʿAbd al-Wahhāb K̲h̲ān Nuṣrat-Jang and divided into a muqaddimah and 23 bābs: Ivanow 1478 (late 18th cent.).

§ 203. “Afḍalī” Ilāhābādī, the author of the Risālah i Fārsīyah, must be a different person from S̲h̲. M. Nāṣir “Afḍalī” b. “S̲h̲āh K̲h̲ūb Allāh” (S̲h̲. M. Yaḥyā) Ilāhābādī, since the latter “Afḍalī” was born in 1122/1710 and died in 1163/1750 (see K̲h̲āzin al-s̲h̲uʿarā fol. 15b, S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman p. 37, etc.).

Risālah i Fārsīyah (beg. Baʿd az ḥamd i Wāhib i risālah), a very short work on Persian grammar completed in 1202/ 1787–8: Ivanow Curzon 552 (foll. 4. ah 1242/1827).

§ 204. Mirzā M. Ḥasan “Qatīl”, who died at Lucknow in or about 1233/1818, has already been mentioned as the author of the Farmān i Jaʿfarī ( pl. ii § 607) and the Maẓhar al-ʿajāʾib ( pl. iii § 52 supra).

(1)
S̲h̲ajarat al-amānī (beg. Faṣīḥtarīn kalāmī kih az jūs̲h̲ i ṣafā), a short tract on certain points of Persian grammar and idiom composed in 1206/1791–2 at the request of S. Amān ʿAlī, to whose name the title contains an allusion, and divided into six farʿs ((1) the three classes of words, (2) ellipses of particles, (3) compounds (tarkīb), (4) peculiarities of the Persian of Īran, Tūrān and India, (5) elegance of diction, (6) rhetoric): Rieu ii 858a ( ah 1229/1814), 795a (foll. 21–34, ah 1229/1814), iii 1043b (early 19th cent.), Ivanow Curzon 181 (early 19th cent.), 2nd Suppt. 972 (mid 19th cent.), Browne Pers. Cat. p. xxxvii no. 339 (38), Suppt. 797 (defective. Corpus 67 (1)), 798 (defective. Corpus 137 (1)).

Editions: Lucknow 1257/1851* (Pp. 30. Muṣṭafāʾī Pr. Marginal notes); [Lucknow] Sulṭān al-maṭābiʿ 1267/1851* (Pp. 20); [Lucknow, 1865?°] (Pp. 20. Marginal notes); [Lucknow] 1872° (Pp. 24. Marginal notes); Cawnpore 1268/1852* (Pp. 20. Muṣṭafāʾī Pr.); 1291/1874* (Pp. 22. Niẓāmī Pr.).

Commentary: T̲h̲amarat al-maʿānī fī s̲h̲arḥ S̲h̲ajarat al-Amānī, by Rājah Amrit Lāl, Lucknow 1890° (Pp. 53).

(2)
Nahr al-faṣāḥah (beg. Tarānah-sanjī i ʿandalīb i qalam dar bahāristān), on correct diction in Persian, more especially on the avoidance of ungrammatical and unidiomatic phrases current in the Persian of India, written in 1214/1799–1800 (a fact stated in the author’s preface to his C̲h̲ār s̲h̲arbat, for which see pl. iii § 310 infra) as a complement to the S̲h̲ajarat al-Amānī at the request of Mīr M. Ḥusain, the eldest son of his friend, Mīr Amān ʿAlī, and divided into ten chapters called mauj: Rieu ii 520b (foll. 77. ah 1217/1803), 521a (foll. 62. ah 1220/1805), 858a ( ah 1229/1814), 795a iii ( ah 1229/1814), Princeton 446 ( ah 1219/1805), Lindesiana p. 173 no. 483 (circ. ad 1810), Ivanow 2nd Suppt. 973 (1234 Faṣlī/1826–7), Browne Suppt. 1343 (Corpus 65 (1). ah 1258/1842), 1344 (Corpus 67 (2)), 1345 (Corpus 174).

Editions: Calcutta 1822 (see Rieu ii p. 520b); Lucknow 1260/1844 (Ḥaidarī Pr. See ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. ptd. bks. p. 52); 1289/1872 (see Āṣafīyah i p. 170 no. 230); 1900 (68 pp. n.k. See Mus̲h̲ār i 1613 ult.); [India] 1260/1844* (Walī M.’s Pr. 78 pp.); Madrās 1265/1848–9 (see Ḥaidarābād Coll. p. 401); Cawnpore 1266/1850* (pp. 55); 1285/1868 (pp. 69); 1292/1875* (pp. 50); 1885° (pp. 68).

§ 205. ʿUt̲h̲mān al-madʿuww bi-’l-S̲h̲ākir composed his Mut̲h̲allat̲h̲nāmah i S̲h̲ākir in 1210/1795–6 (see pl. iii § 185 supra).

al-Masālik al-durrīyah fī qawāʿid al-Fārisīyat al-Darīyah (beg. al-Ḥ. l. ’l. karramanā bi-’l-ʿilm wa-’l-bayān), a Persian grammar in Arabic divided into three maslaks, and completed in 1208/1794: Turin 41 (2) (foll. 32–48. Autograph).

§ 206. S. Ḥusain S̲h̲āh “Ḥaqīqat” b. S. ʿArab-S̲h̲āh, born at Bareilly or Delhi, went in early life to Lucknow and seems to have lived there for some considerable time. He died at Madrās, whither he had accompanied Colonel Kyd as Mīr Muns̲h̲ī, not earlier than 1225/1810. In addition to a dīwān (presumably in Urdu) he wrote (1) Jad̲h̲b i ʿis̲h̲q, an Urdu narrative written in 1211/1796–7 ( ms.: Bodleian ii 2317), (2) Has̲h̲t gulgas̲h̲t, a Persian prose version of the story of Bahrām and Gulandām composed in 1215/1800–1 and dedicated to Charles Perron3 ( ms.: Ivanow 315), (3) K̲h̲azīnat al-amt̲h̲āl, a collection of proverbs compiled (completed?) in 1215/1800–1 ( pl. iii § 659 infra), (4) Ṣanam-kadah i C̲h̲īn, humorous anecdotes and riddles in Persian, Arabic and Urdu ( pl. iii § 393 infra), (5) Has̲h̲t gulzār, an Urdu mat̲h̲nawī on the story of Bahrām and Gulandām completed at Madrās in 1225/1810 (Editions: Lucknow 1267/ 1851*, Cawnpore 1268/1851–2. Cf. Sprenger p. 608).

[Sprenger p. 232 (from Muṣḥafī and Ṭabaqāt i suk̲h̲an); Garcin de Tassy i pp. 570–2; Beale Oriental biographical dictionary under Haqiqat and also under Husain Shah; Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 49; Niẓāmī Badāyūnī Qāmūs al-mas̲h̲āhīr (in Urdu) i p. 208; Blumhardt’s Catalogue of Hindustani MSS. in theIndia Office p. 42.]

Tuḥfat al-ʿAjam (beg. Ārāstagī i suk̲h̲an ba-ḥamd i Suk̲h̲an-āfrīnīst), a Persian grammar begun in 1212/1797–8, completed in 1213/1798–9, dedicated to John Herbert Harington4 and divided into a pīs̲h̲kas̲h̲ (dar c̲h̲igūnagī i zabān i Fārisī u faḍīlat i ān baʿd i ʿArabī bar alsinah i dīgar u bayān i iṭlāq i ism i Pārs bar mulk i Īrān …), five tuḥfahs ((1) dar bayān i c̲h̲igūnagī i īn zabān …, (2) dar bayān i ḥarf …, (3) dar bayān i ism …,5) and a k̲h̲ātimah (dar bayān i tauṣīf i imlā u dīgar qawānīn …): Ivanow 1479 ( ah 1223/1808), Āṣafīyah i p. 162 nos. 152 ( ah 1232/1817), 141 ( ah 1242/1826), ii p. 908 no. 134, Madrās i 521 (p. 350. ah 1254/1838), iii 691, probably also Lindesiana p. 188 no. 501 (“Grammatical rules of the Persian language,” by Mīr Ḥusain. Circ. ad 1820).

§ 207. Maulawī S. Amīr Ḥaidar “Amīr” b. S. Nūr al-Ḥusain b. Mīr G̲h̲ulām-ʿAlī “Āzād” Ḥusainī Wāsiṭī Bilgrāmī was born in 1165/1751–2 and died in 1217/1802–3 (see pl. i § 713).

Muntak̲h̲ab al-naḥw (beg. Ḥamd i Fāʿil i as̲h̲yā), on the application of the rules of Arabic syntax to Persian, written in 1214/1799–1800: Rieu ii 857b ( ah 1224/1809), Āṣafīyah ii p. 1666, no. 97 ( ah 1264/1848), Ethé 2965, Madrās ii 686.6

Editions: place? 1269/1852–3 (see Āṣafīyah ii p. 1666 no. 87), [Madrās?] Firdausi Press, 1290/1873*, Madrās 1292/1875*.

§ 208. “Nit̲h̲ārī”, author of the C̲h̲ahār gulzār, is identified by Edwards with Nit̲h̲ār ʿAlī b. Aʿẓam ʿAlī Buk̲h̲ārī Barēlawī, author of the Ins̲h̲āʾ i dil-gus̲h̲ā, which has been published repeatedly in India.

C̲h̲ahār gulzār (beg. Baʿd i ḥamd i bī-ḥadd i Īzad i Ṣamad), written at the suggestion of Sir Gore Ouseley (who was in India 1788 to 1805) and divided into four gulzārs ((1) grammar in five guls, (2) ornaments of style (ṣanāʾiʿ) in two guls, (3) the kinds of poetry (Gul 1) and prosody (Gul 2), (4) simile, metaphor and rhyme in three guls): Ivanow Curzon 183 ( ad 1844, transcribed from the Calcutta edition of 1240/1825), Ivanow 1483 (Gulzārs iii and iv only. Early 19th cent.), Bānkīpūr xvii 1604 (19th cent.), Cambridge 2nd Suppt. 68 (2) ( ah 1247/1831–2).

Editions: Calcutta 1240/1825 (mentioned under Ivanow-Curzon 183); [Calcutta] 1250/1834*; Bombay 1844° [India] (M. Ismāʿīl) 1263/1847*; Cawnpore 1268/1852*; 1879° Lahore 1864°; 1868*; Arrah 1284/1867*; and at least ten others.

§ 209. M. Fāʾiq b. G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain Ṣiddīqī Lak’hnawī, who wrote the Mak̲h̲zan al-fawāʾid, is identified by Edwards with the author of the Dastūr al-ins̲h̲āʾ,7 who calls himself simply Muḥammad Fāʾiq, and who says that he wrote the latter work at the suggestion of Nawwāb Qāsim ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Bahādur Qiyām-Jang.8 Edwards’s identification, whatever the grounds on which it was based, is probably correct. Letters included in the Dastūr al-ins̲h̲āʾ have such dates as 1208, 1212, 1213, 1217 (all on p. 25 in the Lucknow edition of 1263) and 1225 (p. 285), and several of them contain references to Lucknow (e.g. p. 24 antepenult., p. 2512, p. 311), to other places in Oudh and to persons connected therewith. In the publisher’s colophon the author is called Maulawī M. Fāʾiq marḥūm and it may be surmised that he was the father of ʿAbd al-Aḥad b. Maulawī M. Fāʾiq, whose Waqāʾiʿ i dil-pad̲h̲īr, a historical work relating to Oudh, has already been mentioned ( pl. i § 941).

Mak̲h̲zan al-fawāʾid, or, chronogrammatically, K̲h̲azīnat al-uṣūl, a Persian grammar composed in 1225/1810: [Lucknow], Muṣṭafāʾī Press, [1844?°*] (pp. 172 (Edwards) or 176 (Arberry)); Lucknow, Sulṭān al-maṭābiʿ, 1267/1851* (pp. 148).

§ 210. Muns̲h̲ī S̲h̲īwā9-Rām “Jauhar” b. Mak’han [Lāl?] b. Mōhan Lāl Kāyast’h Srībāstab, a rāy-zādah of P’hap’hūnd (36 miles east of Etawah), was a resident (mutawaṭṭin) of Bareilly and S̲h̲āhjahānpūr. According to Garcin de Tassy he wrote in Urdu a Persian grammar dedicated to Turner Macan (who died in Bengal on 25 July 1836). A work of his on Persian grammar entitled Dalil al-tarkīb is mentioned by Ḥaidar ʿAlī, who says (Jauhar al-tarkīb, 1262 ed., p. 35) that in the preface Muns̲h̲ī Barakat Allāh Bilgrāmī [presumably the editor or commentator] has given a biography of the author. Another work of his was entitled Jauhar al-taʿlīm.

[Garcin de Tassy ii p. 88; Niẓāmī Badāyūnī Qāmūs al-mas̲h̲āhir i p. 179.]

Jauhar al-tarkīb (beg. Baʿd i ḥamd u naʿt u madh i Ẓill i Subḥān i kurām * K̲h̲wān zi Jauhar īn qaṣīdah Jauhar al-tarkīb nām), a metrical Persian grammar completed in 1235/1819–20 in the reign of Akbar S̲h̲āh and consisting of 375 verses.

Editions: Dāʾimī Press [India] 1262/1846* (Nusk̲h̲ah i Jawāhir [sic] al-tarkīb. With a commentary by S̲h̲. Ḥaidar ʿAlī b. S̲h̲ujāʿ al-Dīn M. Laṭīfpūrī, who had discussed difficulties of the qaṣīdah with the author. Pp. 92); Āgrah 1850* (Qaṣīdah i Jauhar al-tarkīb dar qawāʿid i Fārisī. With a glossary. Pp. 99, 23); [Lahore] 1864° (Pp. 32); Lahore 1865° (Pp. 32); 1868* (Pp. 32); Cawnpore 1868* (Pp. 36); 1871* (Pp. 36); Lucknow 1294/ 1877°* (S̲h̲arḥ i qaṣīdah i J. al-t. With Ḥaidar ʿAlī’s commentary. Pp. 87); 1909† (Pp. 30); Murādābād [1884°] (S̲h̲arḥ i J. al-t. With a commentary by Indramaṇi. Pp. 256).

Commentary: S̲h̲arḥ i qaṣīdah i Jauhar i tartīb [sic], by S̲h̲. Ḥaidar ʿAlī: ʿAlīgaṛh Subḥ. mss. p. 45 no. 4 ( ad 1835), i.o. d.p. 348 (A) (19th cent.).

§ 211. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Gōrak’hpūrī, who called himself ʿAbdū (as, for example, in a letter to Mr. Lumsden, Calcutta Madrasah p. 107) and was known as ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Dahrīyah,10 is described by ʿAbd al-Muqtadir (Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii p. 218) as “a man of great versatility of genius … the greatest of the last of the prolific writers of India.” A brief autobiography included in his miscellany entitled S̲h̲igarf bayān (for which see pl. ii § 40) tells of “his birth, education and his travels through Afghanistan with Messrs. Elpheniston [sic] and Fraser [doubtless in 1809, when Mountstuart Elphinstone, with William Fraser (cf. pl. i § 814) as his secretary, went on a mission to S̲h̲āh S̲h̲ujāʿ at Kābul], and his stay at Calcutta and other places in India”. According to ʿAbd al-Muqtadir (Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii (published in 1933) p. 218) be “died recently at Calcutta”, but the Calcutta Madrasah catalogue (published in 1905) speaks of him as dead, and it may be surmised that he died at least a decade or two before 1905.

At the Calcutta Madrasah are preserved five small volumes containing Persian translations made by him in 1825–6 from the Mathematical Course of Charles Hutton (1737–1823: see dnb). The S̲h̲igarf bayān referred to above contains inter alia a history of the genesis and evolution of the human race (foll. 1–28), g̲h̲azals and qaṣīdahs (foll. 32–33), an essay on generosity and honesty (foll. 34–37), the above-mentioned letter to Lumsden (fol. 39), five important reasons for translating into Arabic and Persian the standard works on astronomy, geography and mathematics of English and Continental authors (foll. 62–65), reasons for preferring the work of Simpson to that of Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī on the elements of Euclid (foll. 69–70. Arabic), some observations on the Pythagorean and Copernican systems of astronomy (foll. 73–81. Arabic). According to the Calcutta Madrasah catalogue (p. 105 penult.) the Kār-nāmah i Ḥaidarī (see pl. i § 1078) was his work.

Farhang i dabistān, a work in four rukns, of which the first three completed in 1246/1831 deal at some length with Persian grammar and the fourth with rhetoric (ʿilm i balāg̲h̲at): Bānkīpūr Suppt. ii 2332 (foll. 2–204. Acephalous).

§ 212. ʿAbbās-Qulī Āg̲h̲ā “Qudsī” Bādkūbī (cf. pl. i § 603).

Qānūn i Qudsī: Tiflīs 1247/1831 (Mus̲h̲ār i 1213).

§ 213. M. Muṣṭafā K̲h̲ān b. M. Raus̲h̲an K̲h̲ān was proprietor of the Muṣṭafāʾī Presses at Lucknow and Cawnpore. “When I was at Lucnow”,11 says Sprenger (Catalogue of theMSS. of the libraries of the King of Oudh, preface, p. vi), “there were twelve private lithographic presses in that city. Those of Ḥájy Moḥammad Ḥosayn and Moçṭafà Khán were by far the best. Some editions of the former are particularly correct. In 1849, Kamál aldyn Ḥaydar, Munshiy to the observatory, wishing to ingratiate himself at court, wrote a history of the Royal family of Oudh.12 Two passages happened to displease His Majesty; and instantly the observatory was abolished and printing was forbidden at Lucnow, lest this objectionable production might be published. The proprietor of the Masyḥáy press went on the suggestion of the author of these pages to Cawnpore, and most other printers followed him. Some however, among them Moçṭafà Khán, managed to keep at the same time an establishment at Lucnow. As they usually put, on the title page only, the name of the press and not of the place, it is not always possible to determine whether a book was printed at Lucnow or Cawnpore if it has been published after the Exodus.”

Ṣafwat al-maṣādir (beg. Baʿd i ḥ. i Īzad i G̲h̲affār), paradigms of Persian verbs with notes: Lucknow 1264/1848* (Pp. 32); [Lucknow] 1281/1864° (Pp. 24); [Āgrah] 1266/1850* (Pp. 32); Cawnpore 1267/1851* (Pp. 32); 1295/1878° (Pp. 24); Lahore 1864° (Pp. 30); 1865° (Pp. 30); 1870° (Pp. 24); 1875° (Pp. 30); 1876° (Pp. 30); Delhi [1865?°] (Pp. 20); [1876°] (Pp. 24); [Meerut 1877°] (Pp. 20); and many others.

Recasting: Maṣādir i Fārisī, rearranged by Bishambhar Nāt’h: Lucknow 1882° (Pp. 31).

§ 214. Imām-bak̲h̲s̲h̲ “Ṣahbāʾī” Dihlawī became Professor of Persian at the Delhi College in 1840 and was killed in 1857 at the age of fifty or thereabouts “in the military firing that took place in his quarter in the Mutiny” (Saksena). According to Grahame Bailey “he had a great reputation as a writer of Urdu in the old ornate style”. He wrote little Urdu poetry, but several Urdu prose works including (1) Tarjamah i Ḥadāʾiq al-balāg̲h̲at, an adaptation of S̲h̲ams al-Dīn “Faqīr’s” Persian work on rhetoric (Editions: Delhi 1843*, 1844, Lucknow 1880°), (2) Qawāʿid i Urdū, an Urdu grammar (Editions: Delhi 1261/1845°* (Pp. 295), 1849* (Pp. 163)), (3) Intik̲h̲āb al-ṣhuʿarāʾ, an Urdu anthology (Editions: Delhi 1844*, 1850*).

The three volumes of the Kullīyāt i Ṣahbāʾī published by Nawal Kis̲h̲ōr at Cawnpore and Lucknow in [1878–80°13] contain the following works, all except one (no. 26) in Persian: [ vol. i] (1) Rīzah i jawāhir, a eulogy of Sirāj al-Dīn Bahādur S̲h̲āh modelled on “Ẓuhūrī’s” Sih nat̲h̲r, (2) Bayāḍ i s̲h̲auq-payām, prefaces, letters, eulogies, etc., (3) Risālah i naḥw i Fārisī, (4) Dīwān, (5) Kāfī dar ʿilm i qawāfī, (6) Wāfī, a commentary on the Kāfī, (7) Ganjīnah i rumūz, on riddles, etc., (8) Jawāhir i manẓūm, quatrains incorporating the 99 names of God, (9) Qiṭʿah i muʿammāʾī, eliciting the name of Allāh from that of ʿAlī, (10) Mak̲h̲zan i asrār, on literary conceits, (11) Risālah i nādirah, a similar work, (12) Natāʾij al-afkār, a commentary on passages in earlier poets, (13) G̲h̲awāmiḍ i suk̲h̲an, a similar work, (14) Iʿlāʾ al-ḥaqq, a reply to the Iḥqāq al-ḥaqq, “Ārzū’s” attack on Ḥazīn (cf. pl. i § 1149 (17)), [ vol. ii] (15)–(18) commentaries on “Ẓuhūrī’s” Sih nat̲h̲r and Mīnā bāzār, on Irādat K̲h̲ān’s Panj ruqʿah and on “Ẓahīra’s” S̲h̲abnam i s̲h̲ādāb, [ vol. iii] (19)–(21) commentaries on Niʿmat K̲h̲ān “ʿAlī’s” Ḥusn u ʿis̲h̲q, on Naṣīrā’s Muʿāmmā, and on Jāmī’s Muʿammayāt, (22) Ḥall i Maqāmāt i ʿAbd al-Wāsiʿ i Hānsawī (cf. pl. iii § 521 infra), (23) Munāqas̲h̲āt i suk̲h̲an, on some literary terms (Edwards), or on idioms (Arberry), (24) Qaul i faiṣal, a reply to “Ārzū’s” Tanbīh al-g̲h̲āfilīn (cf. pl. i § 1149), (25) Qawāʿid i ṣarf u naḥw i Urdū,14 (26) Tarjamah i Ḥadāʾiq al-balāg̲h̲at, (27) Muk̲h̲ammas on a g̲h̲azal of Qudsī.

[Āt̲h̲ār al-ṣanādīd Lucknow 1876, pt. 4, pp. 98–105; Garcin de Tassy iii pp. 22–6; S̲h̲amʿ i anjuman p. 262; Saksēna History of Urdu literature p. 300; T. Grahame Bailey History of Urdu literature p. 92.]

Risālah i naḥw i Fārsī: Indore 1849* (R. dar n. i F. Pp. 32); Lucknow 1880°* (in Vol. i of the Kullīyāt described above).

§ 215. Aḥmad Allāh b. M. Wāḥid b. S̲h̲. Imām Qurais̲h̲ī.

Qawāʿid al-maṣdarain15 (beg. St. Ḥakīmī rā kih dar idrāk i funūn i ḥikmatas̲h̲), an introduction to the Persian language composed in 1261/1845 for the instruction of the author’s son and divided into twenty bayāns, of which the first four are grammatical, the eighteenth deals with prosody, and the nineteenth and by far the longest with tajnīs, most of others containing classified lists of names (parts of the human body, diseases, etc.): Bānkīpūr ix 918 (529 pp., defective at end. 19th cent.).

§ 216. Ḥājjī M. Muḥyī ’l-Dīn “Ḥairān” b. M., of Karnūl, near Madrās, was born in 1210/1795–6 and died in 1267/1851. [Gulzār i Aʿẓam pp. 161–3 (cf. Ivanow 1st Suppt. 894).]

Taḥqīq al-qawānīn (beg. al-Ḥ. l…. ammā baʿd i ḥamd u ṣalāt pūs̲h̲īdah ma-bād kih īn risālah īst musammā bi-T. al-q.), a Persian grammar completed in 1262/1846 and divided into two taqrīrs: Āṣafīyah ii p. 908 no. 120 ( ah 1263/1847), Ivanow 1st Suppt. 894 (transcribed from a lithograph dated 2 Rabīʿ i 1263/18 Feb. 1847), Ivanow 1480 ( ah 1273/1856–7).

Editions: Madrās 1263/1847* (pp. 190), 1291/1874* (pp. 112), Bangalore 1289/1872* (pp. 96).

§ 217. Mullā-bās̲h̲ī ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Abī ’l-Qāsim Irawānī Tabrīzī died at Tabrīz in 1294/1877 (see Dānis̲h̲mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān p. 358). For his Muk̲h̲taṣar al-ʿarūḍ (Tabrīz 1262/1846) see Mus̲h̲ār i 1410.

Qawāʿid i ṣarf u naḥw i Fārsī, written for the use of the author’s son Mīrzā M. ʿAlī in the reign of M. S̲h̲āh [Qājār] when Bahman Mīrzā was Governor of Ād̲h̲arbāyjān: [Tabriz,16] 1262/ 1846? (a date written at the end of the lithograph, but whether as the date of composition or as that of publication is not clear). See an article entitled “Guftār dar ṣarf u naḥw i Fārisī” by Jalāl Humāʾī in Nāmah i Farhangistān i /2 p. 41; Mus̲h̲ār i 817).

§ 218. S. M. ʿAbd Allāh b. Āl i Aḥmad Wāsiṭī Bilgrāmī, born at Bilgrām in 1248/1832, became a mudarris in the Arabic madrasah at Benares and died on 1 Ramaḍān 1305/12 May 1888 (see Raḥmān ʿAlī p. 104). He is the author of an Arabic commentary, al-Tuḥfat al-ʿalīyah, on Faḍl i Ḥaqq K̲h̲airābādī’s manual of physics, al-Hadīyat al-Saʿīdīyah (see Ellis ii col. 329, Brockelmann Sptbd. ii p. 855) and of several other works.

(1)
ʿAin al-ifādah fī kas̲h̲f al-iḍāfah. Editions: place? 1270/1853–4 (Āṣafīyah ii p. 1664); Cawnpore 1886° (appended, on pp. 153–70, to the Arabic work Hidāyat al-naḥw).
(2)
Mufīḍ i Fārsī, a Persian grammar: Lucknow 1874° (67 pp.).

§ 219. Ḥājj M. Karīm K̲h̲ān b. Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān Kirmānī was leader of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ī sect in Kirmān. [Edwards (col. 594) names him as one of three men whose lives are given by Niʿmat Allāh Riḍawī in his Tad̲h̲kirat al-awliyāʾ. v.s.]

Ṣarf u naḥw i Fārsī, a grammar of Arabic and Persian17 written for the author’s son Muḥammad and completed in 1275/ 1859 (see Jalāl Humāʾī’s article (cf. under § 217 supra) in the Nāmah i Farhangistān i /2 p. 42, where a description is given presumably from a ms., since nothing is said about a printed edition). [However, a printed edition does exist: Kirmān 1365/ 1946 (103 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1072, 1382.) v.s.]

§ 220. M. ʿAbd al-Raʾūf “Waḥīd” published at Calcutta in 1891 a Persian Tārīk̲h̲ i Kalkattah (42 pp. Not in b.m. or i.o.) and also under the title Jawāhir i muntak̲h̲ab a volume of selections from his Persian dīwān (see Edwards col. 440).

Naḥw i Waḥīḍī: Calcutta 1862° (The Nuhv-i-Waheedee, a treatise on the syntax of the Persian language, illustrated by copious examples…. Pp. 377).

[Garcin de Tassy iii p. 275.]

§ 221. Maulawī Āg̲h̲ā Aḥmad ʿAlī [b. S̲h̲ajāʿat-ʿAlī], who was born at Dacca in 1255/1839 and died there in 1290/1873, has already been mentioned as the author of the Haft āsmān ( pl. i § 1224).

(1)
Risālah i is̲h̲tiqāq, an elementary Persian grammar. Edition: 1872 (see Blochmann’s biographical notice in the Haft āsmān p. iv).
(2)
Risālah i taḥqīq i rasm i k̲h̲aṭṭ (beg. Dar zabān i ʿArabī aṣl i iʿrāb), on “the use of diacritical points in certain words”: Bānkīpūr xvii 1670 (pp. 114–25. ad 1867?).

§ 222. Muns̲h̲ī S. Muẓaffar ʿAlī “Asīr” b. Mīr Madad ʿAlī, best known as an Urdu poet, was in the service of the Kings of Oudh and became the secretary and friend of Wājid ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, who reigned from 1847 to 1856. Some time after Wājid ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s deposition he went to Rāmpūr, where he died in 1299/1881–2 at the age of eighty-four. Among his works were (1) an Urdu dīwān of 506 pages published at Lucknow in 1870°*, (2) Riyāḍ al-Muslimīn, an Urdu translation of the Ḥaqq al-yaqīn of M. Bāqir Majlisī (Cawnpore 1874*), (3) Zar i kāmil-ʿiyār, an Urdu translation of Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī’s Miʿyār al-as̲h̲ʿār (see pl. iii § 279 infra), (4) Karbalā-yi muʿallā (see pl. i § 311 (24)), (5) S̲h̲ajarat al-ʿarūḍ (see pl. iii § 325 (1) infra), (6) Rauḍat al-qawāfī (see pl. iii § 325 (2) infra) and (7) Guls̲h̲an i taʿas̲h̲s̲h̲uq.

[Garcin de Tassy i pp. 112–13; Nigāristān i suk̲h̲an pp. 6–7; Bustān i Awad’h p. 188; Saksēna History of Urdu Literature p. 120.]

Risālah i iḍāfat: [Lucknow], n.k., 1290/1873°* (appended to the same author’s S̲h̲ajarat al-ʿarūḍ and Rauḍat al-qawāfī).

§ 223. ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-mus̲h̲tahir Sipahdār K̲h̲ān18 b. Bahrām19 K̲h̲ān Kalyānawī, as he calls himself in the preface to his Maẓhar al-ḥaqq (cf. pl. i § 1667 (17)), describes himself as a Sarwānī Afg̲h̲an in the Guls̲h̲an i faiḍ (p. 310: cf. p. 236) and mentions Kalyānah20 as his birthplace. His pedigree is given on p. 55 of the former work.

Guls̲h̲an i faiḍ (a chronogram = 1290), a metrical tract on the grammatical functions of the letters of the alphabet: Lucknow, n.k., 1290/1873* (34 pp.).21

§ 224. M. Nāṣir ʿAlī b. Ḥaidar ʿAlī G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲pūrī Ārawī was the author of Mufradāt i Nāṣirī on simple medicaments (see pl. ii § 546, 584 (146)).

(1)
Alif bā-yi Nāṣirī, Lucknow 1877° (Nāṣir al-ṣibyān maʿrūf bah A. b. N. 13 pp.).
(2)
Maṣādir i Nāṣirī (beg. Pas az ḥ. i Fāʿilī kih maṣdar), paradigms of Persian verbs, intended to be better and simpler for young children than the Ṣafwat al-maṣādir: Lucknow, n.k., 1293/1876°* (on title-page: Nāṣir al-ṣibyān22 maʿrūf bah M. i N. 24 pp.).

§ 225. Prince Arfaʿ al-Daulah Riḍā Dānis̲h̲ Tabrīzī (Dānis̲h̲-mandān i Ād̲h̲arbāyjān p. 144).

Risālah i Rus̲h̲dīyah (dar k̲h̲aṭṭ i Fārsī): Istanbul 1879 (Mus̲h̲ār i 820).

§ 226. Ibrāhīm “G̲h̲amgīn” [?] Iṣfahānī, poet and calligraphist, died at Iṣfahān in 1302/1884–5 (D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 157 no. 631).

Pārsī-nāmah, published?

§ 227. Miṣbāḥ al-Salṭanah M. Ḥusain K̲h̲ān b. Masʿūd b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Anṣārī was Persian representative at Trebizond (ba-s̲h̲ug̲h̲l i kār-pardāzī i daulat i ʿalīyah i Īrān dar Ṭarābizūn iqāmat dās̲h̲t) in 1298/1881, when he conceived the idea of writing his grammar. He died before 1312/1894–5.

Tanbīh al-ṣibyān, a very brief work ending with a k̲h̲ātimah on vulgar errors (ag̲h̲lāṭ i mas̲h̲hūrah) which includes a faṣl written at Istanbul in 1296/1879 on the defects of the Arabic character and suggestions for its improvement. Edition: Istanbul 1298/ 1881 (see Jalāl Humāʾī’s aforementioned article (cf. under § 217 supra) in the Nāmah i Farhangistān i /2 pp. 42–3 and D̲h̲arīʿah iv p. 443, where it is described as mabsūṭah).

§ 228. Riḍā K̲h̲ān Afs̲h̲ār Bigis̲h̲lū [Begeşlü] Qazwīnī was Persian Chargé d’affaires at Istanbul in Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh’s reign (cf. Browne, Press and poetry p. 163). A work translated by him (from what language?) is S̲h̲arḥ i ḥāl i Gālīlah ʿālim i maʿrūf i Īṭāliyāʾī (Iṣfahān 1313/1895–6, 60 pp. See Mus̲h̲ār i 1016).

Alif-Bā-yi Bihrūzī, on the reform of the Persian alphabet: Bombay 1299/1882 (D̲h̲arīʿah ii p. 292, Browne Press and poetry p. 163 (122); Mus̲h̲ār i 141).

§ 229. Mīrzā Ḥabīb Iṣfahānī was long resident in Istanbul, where for a time he taught Persian and Arabic (Dastūr i suk̲h̲an, preface, p. 34), and he was a member of the Anjuman i Maʿārif, or Turkish Academy. He published at Istanbul his Turkish work K̲h̲aṭṭ u k̲h̲aṭṭāṭān in 1305/1887–8, his G̲h̲arāʾib i ʿawāʾid i milal, a Persian translation of Georg Bernhard Depping’s Aperçu historique sur les mœurs et coutumes des nations in 1303/1886° and his edition of Abū Isḥaq’s Dīwān i aṭʿimah in 1302/1884–5‡.23 Ḥājjī S̲h̲. Aḥmad Kirmānī, who went to Istanbul in 1305/1887–8, was helped by him in the work of translating The adventures of Hajji Baba and other works. He died in 1315/1897–8 (Mus̲h̲ār i 646).

[Browne The Persian revolution p. 94; The press and poetry of modern Persia p. 156; Lit. Hist. iv p. 450; Nat̲h̲r i Fārsī i muʿāṣir p. 22.]

(1)
Dastūr i suk̲h̲an, “an excellent treatise on Persian grammar” (Browne The Persian revolution p. 94 n. 4):24 Istanbul 1289/1872° (Pp. 178).
(2)
Dabistān i pārsī, an elementary grammar: Istanbul 1308/1890–1 (see the aforementioned article by Jalāl Humāʾī in the Nāmah i Farhangistān i/2 pp. 45–6. 135 pp. Cf. Karatay p. 68, D̲h̲arīʿah viii p. 47; Mus̲h̲ār i 646); Tabrīz 1324/1906 (176 pp. 2nd. ed. Mus̲h̲ār ibid.).
(3)
Barg i sabz: Istanbul 1304/1886 (52 pp. Karatay p. 68).
(4)
K̲h̲ulāṣah i rah-numā-yi Fārsī: Istanbul 1309/1892 (96 pp. Karatay p. 69. Cf. Mus̲h̲ār i 794).
(5)
Rah-bar i Fārsī: Istanbul 1310/1893 (55 pp. Karatay p. 69).

§ 230.. Mīrzā Ḥasan b. M. Taqī Ṭālaqānī.25

Lisān al-ʿAjam, a Persian grammar written for the classes of the Dār al-Funūn and completed in 1305/1888:26 Tihrān 1305/1888 (Mus̲h̲ār i 1337); Bombay 1317/1899° (pp. 172. Mus̲h̲ār i 1337).

§ 231. Allāh-Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ b. Muḥammad S̲h̲āh.

Fāiḍ-bak̲h̲s̲h̲. A Persian grammar in Persian. Containing elements and significations of letters accidence syntax rhetoric oratory and prosodytogether with the Persian grammatical terms with the English equivalents, Karāc̲h̲ī 1311/1894°* (Pp. 244).

§ 232. Mīrzā ʿAlī Akbar K̲h̲ān Nafīsī “Nāẓim al-Aṭibbāʾ”, the father of Saʿīd Nafīsī, has already been mentioned in this work ( pl. i § 1236, ii § 568 and iii § 78 supra).

(1)
Zabān-āmūz i Fārsī, completed in 1316/1898–9 (according to Jalāl Humāʾī, Nāmah i Farhangistān i/2 p. 47, where nothing is said about a printed edition).
(2)
Nāmah i zabān-āmūz: Tihrān 1316/1898–9 (311 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1560).

§ 233. M. Bāqir K̲h̲ān b. Bēglar-bēgī Qājār.

Qawāʿid al-ṣibyān: Tihrān 1321/1903–4 (90 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1229).

§ 234. G̲h̲ulām-Ḥusain “Kās̲h̲if”.

Dastūr i Kās̲h̲if, a large grammar described by Jalāl Humāʾī (p. 47 in the article referred to under § 217 supra) as well-known and useful though not highly esteemed in Persia. Edition: place? date? (Jalāl Humāʾī does not mention any edition). Istanbul 1328/1910 (333 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 678 (Dastūr i zabān)).

§ 235. ʿAli-Muḥammad Uwaisī.

Rāh i nau dar alif-bāʾ u tag̲h̲yīr i k̲h̲aṭṭ: Istanbul 1331/1913 (52 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 796).

§ 236. Ḥusain K̲h̲ān “Dānis̲h̲” [b. Hās̲h̲im Iṣfahānī] was long resident at Istanbul in the service of the Turkish government and he died at Ankara on 23 Rabīʿ al-Awwal 1362/30 March 1943 at the age of seventy. His works, mainly in Turkish, include Sarāmadān i suk̲h̲an, an anthology of Persian poetry with Turkish biographies (Istanbul 1327/1909, 448 pp.: see Karatay p. 82). [Browne Press and poetry p. 307; Raiḥānat al-adab ii p. 10; Mus̲h̲ār i 644.]

Taʿlīm i lisān i Fārsī in Persian and Turkish according to Mus̲h̲ār: Istanbul 1331–4/1913–16 (4 pts. Karatay p. 82; Mus̲h̲ār i 431).

§ 237. Maulawī M. Najm al-G̲h̲anī K̲h̲ān Rāmpūrī wrote an Urdu commentary entitled Tahd̲h̲īb al-ʿaqāʾid (Lucknow 1900°) on the ʿAqaʾid of al-Nasafī (for which see Brockelmann i p. 427) as well as the Urdu history of the Rohillas entitled Ak̲h̲bār al-ṣanādīd.

Nahj al-adab, a large Persian grammar:27 Lucknow, n.k., 1919* (Pp. 822. Cf. Mus̲h̲ār i 1612).

§ 238. D̲h̲abīḥ [Allāh] Bihrūz [has already been mentioned in this survey ( pl. ii, pl. iii § 153 supra). v.s.]

Zabān i Īrānī Fārsī yā ʿArabī?: Tihrān a.h.s. 1313/ 1934–5 (54 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 874); a.h.s. 1319/1940–1 (Mus̲h̲ār ibid.).

§ 239. ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm K̲h̲ān “Qarīb” Garakānī was born in 1296/1879 at Garakān (see M. Ishaque Modern Persian poetry pp. 9, 20, etc.; Īraj Afs̲h̲ār Nat̲h̲r i Fārsī i muʿāṣir pp. 87–92).

(1)
Dastūr i zabān i Fārisī, a grammar used in Persian schools at the present day and often printed (twenty times or more according to Jalāl Humāʾī, Nāmah i Farhangistān i /2 p. 48).
(2)
Zabān i Fārsī: Tihrān a.h.s. 1317/1938–9 (76 + 40 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 875).
(3)
Qawāʿid i Fārsī: Tihrān (3 vols. Mus̲h̲ār i 1229).

§ 240. S. Aḥmad Kasrawī (cf. pl. i § 489 etc.).

(1)
Zabān i pāk: Tihrān a.h.s. 1322/1943–4 (48 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 874).
(2)
Kāf-nāmah: Tihrān a.h.s. 1331/1952–3 (ed. Yaḥyā D̲h̲ukāʾ. 42 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1242).

§ 241. Qāsim Tūsirkānī.

Qawāʿid al-naḥw: Tihrān (284 pp. Tihrān Univ. Pubs. Mus̲h̲ār i 1230).

§ 242. Appendix

(1)
ʿAin al-fawāʾid, by ʿAin al-Dīn b. ʿAlī: Bombay 1315/ 1897–8 (64 pp. Mus̲h̲ār i 1140).
(2)
Alif kat̲h̲rat (beg. Alif kat̲h̲rat fāʿil u maṣdar qasam * ittiṣāl u ʿaṭf u taḥsīn i kilam), a metrical grammar arranged in the alphabetical order of suffixes, prefixes, etc., and ascribed in the colophon of Ivanow Curzon 551 to Sirāj al-Dīn ʿAlī K̲h̲ān “Ārzū” (for whom see pl. i § 1149, iii §§ 32, 40 (1), 195 supra): Ivanow Curzon 551 (10 foll., perhaps defective. ah 1242/1826).

Edition: [Lucknow] 1260/1844* (Ḥasanī Pr. With notes by Maqbūl Aḥmad. 2nd ed. 16 pp.).

(3)
C̲h̲ār c̲h̲aman i qānūn, a grammar, by G̲h̲ulām-Muḥyī ’l-Dīn “Naḥīf”: Āṣafīyah ii p. 896 no. 58 ( ah 1266/1850).

Editions: place? 1266/1850 (Āṣafīyah i p. 162 no. 142); Madrās 1274/1858* (Mak̲h̲zan al-ak̲h̲bār Pr. 39 pp.); 1290/ 1873* (Niẓām al-maṭābiʿ. 40 pp.).

(4)
Durar al-qawāʿid al-Fārisī, by ʿUt̲h̲mān Murs̲h̲id: Istanbul 1285/1869 (236 pp. Karatay p. 145).
(5)
Ganjīnah i hunar, a Persian grammar, by Ḥasan Ṣubḥī: [Istanbul] 1282/1865° (Pp. 35).
(6)
Hilyat al-insān wa-halbat al-lisān, in Persian, Arabic and Turkish, by S. Jamāl al-Dīn Aḥmad: Istanbul 1340/1921–2 (230 pp. D̲h̲arīʿah vii p. 81).
(7)
al-Mafātīḥ28 al-durrīyah fī īt̲h̲bāt al-qawānīn al-Darīyah (beg. Subḥāna ’llad̲h̲ī k̲h̲allaṣa ’l-insān), a short Persian grammar in Arabic by Muṣṭafā b. Abī Bakr al-Sīwāsī, whose name is absent from some of the mss.: Krafft 63 (14 foll. Modern), Blochet ii 934 (16 foll. Mid-19th cent.), Berlin 105 (2), Leningrad Univ. 109A (Salemann-Rosen p. 19), Sulaimānīyah 867 (3) (see Horn Pers. Hss. p. 493 no. 853).29

Editions: Būlāq 1242/1826 (Krafft p. 20); 1255/1839° (17 pp.).

Commentary by M. al-Qaiṣarī: ʿĀṭif Efendī p. 128 no. 2193.

Turkish re-working: Qawāʿid al-fārisīyah by Ḥāfiẓ M. Murād: Istanbul 1251/1835.

(8)
Masāʾil i durrīyah dar qawāʿid i Darīyah, by Aḥmad S̲h̲auqī: Leningrad Univ. 17 (Salemann-Rosen p. 19).
(9)
Miṣbāḥ al-mubtadiʾ, a Persian grammar, by M. Raḥm ʿAlī K̲h̲ān b. Bahrah-mand K̲h̲ān Purdil-K̲h̲ānī a resident of Sikandarah Rā’ō (23 miles east of ʿAlīgaṛh) in the time of “Khán Muẓaffar Jang Bahádur”: Lindesiana p. 195 no. 482 (circ. ad 1810), Browne Suppt. 1197 (n.d. Corpus 196).
(10)
Miṣbāḥ al-ṣibyān (beg. Ḥ. u sp. mar Hādī ’l-muḍillīn rā), a Persian grammar (identical with the preceding?), by Raḥm ʿAlī K̲h̲ān b. Bahrah-mand K̲h̲ān Purdil-K̲h̲ānī: Rieu iii 1043b (early 19th cent.).
(11)
Qand i Pārsī: Bombay 1922 (Mus̲h̲ār i 1227).
(12)
Qānūn i Naṣīrī (beg. Ḥamd i bī-ḥadd u s̲h̲ukr i bī-ʿadd Ḥakīmī rā sazāst kih barāy i ʿarāʾis), a treatise on Persian grammar with numerous quotations from the poets composed by Ṣafdar ʿAlī for his pupil Mirzā M. Naṣīr b. ʿAlī Bēg K̲h̲ān Ṣāḥib and divided into five bābs ((1) construction of Persian nouns, iḍāfat, and composition, (2) pronouns, (3) prefixed particles, (4) affixed particles, (5) figures of speech): Rieu ii 520a (foll. 77. ah 1243/1828).
(13)
Takmilat al-Fārisī (beg. Pas az taḥmīd i K̲h̲udāy ʿazz wa-ʿalā u naʿt i Sarwar i Anbiyāʾ Muḥammad i Muṣṭafāfaqīr i ḥaqīr), a treatise on Persian accidence, syntax, prosody, metres and rhyme, completed in 1175/1761–2 and divided into seven bābs, by Quṭb [al-Dīn presumably] ʿAlī, a pupil of S.M. [G̲h̲ulām-Muḥammad?30] ʿUmarī al-Ḥusainī al-Qādirī: Ethé 2130 (foll. 67. ah 1185/1771), Bodleian 1758 (foll. 102. ah 1223/1808).
(14)
Tas̲h̲rīḥ al-ḥurūf, a mnemonic poem on Arabic grammatical terms and their Persian equivalents: Cawnpore 1266/ 1850* (Pp. 16); 1277/1860° (pp. 16), 1292/1875* (pp. 16).
(15)
Tuḥfat al-maṣādir, a tract on Persian verbs with paradigms: Fatḥgaṛh 1878° (Pp. 32).
(16)
Tuḥfat al-suʿadāʾ, on Persian accidence, by Sulaimān Waisī: Istanbul 1271/1855 (155 pp. Karatay p. 191).
(17)
Uṣūl i barjastah, a Persian grammar in prose and verse, by Maulawī ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Dihlawī: Cawnpore 1872* ( n.k. 50 pp.).

next chapter: 2.2 Arabic Grammars

Notes

^ Back to text1. The Cairo catalogue, which quotes the opening words, gives Kamāl-Pās̲h̲ā-zādah as the author. The ʿAmūjah Ḥusain ms. is an Arabic Risālah fī ’l-qawāʿid al-fārisīyah, by Ibn Kamāl. Although the opening words are not given, it can scarcely be doubted that this is another copy of the same work. The other mss., except that at Florence, seem to contain no mention of the author.

^ Back to text2. This title is not mentioned by Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad, who calls the work Tas̲h̲rīḥ i nādir (mentioned as a chronogram, not as a title, in the Calcutta Madrasah catalogue).

^ Back to text3. Charles Byron according to Ivanow.

^ Back to text4. J.H. Harington, editor of “The Persian and Arabick works of Sâdee” (2 vols., Calcutta, 1791, 1795), entered the service of the E.I. Co. at Calcutta in 1780. On 15 Feb. 1796 he was appointed Registrar of the “Sudder Dewanny and Nizamut Adaulut” (Ṣadr Dīwānī and Niẓāmat ʿAdālat, i.e. the Supreme Civil and Criminal Court) and on 3 June 1799 he became Fourth Member of the Board of Revenue. In 1825 he was chosen a member of the Supreme Council and President of the Board of Trade and on 9 April 1828 he died in London shortly after his return from India.

^ Back to text5. The subjects of the fourth and fifth tuḥfah are omitted, apparently by oversight, in the Madrās catalogue.

^ Back to text6. [Storey lists also i.o. d.p. 1860 (b) (ah 1238/1821), but such a ms. cannot at present be traced. The catalogue only goes to no. 1435. ah 1238 = ad 1822–3. v.s.]

^ Back to text7. For editions see pl. iii § 585 infra.

^ Back to text8. The identity of this nawwāb is made clear by a nasab-nāmah relating to Mīrzā ʿAlī b. Nawwāb Qāsim ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Bahādur Qiyām-Jang k̲h̲alaf al-ṣidq i Nawwāb Muʾtaman al-Mulk D̲h̲ū ’l-Faqār al-Daulah Ras̲h̲īd K̲h̲ān K̲h̲ān-i-K̲h̲ānān Bahādur Sālār-Jang k̲h̲alaf al-ras̲h̲īd i ʿUmdat al-Mulk Nawwāb M. Isḥāq K̲h̲ān Bahādur (Dastūr al-ins̲h̲āʾ p. 31).

^ Back to text9. Or Sewa?

^ Back to text10. I.e. presumably “the materialist”, “the free-thinker”, or “the atheist”. Cf. Platts’s Urdu dictionary, where the word is given as a substantive masculine.

^ Back to text11. I.e. in 1848–50.

^ Back to text12. See pl. i § 947.

^ Back to text13. Vols. ii and iii are in the i.o.

^ Back to text14. Apparently in Persian, to judge from the catalogues of Edwards and Arberry. For his Qawāʿid i Urdū, an Urdu grammar in Urdu, see Blumhardt’s catalogues.

^ Back to text15. Q. al-muṣaddarīn according to ʿAbd al-Muqtadir (see his list of errata, p. [xiii]).

^ Back to text16. See Nāmah i Farhangistān i /2 p. 412.

^ Back to text17. Or, according to Humāʾī p. 47, an Arabīc grammar dealing incidentally with Persian.

^ Back to text18. Sipahdār K̲h̲ān u bar alsinah i baʿḍ Ṣūbah-dār K̲h̲ān (Maẓhar al-ḥaqq p. 5512).

^ Back to text19. Cf. Maẓhar al-ḥaqq p. 5519: K̲h̲udā-jūy Bahrām K̲h̲ān k’az ṣafā * Dil i raus̲h̲anas̲h̲ kam tahī s̲h̲ud zi kas̲h̲f (see also p. 2 penult., 5512,16). In the Guls̲h̲an i faiḍ, however, he gives his father’s name as Bairam K̲h̲ān (see p. 39: Maulid i mā hast Kalyānah Sipahdār ast nām Ibn i Bairam K̲h̲ān u naẓm i man buwad durr i t̲h̲amīn).

^ Back to text20. u ān nām i qaryah ast kih dar dāman i jānib i s̲h̲arq wāqiʿ s̲h̲udah u az Dihlī c̲h̲ihil u s̲h̲as̲h̲ kurōh fāṣilah dārad ba-samt i mag̲h̲rib (Maẓhar al-ḥaqq p. 2614).

^ Back to text21. The author’s name, not mentioned on the title-page, occurs in the text on p. 39 (see the line quoted in the footnote on “Bahrām” above) and, as Maulawī Sipahdār K̲h̲ān Kalyānawī, in the publisher’s colophon.

^ Back to text22. Sic, but in the preface the work is called M. i N., while N. al-ṣ. “kih maʿrūf ba-Alif bā-yi Nāṣirī ast” is mentioned as an earlier work of the author’s.

^ Back to text23. 1302 is the date on the title-page of a copy in my possession. Edwards gives 1303 as the date of an edition with the same number of pages.

^ Back to text24. For some remarks on this grammar see article by Jalāl Humāʾī in the Nāmah i Farhangistān i /2 p. 43 (cf. under § 217 supra).

^ Back to text25. The author of the Lisān al-ʿAjam, whose name is given as above on the authority of the Bombay Quarterly Catalogue (1900, 4th quarter), is identified by Edwards (incorrectly?) with Ḥusain [sic] Ṭāliqānī, one of the collaborators in the Nāmah i dānis̲h̲warān i Nāṣirī (for which see pl. i § 1660).

^ Back to text26. For some remarks on this grammar see an article entitled Guftār dar ṣarf u naḥw i Fārisī by Jalāl Humāʾī in the Nāmah i Farhangistān i /2 (1322) p. 46 (cf. under § 217 supra).

^ Back to text27. For some remarks on this grammar see article by Jalāl Humāʾī īn Nāmah i Farhangistān i /2 (1322) p. 50 (cf. under § 217 supra).

^ Back to text28. al-Mafātiḥ (with a short i) in some mss.

^ Back to text29. [Storey also lists a ms. Lālah-lī p. 378, but I cannot trace this. v.s.]

^ Back to text30. Ethé gives the name as S. G̲h̲ulām ʿUmarī al-Ḥusainī al-Qādirī and probably some name has dropped out after G̲h̲ulām.

Cite this page
“2.1 Grammar: Persian Grammars”, in: Storey Online, Charles Ambrose Storey. Consulted online on 25 July 2024 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2772-7696_SPLO_COM_30201000>
First published online: 2021



▲   Back to top   ▲